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New Series, No. 1405. 






Sir GEORGE a. GRIERSON, K.C.I.E., Pli.D.(Halle), D.Litt.(Dublin), 

Honorary Fell<rw of the Asiatic Society of Bengal ; Honorary Member of The Nagari Pracarini Sdbha, The 

Americaii Oriental Society, The Societi Finno-Ougrienne , and The InlerrMtirnal Phonetio Association ; 

Foreign Associate Member of The SociHe Aaiatique de Paris ; Corresponding Member of 

the Konigliche Oesellschaft derWissenschaften zu Ooltingen. 











The Society's Ajont — 

Mr. BlSUNAUUQUAliri'OlI, 11, Qrafton Street, Ueio Bond Street, London, W. 

Oomple te copiaa of thaie tuorka marked with an anterieJc * cannot be eup plied—eoma 
>/ the Fasciculi being out of stock, 


Sanskrit Series. 

AJvaitHohint,* KnuBtabbn, J'bbo. 1-3 @ /lO/ e»oh ... Ba. 

AitarSya Bialiina,n«,, Vol. I, Faeo. 1-5; Vol. II, Faso. 1-6; Vol. 

Ill, Fasc. 1-6, Vol. I V, Fago. 1-8 @ /lO/ eaoli 
AitBreyalocaaa ••■ ••• •■• ••• 

Ainarakoaha, Fasc. 1-2 ... ... ... ... 

Anumana Uidhiti Praaarini, Fasc. 1-3 @ /lO/ ... 

A;taailiaai-ika Praj6niiniam!ta, Faao. 1-6 @ /lO/ each 

Atmatattvaviveka, Faeo. 1-2 

A(}vavaHljaUB, Fiiao. 1-5 @ ,'10/ eauli 

Avadana Kalpalntn, (Sana, and Tibetau) Vol. 1, Fasc. 1-11. Vol. 

II, F 10. 1-11 @ 1/e.iuh 
Balam ii..a(<i, Vol. I, Faso. 1-2, Vol. TI, Faao. 1, @ /ID/ each 
Baadhiyaeia «ranU Sutra, Faao. 1-3; Vol. 11, Faao. 1-5; Vol. Ill, 

Fasc. 1, (g /lO; enah ... 

Bhatta Dipiki, Vol.1, Fasc. 1-6; Vol. II, Faao. 1-2 (g /lO/ eaoh 
Baaddliaal otriiaailgrAlm 
Bi'haddeviiti, Faao. 1-4 @ /lO/ eaoh 
Brhaddliai'iiift Puiaiiii, Fiiso. 1-6 @ /ID/ each 
BodhioiirySvatSia of 9»"tideva, Faao. 1-7 @ /lO/ eaoli 
Ori Cnntiiiat)ia Oloirifa, Fiisu. 1-4 ... ... 

5i.tadfi?anT, Faac 1-2 @ /lO/ each 

O(:'alo<>iie of Sanakrib Bonka and MSS., Faao. 1-4 @ 2/)BacIi 
•(^atajiutha Brthiimna, Vol. 1, F.iso. 1-7; Vol. It, Faao. 1-5 j Vol. 
m, Fnac. 1-7 ; Vol. V, Faso. 1-4 @ /lO/ eaoh 
Ditto Vol. Vl, Faso. 1-3 @ 1/4/ eaoh 

Ditto Vol. Vir, Faao. 1-5 @ /lO/ 

Ditto .Vol. IX, Faso. 1-2 
putauahaai'ikii-pi-ajanpai'amita. Pint I, Faao. 1-18, Fart II, Faac. 1, 

® /lu/ eaoli 
•Oatarvargn Chintamniji, Vol. II, Faso. 1-25 ; Vol. Ill, Part T, Faao. 
l-18,PHitTI,F«so. I-IO; VoI.IV, Faao, l-6@/10/oaoh 
Ditto Vol. IV, Faso. 7, m 1/4/ each 

Ditto Vol. IV, Faao. 8-10(9/10/ 

^lokavarlikn (English), B'aao. 1-7 @ 1/4/ each 
•^ranta Siitra of Qankliftyana, Vol. I, Faso. 1-7 ; Vol. II, Faao. 1-4 ; 

Vol. Ill, Fa«o. 1-4; Vol. 4, Faao. 1 @ /lO/ eaoh 
9ri Bhiabyam, Faao. 1-3 @ /ID/ each 
Dana KrijS Kaiiiiiiidi, Faso. 1-2 (g /lO/ eaoh ... 
Gadadhara Paddbati Kalaaaia, Vol. 1, Faao. 1-7 @ /lO/ each 

Ditto Aoarasiira, Vol. II, Faac. 1-4 ... 

(iobhiliya Grbya Sfitia, Vol. I, @ /lO/ eaoh ... 

Ditto Vol. II, Paso. 1-2 @ 1/4 /each 

Ditto (Appendix) Gobhila Pariaista 

Gobhiliya Grhya Siitra, Grihya Sangraha 
llaratata ... ... ... 

Karmapradipb, Faao. 1 
Kala Viveka, Faao. 1-7 @ /lO/ eaoh 
KStaiitra, Faao, 1-fi iW /12/ eauh 
Kavi Kalp* Lata, Faso. 1 
Kavindravaoana Samuoeayah 
Kurma Parana, Fasc. 1 — 9 Ot /lO/ eaoh 
Kiranavali, Paso. 1-3, (a! /lO/ 
Madaiia Parijita, Fasc 1-11 @ /lO/ each 

Maha-bbasya-priidipodyota, Vol. I, Faao. 1-9; Vol. 11, Fasc. 1-12; 
Vol. Ill, Faao. 1-10 @ /lO/ eaoh 
Ditto Vol. TV, Fuse. 1-3 e*' '4 each ... 
Maitra, or Maitravaniya Upanishad, Faso. 1 ... 
Manutiki Sii^ErrHha. H'aan. 1-3 @ /lO/ each 
Markaudaya Pill »<•■>. (Uiiiilialit l<'asu. 1-9 (^ I/- each 
Uagdhahodha Vyakarana, Vol. I, Faso 1-7, @ /lO/ eaoh ... 
Nirokta, (2nd edition) Vol. I, Paso. 1-2, <g Ks. 1-4 













































In the year 1898 the Asiatic Society of Bengal completed the publication, under my editorship, of 
a Kashmiri Grammar written in Sanskrit by Isvara Kaula, and entitled the Kasmlrasabdumrta. During 
the preparation of this work for the press my attention was drawn to a report that its author had also 
composed a Kashmiri-Sanskrit KOsa, or Dictionary. Further inquiries elicited the fact that this was really 
the case, and after prolonged negotiations, for the success of which I was largely indebted to the efforts of 
Sir Aurel Stein, K.C.I.E., and to the friendly influence exercised by Sir Adelbert Talbot, K.C.I. E., then 
Resident at Srinagar, the manuscript came into my possession at the end of that year. 

Exatnination of the papers showed that Isvara Kaula never lived to complete, much less to revise, his 
Kosa} For the first few letters of the alphabet he had, it is true, written out a fair copy, each entry 
consisting of a Kashmiri word together with a synonym in Sanski'it and another in Hindi, but the gi-eater 
part of the manuscript, as it reached my hands, consisted merely of memoranda — lists of Kashmiri words 
with no translation at all, and even these not covering the whole alphabet. 

Incomplete as they were, these papers nevertheless formed a valuable addition to the literature of an 
important and little-known language, and it seemed to me that it was well worth while making an effort to 
utilize them and to publish the results. Accordingly, in the year 1899, I represented the state of affairs 
to the Asiatic Society of Bengal, and suggested what seemed to me a practical method for making the 
materials available to scholars. That Society, with great liberality, pi-ovided the funds necessary for 
the scheme, which was to employ a competent Kashmiri Pandit to fill up the lacuna3 left by Isvara Kaula, 
and to prepare the manuscript for the press. 

Sir Aurel Stein added one more to the many debts that I owe to his kindness by securing for me the 
services of Pandit Govinda Kaula, of Srinagar, who at once commenced the preparation of the necessary 
slips. To my great regret that excellent scholar died in June, 1899, before he had finished the words 
commencing with the letter or, and some delay necessarily occurred before I could find his successor, Pandit 
(now Mahamahijpadhyaya) Mukunda Eiima Sastri, also of Srinagar, of whose accuracy and learning I had 
had previous experience while editing the Kamlrasahdumrta. He took up the work again from the 
commencement, and has been my assistant ever since, not only copying out and correcting what Isvara 
Kaula had left, but largely adding to the number of words explained. 

As the authority of this Dictionary mainly depends on the fact that the greater portion has been 
prepared by these Kashmiri Pandits, it will be well to explain the procedure followed by them. Even the 
fullest portions of Isvara Kaula's materials left much to be desired. A bare list of Kashmiri words, with, 
in each case, a single synonym in Sanskrit and another in Hindi, was of little use. Under my instructions 
and supervision, each word has now been written on a separate slip, with, in the case of nouns, information 
as to its gender. To this has been added its synonym in Sanskrit, and, as a further check, in Hindi. The 
Pandit has then added a short explanation in Sanskrit giving further details as to the meaning of the word. 
To take an example — For the word ab-dlb, all that the original materials gave was as follows : 'slf^-'^t^ I 

' He died in the year 1893 a.d. 



As prepared by the Pandit, the slip for this word has taken the following form : 




I have numbered the entries in the slip for convenience of reference. In (1) the letter x? indicates that 
the word is masculine. The rest of the entry, and the whole of (2) and (3) belong more or less to the original 
materials, and (4) was added by the Pandit. Prom this I prepared the article in the Dictionary. I inserted the 
transliteration in (1), retained the Sanskrit synonym in (2), abandoned, as surplusage, the Hindi synonym 
in (3), and translated the substance of (2) and (4) into English. The article thus took the following form :— 
ab-dab ^f^-^^ I ^R^ZlWr^l m. giving unwholesome food or drugs to an invalid. 

To the entries thus prepared by the Pandits I have added numerous words and meanings collected by 
myself in the course of my reading. As my authority on the subject is small, I always give in each case 
a reference to the source from which the word or meaning was obtained. Articles that depend entirely on 
my own authority can be distinguished from those based on the Pandits' slips by the fact that the latter, 
and the latter only, have a Sanskrit synonym following the Kashmiri word. 

The principal sources other than the Pandits' slips are indexes of words occurring in (1) Burkhard's 
edition of Mahmiid Gaml's Yusuf Zulaikha, published in vols, xlix and liii of the Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft (YZ., quoted by verse number), (2) my own edition of Krsna Razdan's 
Siva Parinaya (Siv., quoted by verse number), in course of publication in the Bibliotheca Indica, (3) Diva- 
kara Prakasa Bhatta's Srlnimuvatdracarita (Eam., similarly quoted), (4) Paramananda's Krsnuvatdrallla 
(K., similarly quoted), (5) Lallavakyuni, a collection of songs by Lai Ded (L.V., similarly quoted), 
(6) Hatimh Songs and Stones, a collection of Kashmiri folktales, etc., collected by Sir Aurel Stein (H., 
quoted by number and paragraph), (7) Dr. Hiiiton Knowles' Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs and Sayings 
(K.Pr., quoted by page), (8) Mr. Wade's Edshmirl Grammar (W., quoted by page), (9) my edition of Isvara 
'K?i\i\.ii^ s, Kasmlrasahdumrta (I.K., quoted by sutra), (10) my own Essays on Kupniri Grammar (Gr.Gr., 
quoted by page), and (11) Sir Walter Lawrence's Valley of Kashmir (L., quoted by page). I have also 
included all the words in Elmslie's Vocabulary of the Kashmiri Language (El.), and in the Yocabulary 
appended to the Kashmiri Manual (Gr.M.) by myseK, published by the Clarendon Press in 1912. 

Kashmiri, especially as spoken by Musalmans, borrows freely from Persian, and (thi'ough Persian) 
from Arabic. In works written by Musalmans, such as the Yusuf Zuhtikhd above mentioned, there are 
whole passages of which the vocabulary is really more Persian than Kashmiri, strings of nouns and 
adjectives taken from the former language being merely held together by some verb belonging to the latter. 
In fact, such Kashmiri is an exact counterpart of the high literary Urdii fashionable a generation ago 
in Lucknow. To have included all such Persian words in this Dictionary would have uselessly increased 
the bulk of the work, and have given little help to the student. Such words will be found in any good 
Hindostani Dictionary, and it is not probable that any person will study Kashmiri who has not a certain 
acquaintance either with that language or with Persian. I have therefore endeavoured to admit to the 
pages of this Dictionary only such Persian words as are in general use by all classes, and I have been strict 
c;ji\;in regard to them. I have included all Persian words registered by my Pandits, and also all those to 
be foii^d in the Proverbs contained in Dr. Hinton Knowles' book, as well as in the vocabularies already 
mentioiAfid, and I believe that this will be found to give a very fair selection. On the other hand, there are 



no doubt hundreds of Persian and Arabic words in such poems as Yumf Zulaikha, which will not be found 
in the following pages. 

Kashmiris use three alphabets for writing their language. Hindus as a rule employ either the Sarada 
or the Nagarl character, and Musalmans the Persian. The spelling of Kashmiri words written in the 
Persian character has the advantage of being fairly constant, but the alphabet is quite unsuited for 
illustrating the complicated vowel sounds of the language. I have therefore decided not to use it except in 
the case of words borrowed from Persian. Even such words, when forming part of the Hindu vocabulary, 
and evidenced as such by being included in the Pandits' slips, are also written in Nagarl. As for the 
Sarada character, no types are available, nor, as a rule, are European students fiimiliar with it, and I have 
therefore written all words not purely Musalman in Nagarl. But in this case another difficulty has arisen. 
No two Hindus spell Kashmiri alike in that form of script. Every man is a law unto himself. I have in 
my possession two Nagarl manuscripts of the same work — the Siva Parhiaya ; and as an example of the 
various modes of spelling I here give the same passage transcribed from each. 

MS. A. T'^T^ra. ^1% 4^ '^'^i^Tft I ^Ti,f^ it^ ^qiT'^fr ti 

MS. B, l[^T^5ra;Tf^ ^rC ^^^I^ I ^tX^ J^^'^T^T^ II 

MS. A. jg^^T^ -^^ wj^^ ?! ^^^'^irft I '?iTiT!rqfT win ^tt^ ii 

MS. B. 5WI^ <T1 Igfr^ If »l'a^1?T^ I 'Tf TlWUfr ^J^ ^TT^ II 

Now a dictionary must follow one system of spelling throughout, and I have, accordingly, in the present 
work followed, with one or two slight alterations, that of Isvara Kaula, the best and most logical of all those 
used for Kashmiri. But it is obvious that, however excellent its system of spelling may be, a dictionary 
that follows the conventional order of the Nagarl alphabet will be of little use to the student of works that 
diverge so widely from the standard as does MS. B. Twelve out of the fifteen words given in the 
extract would not be found in their proper places, and would have to be searched for under another 
orthography. It will be observed from a comparison of the two extracts that most of the variations 
occur in the representation of vowel sounds. Consonantal variations are few, and can easily be 
made subject to one or two general rules. This is true of all systems. After much consideration 
and many experiments, I have therefore decided, as the most practical course, to make the romanized 
transliteration the basis of the alphabetical order, and to arrange the words in the approximate order 
of the English consonants, without any regard to the vowels. Thus, whether a word is spelt kom^, kom, 
kamu, kbm", or kami, it will occupy the same place in the Dictionary, its place being determined by the k 
and the m and by notliing else. Only in those cases in which several words have all the same consonants, 
and differ only in their vocalization, will the order of the vowels be taken into account. As regards 
words beginning with vowels, these are all grouped together at the commencement, the order in the group 
being determined by the consonants. Then will follow all words beginning with b, then those beginning 
with c, and so on. In order to serve as a check against misprints, after every Kashmiri word in the 
roman character, I have given it again either in the Nagarl character, according to the spelling of 
Isvara Kaula, or, in the case of words directly borrowed from Persian, in the Persian character. This is 
usually followed by its Sanskrit translation and then by its meaning in English. 

The following is the order of the vowels when appearing in different words of which the consonantal 
skeleton is the same :— % *, a, a, a, a; ai; au; ^ e, e, 6, e; S i, i; °, 6, 6, 8, o. o, 6, o; ", u, u, ^ u, ti. 
Anunasika is represented by ", and does not afiect the order of words. Anusvara :a represented by m or n 
according to pronunciation. The vowels ru (^) and re (modified ■^) are arranged \a8 consonants under r, 
with which they are quite commonly confounded. 


The following is the order of the consonants :— b, c (ch), d and d, f, g, h, j, k (kh), 1, m, n, n, p (ph), 
r, s (sh), t (th) and t (th), Is (Ish), v (or w), y, z. But the following points must be noted. The 
aspirates ch, kh, ph, th, and th, and also the sibilant sh, appear in their English alphabetical order. Thus 
ch comes between eg and cj, and sh between sg and sj (vowels being neglected as usual). 

The letter n represents the Arabic ^ and the Nagarl 'i: . It also represents (in Kashmiri words) the 
Nagarl ^, ^, and ig', when these are compounded Avith another consonant of the same class. Thus, f nga, 
g nca, is? nta. The letters ^ and T!r only occur in Kashmiri in such circumstances. They never, except in 
pandits' ' learned ' spelling, stand alone. In quoting Sanskrit words the usual transliteration (na, na, 
and na) is, of course, observed. When the ISTagarl letter ^ stands alone in a Kashmiri word it has the 
sound of ny, and is represented in the Persian character by ^^ . In this Dictionary it is represented 
by n, as in ^^ bene. This n is not classed for purposes of alphabetical order with n, but comes after 
it as a distinct letter. This is rendered necessary by the fact that many people actually represent n by ny, 
and to class it with n would cause great confusion. On the other hand, for the purpose of alphabetical 
order, d and d are classed as the same letter, and so are t (including th) and t (including th). The letters 
V and w are for the purpose of alphabetical order treated as the same letter. 

The letter sh represents the Persian J:,, and also two distinct Nagari (or Sarada) letters, viz. •55 and ^. 
Of the two latter, ^ is merely a grammarian's figment, used by some pandits in writing words derived f I'om 
Sanskrit words containing it. Thus such persons write posh, a flower, Tff^, not xft^, because it is derived 
from jxq. In Kashmiri ^ and ^ are both pronounced sh, as in 'shine', and there is no danger in 
representing them both in the roman character by sh, as the Nagarl spelling is also given in every case. 
To write s and s would only puzzle those who read texts edited on the usual system of representing the 
sound by sh. In transliterating Sanskrit words, I of course retain the customary s and s. 

The character Is is an innovation. It represents the fricative sound of c represented in Nagarl by ^ 
and in the Persian character by _ , which is very common in Kasmiri and other languages of North-Western 
India. I have introduced the character Is in order to show that in the vernacular character the sound is 
represented by one letter, and also to distinguish it from ts (^, ^' ), an altogether different sound. Its 
aspirated form is feh, which is sounded as ts + h, not as t + sh. 

As Kashmiri grammars differ in the nomenclature of the various forms of the parts of speech, I give 
below a series of tables of the declension and conjugation of the language showing the names adopted in the 
following pages for each form. The names are those employed in my Kashmiri Manual, to which reference 
should be made for further particulars. In some grammars it is customary to make out, with the help of 
postpositions, a long array of cases for the nouns, but this is quite unnecessary. The Kashmiri noun has 
only four cases, the nominative, the dative, the agent, and the ablative, and other relations are indicated by 
postpositions or prepositions governing one or other of the three latter.^ When a noun presents any 
peculiarities I have endeavoured to show them so far as my knowledge extended. As all nouns of the first 
and second declensions are masculine, and all those of the third and fourth declensions are feminine, it has 
not been necessary to state the declension of any noun as well as its gender. The grammars teach that the 
second declension consists of all masculine nouns in "-matrd, and the third of all feminine nouns in ^-mcitrd 
or "-matrd. The first and fourth include all the rest. Adjectives, when qualifying substantives whose 
nominatives masculine end in "-matrd, are declinable, and others are, as a rule, indeclinable. This 
being a general law, it has not been considered advisable to waste space by stating the fact in 
each case. When an adjective is declinable its feminine is recorded unless this is quite regular. An 

' In the tables of the noun I have shown the genitive as an additional case. Eeally there are two postpositions, sond" (or hond") 
which governs the dative, and w^-", which governs the ablative. As there are irregularities in suffixing these postpositions, I hare 
included them merely for the sake of convenience, and to distinguish between the animate and inanimate masculine genitive. 


adjective used as a substantive is declined as such. In the case of verbs I usually show their first 
and second past participles, or, in the case of verbs of the third conjugation, their second past participles 
only, and also any other irregular or difficult forms. The information regarding the feminines of adjectives 
comes from the Pandits' slips. For the rest I am myself responsible. Isvara Kaula's Ka'smlrasabdiimria 
has been my authority in all doubtful cases. 


























Nominative . 







Dative . 







Agent . 







Ablative . 







Genitive . 








Nominative . 







Dative . 







Agent . 







Ablative . 







Genitive . 








A. Personal. 

1. boh, I. 

2. fe^h, thou. 

3. suh, sa, tih, he, she, it. 

B. Possessive. 

1. my on", my ; son", our. 

2. chyon", th}- ; tuhond", your. 

3. tam'-sond", tasond", tas, his, hers ; tamyuk", its ; timan-hond", tihond", their. 

C. Demonstrative. 

Proximate, yih, this. 

Mediate, huh, hoh, that (within sight). 

Remote. Suh, sa, tih, that (not within sight). 




D. Relative. yilS, yossa, yih, who, which, what. 

E. Interrogative, kus ? kossa ? kyah ? who ? which ? what ? 

F. Indefinite, kflh, kfilshah, kSh, klfehah, anyone, some one ; klh, kefehah, anything, something. 

G. Reflexive, pan, self. 

H. Pronominal Suffixes 


First Person 

Second Person 

Third Person 

N^ominative singular .... 




Accusative singular .... 




Genitive and dative singular . 




Agent singular ..... 




Plural (all cases) ..... 




First Conjugation : All Transitive and Impersonal Verbs ; e.g. karun, to make. 
Second Conjugation : About sixty-five Intransitive Verbs ; e.g. bovun, to become. 
Third Conjugation : All other Intransitive Verbs ; e.g. wuphun, to fly. 

Examples given only of the First Conjugation. 

Root. EAH, make 

Infinitive. Masculine, karun, karun", or karon"; feminine, kariin"; to make, the act of making. 

Present Participle, karan, making. 

Future Passive Participle, karxm, karun", or karon", about to be made, meet to be made. 

Impersonal Future Participle, karani, it is to be made. 

Conjunctive Participle, karith, having made. 

Negative Conjunctive Participle, karanay, not having made. 

Frequentative Participle, kar^ kar', making repeatedly. 

Adverbial Participle, karbn', while making. 

Nouns of Agency. 1 karawun", 2 karanwol", a maker, one who makes. 




Present, boh chus karan, I am making, I make. 

Imperfect, boh OSUS karan, I was making. 

Future, boh kara, I shall make (also used as Present Indicative and as Present Conditional). 

Curative Future, boh asa karan, I shall be making. 

Present, boh kara, I may make, (if) I make. 

Future, boh asa karan, (if) I be making. 

Past, boh karahb, (if) I had made, I should have made (if). 

Durative Past, boh asaho karan, (if) I had been making, I should have been making (if). 

Present, kar, make thou ! 

Polite, karta, please make! 

Future, kar'zi, thou shouldst make ! 

Past, kar'zihe, thou shouldst have made ! 

Durative. aS karan, keep thou making, make thou a practice of making ! 
Benedictive. karekh, mayst thou make ! 


First Conjugation 

Second Conjugation 

Third Conjugation 

1st Past Participle 

kor", made (lately) 

bov", become lately 


2nd Past Participle 

karyov, made (time indefinite) 

bovyOV, become (time indefinite) 

wuphyov, flown (lately) 

-3rd Past Participle 

karyav, made (long ago) 

bovyav, become (long ago) 

WUphyav, flown (time 

4th Past Participle 



wuphiyav, flown (long ago) 

Ist Perfect Participle 

kor"mot", made (lately) 

bov'^mot", become (lately) 


2nd Perfect Participle 

karyomot", made (time 

bovyomot", become (time 

wuphyomot", flown (lately) 

3rd Perfect Participle 

karyamot", made (long agoj 

bovyamot'^, become (long ago) 

wuphyamot", flown (time 

4th Perfect Participle 


None /^ 

wuphiyamot", flown (long 

1st Past . 
2nd Past . 

3rd Past . 

4th Pasl^ . 

Perfect . 


••e Perfect and 
rfect Conditional 

me komm, I made (lately) 

me karydm, I made (time 

me karyam, I made (long ago) 


me chum kor"mot°, I have 

me osum kor"mot", I had 


me asem kor"mot", I shall 
have made, I may have made, 

boh bovus, I became (lately) 

boh bovyos, I became (time 

bdh bovyas, I became (long 


boh chus bov"mot", I have 

boh OSUS bov"mot", I had 


boh asa bov"mot", I shall 
have become, I may have 
become, etc. 

boh wuphyos, I flew (lately) 

boh wuphyas, I flew (time 

b6h wuphiyas, I flew (long 


boh chus wuphyomot°, I 

have flown 

boh OSUS wuphyomot", I 

had flown 

boh asa wuphyomot", I 

shall have flown, I may 
have flown, etc. 





Nagari Equivalent 

Persian Equivalent 

As in 


_ (medial only) 


Is-h, ^, ^ 


■^ (medial only) 





\, - 

abal, ^<^«5, jji 


1 1 

\, ^ 

ad^run, ^i^^i^, ^jj'\ ; ganz% ^\^x., ^-^ 


r 1 

\, ^ 

asS ^t%, ^1; karS ^t^:./ 


W, T 


ab, '^iT^, c^T ; kath, ?bt^, ^i^ 


^, ^ 

J^' ^— 

aith, ^^, ^\ ■ mail, ^^, j^ 




gauv, ^ft^, ./ 




ban^awun, %3n:i^i^, jy^ 


H (after a consonant) 


bene, 'ar^l, j^ . Initial ^Sl or ^ after a vowel is 

or '^ (after certain consonants) 

ye, as in yemis, ^f?ra, ^^^^ ; biye, f^^, ^ 


^ (after a consonant) 
or tjI (after certain consonants) 


veth'^run, 4a\^, Jj^^ 





tgthfi, ^|, ^^ 


^ (never initial) 


mel, ^if , j^ 


\ >> J) 


asS ^t^, ^\ 


1 J) )t 


nishe, f^ij, j^; 


T )> jj 


shin, afll,, ,^ 

~ (medial only) 


d''n^ i^, J. 


^ (after a consonant) 


dod, i[^, oj 




gon", ^, J 



' fell5p«, W^, ._!:=. 

1 1 
^5, "" 


ogun, ^^^i:, J''^ ; bod», %, i; 

^t, t 


or. '«H. ji^ ; posh, t^^, ^-y^ 

^, -^ 


6s°, ^"^, ^.1 ; moP, Jftf , J^^ 


1 1 

T (initial and medial) 

OS, 4ii«,, ^1 ; molS rnt^r, JU 


-^ (never initial) 


kor", <*%, J 


"^r » » 


kus, f ^, ^ 


"c^ >> » 


fe"^' ni' jj>^ 


-^ or ^ „ 

omitted, or _ 

kUr^, ^^ J ; abad^r", ^^^^, ^j..! 


1 1 

\, ^ 

^* ^Iv' c'l ; ^^'^^' ^Iv' ^ 




siity, ^(9, (.-,.,..: 

The nasa 

lizatiou indicated in the Nagari character 

by anumsika f") is represented i 

D the roman character by the sign " over the nasalized vowel. Thus 

w( &> and so 

on. This does not aSect the alphabet] 

cal order. Anuamra (') is repre 

sented by m or n according to its sound. In Kashmiri words it occurs 

only as a comj 

yendium scriptura for a nasal before a coi 

isonant of the same class. Thus, 

?^^ for I^TSS mSnd"- 




















W / 

Nagari Equivalent 

see ph 



^ (never second member 
of a conjunct) 

^ (never second member) 
of a conjunct) 


As in 









j, ^, >J>, ^ 

bod", w^, l^ 
cal, ^T^, ju 
chuh, ^f , <i|^ 
dah, ^f, ij 
dar, ^T, ^ j 

gafehun, Ji^5|;, ^,|^i'; galati, i^cft, ^ 

ban, ^5i;, ^u ; hal, ^m, JU 

jan, gn'l, ^U 

katb, ^^, .^; kbyim, ^f?nT, Jli 

kbasun, Tajg^t, ^,i^ ; krakh, ^^^, ^^ . khbrij, ^irrtT^^, .^U 

ladun, ^f^i, ^_^Ij 

manz, j^^, jJh 

nakara, ^t^t, i^l^U ; wungun, ^^^i, J^^. gandun, i^Jfi, ^i/ 

anegot^ ^^'if , iJL-«tl 

pot^ 4f , cUj 

pberun, qi^'i:, ^^^^ ; ropb, ^'B, l_.J; phaisala (faisala), %«^, a^^ 

ropb, 4ts, <_jj 

son", ^, ^^_, ; wbris, ^\TT.^_, ^-J\, ■ pbaisala, ^^, ^j^i 

shin, iftn, ^^ ; posh, ift^, j^y^ 

tulun, ^^^, J^ . khbt^ra, ^c^t, ^J^U. 

gatul", anjf , Jjlf 

thakun, ^fi:, ^^' ; rath, tt^, ku\^, 

thagun, ^arn, ^^1^5 ; achith, wV3, cu.^i 

fe^h, ^f , i^ 

gafehun, ^i:, ^.^^; rafeh, tw. jjj 

watul, ^ig^, ^ui^ ; veth, ^i^, ^^ 

yih, t^f , aj 

zanun, sjt^, ^'ij ; oznr, ^f^, ."^.i; ; arz, '5^, j>< ■ nazar, T3i^,^ 

A'i rc?arcls consonants generally, the viramu has been omitted in the second column to avoid typographical complications. Kashmiri lins no aspirated 
sonants (gh, jh, dh, dh, or bh). The only consonants which it possesses that are strange to the Nagari alphabet are the fricatives, ^ tsa, w tsha, and 
^ za. Their corresponding nasal is if na ; thus, 9 ntsa, 7^ ntsha, and ^ nza ; but when, according to the laws of phonetic mutation, dentals are changed 
to fricatives, the dental tf na is changed to the palatal of fie, which some native scribes then write as af. The Arabic ain (9) is always dropped in 
words borrowed by Kashmiri, though retained in writing when the Persian character is employed, as in , j^£ ^ ^ .£ above. 


N.Ii. — Abbreviations of adjectives may also be used as abbreviations of the corresponding adverbs. 

abl. = 
abs. = 
act. = 
adv. = 
an. = 


= abbreviated. 
: ablative. 
= abstract. 
: accusative. 


: adverb. 


case of the a^ent. 

= afcricultural. 


anon. = anonymous, 
art. = article, 
auxil. = auxiliary. 

bel. = below. 

ben. = benedictivo mood. . 

B.Gr. = Burkhard, /*«« Ver- 
hmn, die Komina^ itnd die 
Frnpositionen der KA(;mtri- 
sprache ; the translation 
by G. A. Grierson, reprinted 
homVaa Indian Antiquary, 
is the edition quoted. 

card. = cardinal numeral. 

cans. = causal. 

cf . = confer, compare. 

e.g. or com. gen. = common 

col. (1 = left-hand ) column of 

col. i = right-hand ) a page. 

coll.= colloquial. 

com.= commoEly. 

comm.= commentary. 

conip. = compound. 

compar. = comparative degree. 

comp. p.p. = compound past 

con. = concrete. 

cond. = conditional. 

conj. = conjugation. 

conj . part. = conjunctive parti- 

conjnct. = conjunction. 

cons. = consonant. 

constr. = construction. 

cont. = contemptuous. 

coiitr. = contracted or con- 

cor.= corrupt. 

corr. = correct. 

correl.= correlative or cor- 
relative pronoun. 

D.= Drew, Jiimmoo and 
Kashmir Territoyiis, 

Aid. = dative. 

decl.= declension. 

defect. = defective. 

dem.= demonstrative pro- 

den . = denominative. 

der. = derivation orderivative. 

dim. = diminutive. 

dir. = direct. 

dur. = durative. 

e.g. = exempli gratia, for 

El. = Elmslie, Kashmiri 

emph.= emphatic, 
esp. = especial, 
etym. = etymology, 
euph. = euphonic, 
exam. = example, 
exc. = except or exception. 

f . or fem. = feminine, 
fac. = facetious, 
fig. = figurative, 
fr. = from. 

freq. = frequentative, 
fut. = future, 
fut. p.p. = future passive 

gen. = genitive, 
gend. = gender. 
genl.= general, 
geog. = geographical. 
gram.= grammatical. 
Gr.Gr. = Grierson, Essays on 

Kafmiri Grammar. 
Gr.M. = Grierson, Kashmiri 


ib. = ibidem, in the same 
place as the preceding. 

id.= idem, the same meaning 
as that of the preceding word. 

impers. = impersonal. 

inipf . = imperfect tense. 

impve. = imperative mood. 

inan. = inanimate. 

incorr. = incorrect. 

ind. = indicative mood. 

indcl. = indeclinable. 

indef. = indefinite. 

inf. = infinitive. 

instr. = instrumental, 
intens. = intensitive. 
inter. = interrogative or 
interrogative pronoun, 
interj. = interjection, 
intr. = intransitive, 
introd. = introduction, 
i.q. = id quod, the same as. 
irr. = iiTegular. 

K.Pr. = Knowles, Dictionary 
0/ Kashmiri Proverbs. 

L. = Lawrence, The Val/ey of 

1.= line, 
lit. = literally, 
loc. = locative. 

m. or masc. = masculine. 
m.c.= metri causa, for the 

fake of metre, 
med. = medical, 
met. = metaphorical, 
meton. - metonjTnical. 
myth. = mythological. 

N. = name. 

n. or neut. = neuter. = nomeu ngcntis, noun 

of agency, 
neg. = negative, 
nom. = nominative, 
num. = numeral. 

ohj.= object, 
obi. = oblique, 
obs. = obsolete, 
obsc. = sensu obscoeuo. 
onomat. = onomatopoetic. 
opp. to= opposed to. 
ord. = ordinal numeral. 
orig. = original. 

p. = page. 

part. = participle. 

pass. = i)assive. 

past = past tense. 

1 past = first tense, and 

so on. 
perf. = perfect, 
pers. = person, 
phon. = phonetic, 
phr. = phrase. 
pi. or plur. = plural. 

plcon. = pleonastic. 

plup. = pluperfect. 

poet. = poetical. 

pol. = polite. 

postpos.= postposition. 

p.p. = participle. 

1 ]).p. = first past participle, 
and so on. 

pphr. = periphrastic. 

prec. = ])recative. 

pref. = prefix. 

prep. = preposition. 

pres. = present. 

pres.-fut. = present-future. 

prim.= primary. 

priv. = privative. 

prob. = probably. 

pron. = pronoun or pro- 
nominal . 

prop. = properly. 

prov. = proverb. 

pt. = particle. 

qual. = quality or qualitative, 
quant. = quantity or quanti- 
q.v. = quod vide, which see. 

red. = redundant. 

redupl. = reduplication or 

refl. = refiexive. 

reg. = regular. 

resp. = respective. 

KT.= Itiij'a - Taranjini, ed. 

ET.Tr. =Translationof Jfrt/rt- 
Turanyini by Stein. The 
books of the poem are 
quoted in small roman 
numerals ; thus, i, ii, iii. 
The volumes are quoted in 
large roman numerals ; 
thus, I, II. 

scl. = scilicet, to be under- 
sec. = secondary, 
sen. = sentence. 
Bg. or sing. = singular. 

Siv. = Siva-parinaya of 

Krsna Kazdan. 
St. = stem. 
subj.= subjunctive, 
suhst. = substantive. 

suff. = suffix. 

superl.= superlative degree, 
s.v.rssub voce, under the 

tech.= technical, 
term. = termination, 
tr. = transitive, 
transl. = translated or trans- 

unphon. = unphonetic. 

u.w. = used with. 

V. = vide, see. 

vb. = verb. 

vb. intr. = intransitive verb. 

vb.n. = verbal noun. 

vb. suff. = verbal suffix. 

vb. tr. = transitive verb. 

vill.= u.sed in villages, rural. 

voc. = vocative. 

vr.l.= varia lectio, different 

vs. = verse, 
vulg. = vulgar. 

W. = Wade, Kashmiri 

worn. = used by women. 

YZ. = Kashmiri version of 
Yiisnf and Zulaix'i, ed. 

- indicates a compound word, 
of which the first word is 
to be supplied, as indicated 
in the first word of the 
paragraph in which it 

— indicates that the leading 
word is to be repeated, but 
as an independent word, 
and not as the first member 
of a compound. 

-° at the end of a compound. 
°- at the beginning of a com- 
+ with. 

i with or without. 
& and. 

&c. et cetera, and so forth. 
V root. 

Nouns substantive are quoted in the nom. sg., or, when only used in the plural, in the nom. pi. 
Adjectives are quoted in nom. sg. masc. 

Pronouns are quoted in the nom. sg. Those pronouns which distinguish between animate forms are quoted in the nom. sg. inan. Thus, snh flW ^'H 
be found under the inanimate form tih ffl^- Cross-references are given in such cases. 

Verbs whose roots end in consonants are quoted in the infinitive in un. The few verbs whose roots end in vowels are quoted in the infinitive in n". They 
are as follows : khyon» ?gr^ , to eat ; cyon'" -^f^ , to drink ; hyon" fj^ , to take ; pyon" TZI^ , to fall ; zyon- SITJ , to be born ; dyun" ^TJ , to give ; 
nynn" tll, to take : and yuii» '^TT, to come. 

The verb substantive is quoted under chnh ^^, the pres. masc. sg. 3. 




This vowel {a-mdtrd), which also occurs iu P^shto 
and other languages of the North- West Frontier, is 
pronounced as an extremely short a. It never begins 
a word. In the Nagarl and Saradii characters it is 
not represented at all, the consonants between which 
it occurs being compounded into one character. Thus, 
the word fe^h, thou, is written «.^, literatim fe-h, as if 
with no vowel. In the printed text of the Kasmira- 
sahdamrta it is represented by virdma, thus f[%. In the 
Persian character it is represented by zabar, thus is>~. 
This vowel occurs under two sets of circumstances. 
In the first it is an original vowel, inherent in the word 
in which it occurs, and in such cases it modifies the 
vowel of the preceding syllable, if any, and if that 
vowel is liable to modification. Thus, a followed by ^ 
becomes a, a becomes 0, 6 becomes i, becomes U, 
and so on. Examples will be found under the 
respective vowels. In the second set of circumstances 
* is not original, but is merely a helping vowel inserted 
between the members of an original compound con- 
sonant to make the pronunciation more easy (what 
Sanskrit grammarians call svarahhaldi) . In such 
a case a preceding vowel is not modified. Thus the 
Sanskrit word U^ Nostra, iron, becomes in Kashmiri 
>{*sl< ,j~.LZ , shest^r, and the Arabic word jJ^, jald, 
active, becomes 5J^^ j^'ld, or Sf^^ jal*d, quickly. 
As in the latter case, the insertion of this * is often 
optional and depends upon the personal equation of 
the speaker. 

Every final a in the language is pronounced very 
shortly, as if it were *, but this distinction is not 
marked in writing, nor is the preceding vowel affected 
by it. 

This vowel bears the same relation to * that a does 
to a (see a). When * is followed by ' it becomes *. 
Like the * it is omitted in the Nagarl character. In 
the Persian character it is represented by zabar. Thus, 
from ^"5^, jiH, and^ra, from inside, we have 


'iST'^^, ,3J\, and^r'. It is sounded like an extremely 
short a.' 
a 1. This is the usual short a of Hindi and other Indian 
languages, sounded like the a in ' America '. It is 
represented by '^ in NiTgari, and by zabar in the 
Persian character. When followed by * it becomes a. 
when followed by ^ it becomes a, when followed by " 
it becomes o, and when followed by ^ it becomes U. 

When ya is initial or follows a vowel it becomes ye, 
and when it immediately follows another consonant it 
becomes e, and so also does a when it follows n or sh. 

Thus, ^rfira; yemis, not yamis, 1%?t biye, not biya, 

while ift'SI pothya, books, becomes pothe, f^J^ 
myana, mine (fem. plur.), becomes myane, and 
f^ni nisha, near, becomes nishe. Similarly, also 
sometimes after C, ch, and j, as explained under the 
article e. 

Similarly, when "wa immediately follows another con- 
sonant it becomes 6. Thus, dwad, milk, becomes d6d. 

The vowel a at the end of a word is always pro- 
nounced as * ; but, the rule being universal, it is not 
customary to indicate the fact in writing. 

In monosyllabic words ending in an aspirated con- 
sonant a has the sound of the a in ' hat ', as in krakh, 
a noise. 
a 2. An interjectional sufiix used by a woman when 
addressing a man or woman who is a familiar or 
a junior. Thus, hataba kak-a, father (familiarly), 

hatau Gana (for Gana -I- a), Gana. When 

a woman addresses a man or a woman by his or her 
proper name we may use -a baye or -a bayau. 

Thus, hataba Mahadev-a baye, hataba Maha- 
dev-a bayau, or hatau Mahadev-a bayau, 

Mahad(7v. This cannot be used with words which are 
not proper names. We cannot say hataba kak-a 
baye, father. 
a 3, a 1, ay. Three forms of a suffix added to verbs, 
after the pronominal suffixes, if any, and giving 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under y8, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with n, u, see under wn, wfl respectively. 

a 3, a 1, ay 

— 2 — 

ai 1 

an interrogative force. Before them the kh of a 
pronominal suffix does not become h, as it does before 
another pronominal suffix, but a final h is dropped, 
i, ', or e becomes y, and a final u (but not ^ or ") 
becomes w, even when originally followed by such 

a dropped h. Thus, sapadi-f-a becomes sapadya, 

will he become ? sapad' + a becomes sapadya, did 
they (masc.) become ? bdve + a becomes bovya, did 
they (fem.) become ? cheh + a becomes chya, is she ? 
and chuh + a becomes chwa, is he ? ; but kor^ + a 
becomes kor"a, pronounced kora, was he made ? and 
kiir^ + a becomes kiir^a, pronounced kura, was she 
made ? After a final a the termination and the suffix 
(with the exception noted below) together become a ; 
thus, kara + a becomes kara, shall I make ? 

The rules for the use of these suffixes are somewhat 
complicated and are not always strictly followed. The 
following is the most usual custom : — 

In the first person, or when immediately following 
a suffix of the first person, a is employed with the 
singular and a with the plural. Thus, chus-a, am I 
(masc.) ? ches-a, am I (fem.) ? chu-m-a, is there to 
me ? chya (chih + a or cheh + a), are we (masc. 
and fem.) ? 

In the second person singular and plural, or when 
immediately following a pronominal suffix of the 
second person, the usual form employed is a. Thus, 
chukh-a, art thou (masc.) ? chekh-a, art thou 
(fem.) ? chu-y-a (pronounced chuye, see e), is there 
to thee ? In the plural, contrary to the rule just 
stated about final a, the final a of the termination is 
elided, so that we have chiw-a for chiwa + a, are 
you (masc.) ? chew-a, are you (fem.) ? The suffix a 
can also be used with the second person, but is not poKte. 
In the third person a is alone employed. Thus, 

chwa (chuh + a), is he ? chya (cheh + a), is 

she ? or (chih + a), are they (masc.) ? or (cheh + a), 
are they (fem.) ? Occasionally we find a used with 
the feminine, as in sapiiz^'a, did she become ? 

In the feminine it is usual to substitute ay (or, 
after a vowel, y) for a or a if a woman is addressed. 
Thus, karan ches-ay, am I making ? (a woman is 
addressing a woman). If she were addressing a man 

she would say karan ches-a. Similarly, karan 
chy-ey (for karan cheh + ay), do we make ? if 

a woman is addressing a woman, but karan chy-a if 
a man is addressed. In the second person a may be 
substituted for ay, so that we have karan chekh-ay, 
or karan chekh-a, art thou making ? (in which 
either a man or a woman is addressing a woman). 



Similarly, in the second person plural we have karan 
chewa-y or karan chew-a, are you (fem.) making ? 

For the third person we have karan chy-ey (karan 

cheh + ay), is she making, or are they (fem.) making ? 
(a man or a woman is addressing a woman). 

Similar negative interrogatives are na and nay. 
a. The peculiar Kiishmlrl modified a, represented in the 
Nagari character by ^ and in the Persian character 
by zabar. Thus, '^l^^i;, ^j3l, ad^run, to be moist. 
The sound of this letter, which is not uncommon, has 
nothing corresponding to it in English. It is some- 
thing between the ordinary a and the 6 in ' hot ', but 
is exactly equivalent to neither. 

This a usually arises from the influence of a 
following *. Thus, chuh kalan, he is dumb, but 
chuh kal^rawan, he makes dumb. 
a. This letter represents the sound which a takes when 
it is followed by '. It is represented in the Nagarl 
character by ^ , and in the Persian character by zabar. 
Thus, ^i^, ^ , as*, we. The sound of this letter is 
that of a 'short ai. Thus as' sounds something 
like a^S^ 
a 2 ; for a 1 see a 3. This is the ordinary a of other 
Indian languages, and has the sound of a in ' father '. 
It is represented in NiigarT by W and in the Persian 
character by alif. Thus, efiTZ, Jl<, kath, wood. 
This is a very unstable letter. When followed by 
i or i it often becomes 0, and when followed by U it 
often becomes 6. Thus, malis, to a father, becomes 
mblis ; the Arabic qd'im becomes kbim, established ; 
tayari becomes taybri, readiness, and thakur be- 
comes thokur, an idol. Before the tiHitrd-vo-wels 
similar changes occur. Thus, before *, ', ", or " it 
becomes b, as in kbn^rawan, to make one-eyed (from 
kanun, to have one eye) ; mbl* (base mal-), fathers; 
abbg°r", not divided (from bag, division) ; brbr'^ 
(base brar-), a cat ; and before ^ it becomes 6, as in 
my on" (base my an-), my. Sometimes the a becomes 
b, even when no i or u follows, as in pbn^ five ; 
bs, a face. 
ai 1. This is the ai of Hindi, pronounced like the y 
in ' my '. At the end of a word it is often written ay, 
as in ropai or ropay, a rupee. It is represented in 
Nagarl by ^, and in Persian by zabar or zer followed 
by ye. Thus, ^^, _^\ or ^|, aith, eight. When 
not final, ai is often optionally pronounced as b, as in 
aith or bth, eight. Before * or ", ai becomes XL. 
Thus, from the base kait-, how many ? we have 
pi. dir. masc. ktit*, sing. dir. fem. kufe". Before " 
it becomes u, as in sing. dir. masc. kut". 

For words beginning with e, i, 1, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 


- 3 — 

ai 2. $, conj. if. See ay. 

ai 3. ^, interj. 0! W. 101. ai Khudaye or ai 
Khudayo, God ! ib. ; ai hakh, cabbage ! K.Pr. 4. 

au is properly pronounced as in Hindi, but is usually hardly 
distinguishable from, and is freely interchangeable 
with, 6. Tims, ^5^5^ or Jfi^'f-j;, ^.j/, karyon or 
karyaun, he did. Before mdtrd-vov/eh it is treated 
exactly like 6. 

*. This mutrd-\o\yel bears the same relation to * that 
e does to a. That is to say, when * follows n it 
becomes «. Thus, .^-^T^si;, ^pj^ or ^j^l^^-if , 
ban^rawun, to cause to be. It is pronounced' as 
a very short e, like the second e in ' ceremony'. 

e. When ya follows a consonant, or when a follows 
n or sh, it becomes e, which is represented by II or ^ 
in Niigarl and by zer in the Persian character. Thus, 
31^, ^''^ veth, the River Jehlam ; IJITal, <iJ^ » 
myane, my (fem. plur.) ; ^SfSf, i.-^ , bene, a sister. 
This letter is commonly pronounced like the e in ' met ', 
but some Kashmiris, especially Hindiis, put a slight 
y-sound in front of it, as if we said ' m^'et '. Before 
^, e is unchanged in pronunciation, but is written in 
the Nagari character as modified. Thus, ?sr(3 teth^, 
bitter (pi. masc). Before ° it becomes yo, as in 
isrg tyoth", bitter (sing. masc). Before " it becomes 
modified to e (see below), as in ^3 teth", bitter 
(sing, fem.), pronounced almost tyUtn. Before * it 
becomes e (see below). 

When e (i.e. ya) follows fe, feh, or z, the y is 
generally dropped, and e becomes a. Thus dife + ya 
is not difee, but di^a. The same also often occurs 
after s. The rules for this will be found in the 
grammars, under the head of the conjugation of verbs. 
In the foregoing cases we actually find a used where 
we should expect e after fe, feh, or z. We have seen 
that after n an a is pronounced as e. This is because 
the sound of y is inherent in n, which is pronounced 
as ny. The letter na is therefore naturally j)ro- 
nounced as nye. This change is universal. Kiishmlrls 
also maintain that the sound of y is inherent in the 
four letters C, ch, j, and sh. In other words, they 
say that C is the same as cy, ch. as chy, j as jy, 
and sh. as shy, and they write them indifferently 
^, ^ ; ^, ^tT ; ^, ^ ; and ij, ^ respectively. It thus 
follows that when e follows any one of these three 
letters the y of the ya is usuall}^ but not necessarily, 
omitted, so that ce is written "^ cya or ^ ca ; che 
is written ifTf chya or l^ cha; je, 5ST jya or ^ja; 
and she, ^ she or ^ sha. In other words, both 
^ and ^ are pronounced as ce, and so on for the 



others. In the case of TJ, as in the case of '5f, the 
f)ronunciation of a as e is universal, and hence, in this 
dictionary, if is always transliterated she, not sha. 
Here, in contrast to the foregoing, we have a change 
of spelling, but no change of sound. 

Moreover, owing to the constant confusion between 
i and e, ci is often written ^ (i.e. ca for CC) or '^ ce, 
and, conversely, we even find f^ ci written instead of 
^ ca or ^ ce. Similarly, the postposition nisha 
(or, better, nishe) fsT^, from, is often written in the 
Roman character nishi, and its real sound is nearer 
nishe than anything else. So on, for the others. 

We have seen that ya only becomes e when it follows 
a consonant in the same word. When ya is initial 
or follows a vowel it is pronounced ye, and will be 
so transliterated. Thus, ^fJT^, ^j^.,, yemis (not 

yamis), to whom ; f^^, <t-j, biye, also. 

The letter e is quite often interchanged with i, both 
in speaking and in writing. Most Kiishmlrls seem to 
be unable to distinguish between the two sounds. 

e. This vowel bears the same relation to e that a bears 
to a. That is to say, e becomes e in cases in which 
a would become a. Its pronunciation is hardly 
aifected. It is represented in Niigari by putting the 
mark over the corresponding sign for e, and in the 
Persian character by ztr. Thus, from the ^T^T, ^J^^ 
vethun, to be fat, we get Wl^«i;, j^^., veth=TUn, to 
make fat, in which the e has been' modified to e 
owing to the influence of the following a-matra. 

e. This is the modified form of e before ^. It has 
a sound tying between i and ii, with a slight y-sound 
preceding, as in teth**, above, under e. 

e. This is the long e of Hindi, pronounced like the a 
in ' mate '. It is represented by XJ^ in Niigari, and by 
ye in the Persian character. Thus, ?T^, ^y^ , mel, 
unite. This sound cannot commence a word. In such 
a position e always becomes ye. Thus, er, wool, 
becomes yer. In the Niigari character an initial e 
is optionally written, thus TJi^ or ^'^ , but the word, is 
always pronounced yer, and will be so written in this 
dictionary. The Persian character has always -o . 

When e is followed by *, ^, or " it becomes i. Thus, 
from tezun, to be sharp, we have tiz^rawun, to 
make sharp ; from the base khet- we have khit^, 
a field (pi. nom. khete) ; and from the base ser- 
we have sir", a brick (pi. nom. sere). When e is 
followed by ° it becomes yu. Thus, from pherun, 
to revolve, we have for the past participle, masc. 
sing, phyur", plur. phir*; fem. sing, phir^, plur. 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning witli n, fl, see under wn, wu respectively. 


— 4 


The letter e is quite often interchanged with i, both 
in speaking and in writing. Most Kashmiris seem to 
be unable to distinguish between the two sounds. 

'. This is the i-mdtra of the Kiishmui alphabet. It has 
the sound of a very slightly pronounced i, and it also 
affects the pronunciation of the vowels of the pre- 
ceding syllable, as explained under the head of each 
vowel. It is represented in Nagarl by f^, and in the 
Persian character by zer. Thus, ^JITf^I , ^^ U^ , myon^, 
my (masc. pi.). 

i. This is the ordinary i of Hindi, pronounced like the 
i in ' pin '. It is represented in the Nagarl character 
by T and in the Persian by zer. Thus, fl^J , i^l , 
nishe, near. "When followed by *, S or ^ it is not 
perceptibly changed, but before " it becomes yu. 
Thus kit*^ becomes k3nat". In the Niigari character 
we meet both fSR^ and ^7T, but the pronunciation is 
always that of the latter, and that spelling will be 
followed in this dictionary. 

The sound of i cannot commence a word. In such 
a position i always becomes yi. Thus, ih, this, 
becomes yih. In the Nagarl character it is optionally 
written ^^ or f^^ , but the word is always pronounced 
yih, and will be so written in this dictionary. The 
Persian character always has i.^ . 

The letter i is quite often interchanged with e, both 
in speaking and in writing. Most Kashmiris seem to 
be unable to distinguish between the two sounds. 

i. This is the ordinary long I of Hindi, pronounced like 
the i in 'pique'. It is represented in the Nagarl 
character bj'^ "^ and in the Persian by ye preceded by 
zer. Thus, T^^^ , ^^ , shin, snow. When followed 
by *■, ', or ^ it is not changed, but before ° it becomes 
yu. Thus, from the base nil- we have nyul'^, 
blue. This sometimes occurs before an ordinary u J 
thus, the genitive of bima, a policy of insurance, is 


The sound of i cannot commence a word. In such 
a position i always become yi. Thus, iran, an anvil, 
becomes yiran. In the Nagarl character it is 
optionally written ^^»(, or ^'^»(; , but the word is 
always pronounced yiran, and will be so written in 
this dictionary. The Persian character always has ^^'.-j . 

The letter i is quite often interchanged with e, both 
in speaking and in writing. Most Kashmiris seem to 
be unable to distinguish between the two sounds. 
". This bears the same relation to * that does to a. 
When * is followed by ^^ it becomes °. Like * it is 
omitted in the Nagarl character. In the Persian 
character it is represented by pSsh. Thus, from the 


root ^"(^ d^n, shake out, we have the past participle 

2r^, ^j, d<>n". 

6. When wa follows a consonant it becomes 6, which 
is represented by ef in Nagarl and by penh in Persian. 
Thus, ^, jj, dod, milk. This letter has the sound of 
in 'hot'. Some pronounce this with a very faint 
«'-sound preceding the 6 ; thus, d^od. When followed 
by * or i the pronunciation of 6 remains unaffected. 
When followed by '^ or '^ it becomes modified to or b 

The letter 6 is quite often interchanged with u, both 
in speaking and in writing. Most Kashmiris seem to 
be unable to distinguish between the two sounds. 

p. This is the modified form which 6 takes when 
followed by ^. It is pronounced nearly the same as 0. 
Thus, 1^1 , ^ , gon^, a stack, is pronounced gon. 
This word cannot be transliterated gon", as it is spelt 
with ^^ in the Nagarl character. 

8. This is the modified form which 6 takes when 
followed by ^. It is pronounced nearly the same as u, 
but tending towards a short o. Thus, ^t? , i_-.i»- , 
fehbp^, silent (fem.), has a sound which lies between 
fahiip and fehbp. 

0. This is the sound which a takes when followed by ". 
It is nearly the same as that of the first o in 
'promote'. It is represented in Nagarl by ^ and in 
the Persian character by pesh. Thus, ^^ , JL' , bod^, 
great. We sometimes meet this letter when a is 
followed by an ordinary U, as in Ogun" for agun" 
(also used) fire. When, in the process of declension 
or conjugation or for any other reason, the '^ or U 
disappears, the raison d'etre for the O disappears also, 
and it reverts to the original a, which is then, as 
before, subject to further changes. Thus, the dative 
singular of bod"* is badis, the agent singular is bad', 
and the direct feminine singular is biid^. Similarly, 
the dative singular of Ogun is ag^nas. 

6 1. This is the long o of Hindi, pronounced like the 
second o in ' promote '. It is represented in Nagarl 
by ^ and in the Persian character by u-dw. Thus, 
ift^ , i^y , posh, a flower. When is followed by 
any wa^rd- vowel it becomes u. Thus, from pothun, 
to be fat, we have puth^rawtin, to make fat ; from 
the base bol- we have bill', speech, but dat. sing. 
bole ; from bozun, to hear, we have the past 
participle biiz" (masc.) and biiz" (fem.). 

Unlike u and ii, the letter o can commence a word, 
e.g. ora-kani, thence. 

The letter o is quite often interchanged with ii, 
both in speaking and in writing. Most Kashmiris 

For words begianing with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, Q, see under wu, wu respectively. 



seem to be unable to distinguish between the two 

6 2^1 '^^, adv. yes. 6-tu ^-g I '^t ^ , adv. yes 
but, yes with a reservation. 

6. This letter bears the same relation to a that o does 
to a. It is the form that a takes when followed by " 
(or in some cases by u, see a). It has the sound 
of a prolonged broad o, nearly the equivalent to that 
of the in ' glory '. Like 6 it is represented in 
Nagarl by ^, and in Persian by lodw. Thus, from 
the base mal- with " added, we have »f|^, J^.» , 
mol", a father. 

0- This letter bears nearl}^ the same relation to a that 
ii does to a. It is the form that a takes when 
followed by * or ^. As explained under a, it also 
often takes this form when followed by an ordinary i, 
or even when in a monosyllable and not followed by 
any »ia6-«- vowel. It is sounded something like 
a much prolonged German o. It is represented in 
Nagarl by ^SIT i»nd in the Persian character by T- 
Thus, Jnt%, J L«, molS fathers ; "^k^-, (^1 , OS, face. 

". This is the'«(-/«a6-a vowel. At the end of a syllable 
it is silent, but when followed by a consonant in the 
same syllable it becomes an ordinary u. Thus, kor", 

pronounced kor; korMhas, pronounced korthas, 

and kor"n, pronounced korun. Under most circum- 
stances it aiiects the pronunciation of the vowel of the 
preceding syllable, e.g. changing * to ", a to 0, a to O, 
e to yo, i to yn, i to yu, and o to u. A preceding 
U or u, however, it leaves unchanged. It is repre- 
sented, when final, in Nagarl by ^ , and is usually 
omitted in the Persian character. Thus, qj^, ^, 
kor'', done; 4^, Ij, bod", great. When medial, it 
is represented as an ordinary u. Thus, ^^»l^, ^Jj> , 
korun, he did. 
U. This is the regular u of Hindi, pronounced like the 
u in ' full '. It is represented in Niigarl by s, and in 
the Persian character hy jKsh. Thus, ^^, ^^, kus, 
who ? This vowel is not afEected by any »«d^m-vowel. 
The sound of u cannot commence a word. In such 
a position U always becomes WU. Thus, udar, a 
plateau, becomes wudar. In the Nagarl character it 
is optionally spelt ^^x; or ^^3^, but the word is 
always pronounced wudar, and will be so written in 
this dictionary. In the Persian character it is 
always .jj . 

The letter u is quite often interchanged with 6, 
both in speaking and in writing. Most Kashmiris 
seem to be unable to distinguish between the two 




U. This is the long u of Hindi, pronounced like the 
ft in ' rule '. It is represented in Nagarl by o.. , and 
in the Persian character by waw preceded by pesh. 
Thus, ^, jjs^, feur, a thief. Like u, this u is not 
affected by any mdtra-\o^e\. 

As in the case of u, the sound of u cannot 
commence a word. In such a position it becomes WU. 
Thus, uth, a camel, becomes wfith. In the Nagarl 
character it is optionally spelt %'Z or ^3, but the 
word is always pronounced wttth, and will be so 
written in this dictionary. In the Persian character 
it is always "(iiJ.j. 

The letter u is quite often interchanged with 0, both 
in speaking and in writing. Most Kashmiris seem to 
be unable to distinguish between the two sounds. 

^. This is the ii ■mdtrd vowel. At the end of a syllable, 
like ", it is silent ; and when followed by a consonant 
ill the same syllable, it is pronounced as a very short 
German ii. Thus, kur'*, pronounced kur ; kur"-thas, 
pronounced kurthas ; kur'^n, pronounced kur'^n, 
with the second syllable short ; and gat"j", pronounced 
gat"j. Under most circumstances, when original, it 
affects the pronunciation of the vowel of the preceding 
syllable, e.g. changing * to *, a to u, a to b, 6 to g, 
e to i, 6 to u. A preceding i, i, u, or u, however, it 
leaves unchanged. When * is changed to ", under the 
influence of a following ", this new, secondary, ** does 
not, in its turn, affect a i^receding vowel. Thus, gat*j" 
becomes gat"j*', not got^'j". It is represented in 
Nagarl by ^, and, when final, is generally omitted 
in the Persian character. When not final it is some- 
times represented by zabar and sometimes by zer. 

Thus, eii^, J, kiir"; ^^, ^:, bud", ^i'^, ^■'/ or 
^J , kiir^n. 

ii. This is the sound which a takes when followed by *. 
It is nearly the same as the short German ii. It is 
represented in Niigarl by '^ and in the Persian 
character by zabar. Thus, ^^ , 3j, bud'', great (fem.). 
When in the process of declension or conjugation 
or for any other reason the *' disappears, the raison 
d'Hre for the ii disappears also, and it reverts to the 
original a, as explained under the head of o, q.v. 

U. This letter, which is peculiar to the Kiishmiri, is 
pronounced something like a long-drawn German ii. 
It is represented in the Nagarl character by — , and in 
the Persian usually by ye, as in Wi^, c:^--j, sUty, 
with. The vowel often represents the diphthong ai, 
followed by ^ or ". Thus, from the base kait- we have 
a fem. sing, ktifc'*, how much ? and a pi. masc. 
dir. kiit'. 

For words be^nning with 8, i, I, see under yS, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning with n, il, see under wu, wft respectively. 

ab ^« 

— 6 — 

obur 1 •^j^ 

ab ^'^ I— -'I I ^5TJi[ in. water. This word is generally 
eini)loyed by Musaliniins. -dana -^TT I TTT^a^ 
in. water and grain, livelihood ; lot, fate, destiny. 
— dyun'' —^5 I ^f^lf ^SJTC m. inf. to encourage, em- 
bolden, -gina -'f^'i HI. a bottle, phial (EL), -shahar 
-It^TT I fq"^r^^^: in. the name of a certain pattern 
employed by engravers on metal. — banun — ^Tf'T^ I 
^*a%mT'H: m. inf. to bring in the hand, to put the hand 
into somebody's work in order to get control over him. 

aba-dul" ^«r-^^ »'• a water-jar; the name of 
a certain ceremony performed at weddings, in which 
the village barber pours out a jar of water (L. 269). 
-khod -ilW^ m. a water-hole, a pool (EL). -kh6r or 
-khor -W^, -^'^ 1 ^fS^^: m. a kind of drinking 
vessel, made of metal. -nor'* -1T^ I ^^^T^^i: 
f. a kind of drinking vessel with a sj)out, generally 
of earthenware, -tab -m^ I %^^^^T1»T, f^fl^llfw: 
m. being in possession of one's senses, composure, 

aib or ob ^. '^T^ I -i I ^^: m. a fault, defect. 

abad '^IWg" I ^4^^Wr card. m. ten crores, a hundred 
millions (Siv. 58). 

abid 1 ■^^^ I H^TTfft^nr »^- absence of difference, 

abid 2 ^^^ I Wir^trftT^T f. a present given by the 
relations at the upaiiaijana ceremony to the young 
Brilhman about to be invested, as a contribution 
towards the guru's fee and other expenses ; a compli- 
ment (EL). — fehuniin'^ — ffij-^i t^r^T^'H^ f.inf. 
to make such a present. 

abidi-thal ^^f^-'«n^ I f>T'^Tm'^ m- a collecting 
dish for such presents, -vela -%^ I f^T^T^^T;: m. 
the time appointed for such collection. 

abod" ■^(^ I ^^ft^: adj. (f. abbz" ^SI ), wanting in 
wisdom, foolish. 

abod" ^^i^^ I '^f^m^:, ^^ifsm^^^^^g adj. (f. abbd^ 

^ra^), not sunk, uusinkable (as a boat, etc.). 
abad Jbl adj. e.g. populated, populous (Gr.M.). 
ab-dab "^if^-^T^ I ^q^%^»TJ^ m. giving unwholesome 

food or drugs to an invalid. 

abad^r" ^i^^ I 'SB'if'TTxn^: ^: adj. (f. abad"r" ^^- 

^^), not completely cooked, of a cake (m. or f.) cooked 
in a frying-pan, and not subsequently toasted over 
aba-dUs ^^-^^ l ^•r!:7I«ir: m. a bundle made up of bark 
and straw, and put in the middle of a road to induce 
people to pick it up, and then to make fun of them. 
Cf. dUs. 

abugun m«(<l*^ l ^^»fti: m. unenjoyment, non- 

abagor" 'ii^'fr^ I '^raf^rTr: adj. (f. abagor" '^i^^iT^), 

not cooked in oil, (jhi, or the like. 

abbgor'' ^^i'i^ i -^f^Hw: adj. (f. abbg"r" ^^i'l^), 

not divided, held in common (as joint-family property). 
ob^hath ^^f^ I ^^T^^l'^: f. watering of the 

mouth, flow of water in the mouth, salivation. 
aibij ^^51 ? f . a certain plant {Rumex) which is picked 

and dried for winter use and much valued as a potherb 

(L. p. 72). Cf. obul". 
Obuji ^t?! I ^T^f^^^: f. (ef. obnl" '^^), a certain 

wild plant growing in dry ground in the beginning of 

spring, the leaves of which have a sour taste. Used 

as an astringent medicine (abuj, L. p. 75). 

abakh-waren ^qT| - ^t^-st i ^ftjf^rf: adj. e.g. 

ignorant, clumsy, muddling. 
abal ■^of'Sf I f^^'^r: adj. e.g. without strength, weak. 

-won", f. -wun" -•^, -^-^ \ ^f^^bm: not 

at its full strength (of a disease, hatred, etc.) and 
hence easily subjugated. 

abala-won", f. -wiin" •^^^-^, -^ i ^tt**!!- 

^'W., '%T^V^'^(\^Sl', just under manhood or womanhood, 
a child nearly arrived at puberty ; weakened by illness 
or the like. 
Obul" ^^^ I ^^B^-: m. (cf. Obuj'), a certain plant 
growing in damp soil, with a long- shaped leaf sour to 
the taste ; Rumcx acutits (E\.). Cf. aibij. 

aibalad or bbalad ^w^, ^T^'^i^ I ^^^: adj. e.g. 

abHakh ^R^^ l ^iffflTr: adj. e.g. untamed (of animals) ; 

uncivilized (of men). 
abiman ^f^JJT'i: I ^W'sbt?;: m. pride, vanity. 
aba-mond" ^^-^gi!^ I nn^^-PTT^Tn: a thick round flat 

cake, made of parched rice-flour and baked in an oven. 
abbn", see abyonn". 
abeiier ^^^r^ l ■?lfH3?n m. absence of difference, 


abanz°r" ^S^ i ^f^>TW:, ^f^^rf: adj. (f. -nz"r" 

-|l'^)j (of an inheritance) not divided, not sold for 
a division of the proceeds. 
obur 1 or ab^r l ■^^ , ^^ l ^>f ^J?^ m. mica, talc. 

obura-chhal ^jx;-w^ i ^'^^^is^'l, f- a piece of 

mica. -dor" -^T^ I ^»f^Tai^q^liT^»i: f- a side- 
door ornamented with mica, usually the door of 
a winter bathroom -han 1, hana 1 -^1^, 
-^TT I ^»?^5r^: f. a small piece of mica or 
a pinch of powdered mica. -kagiir" -^TPTf- I 
^*f «61^f%^ f • a portable brazier (' hdngn ') ornamented 
with mica, -mocer -fcjTll^^ I ^^J^^^RJTl^ m. thin- 
ness like that of a leaf of mica. -mond" 1 -^R^ I 
'^Tffl^^IT'^eB'^^ m. a thick lump of mica not easily split 

For words beginning with e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi respectiyely, and for words beginning with n, a, .see under wu, wu respectively. 


lur 2 ^wk: 

I — 

abizeth -^f^g^rq; 

into leaves, -mond" -ipf^ I ^^JtBTSfJ^ f. a thick 
slab of mica as it issues from the mine, -maye 
-J{TH I ^»f^%^: m. a starch mixed with mica applied 
by washermen to clothes in order to give them a 'finish'. 

-moy 1, -moya i -?g^ , -isc^j i ^ww^iJi; f . a little 

mica, -tilim -f?rf^^ I ^J^cfiT^T!^: f. a small strip of 
mica, -warukh -^^^ l '^H^ofitj-^ m. a leaf of mica. 
-watun -^^"l t ^^^H'^^'^ m. a long strip of mica. 
-zol'^ -5ft^ I ^*Jefi3rra«li't^ m. a pattern formed in 
strips, or particles, of mica. 
obiir 2 or ab^r 2 "^Tf^, '^^ jl i ^^: m. a cloud. 

obura - obxir" ^t - ^^Bj^ I f^K'riTfl^rsfT^tJi^ 

f. clouds overcasting the sky. -gacer -1'^'^ I 
-flTf^«?rH m. darkness caused by clouds, -gash -^nw I 
-■R^TIi: m. illumination given by white clouds (e.g. 
a road lightened at night by them). -gata -1Z I 
^^s^efiT'^: f. darkness (at night) caused by clouds, 
-got" -TJ I ^'CTT'^aBTT' If- darkness (in the daytime) 
caused by clouds. -han 2 or hana 2 "WT.. 
f»TT I -^ir: f- very thin or slight cloud, -lambukh 
-^^ I ■^f{T^'v5^<?T^: m. a long, heavy, terrifying 
cloud. -mal -J?T^ I -?n'5fT f- clouds scattered in 
lines, like a garland, -mond'^ 2 -1^ I "^fTT^^^fl^^- 
tlTfT:, 111. a large heavy rain-cloud. -moy 2 or 

-moya 2 -m^ , -jgr^T i -^^: f • a slight cloud, a 

few clouds, -ring -ft^T I ■^fa^'^fl^: f. a very light 
or slight cloud. -ferot"^ -^^ I fl^i^"'!^:, ni. an 
isolated circular patch of thick cloud in a clear skj'. 
-bhay WT^ ' -^lyi f- the shade cast by a cloud. 
-zal -^^ I -3JT??J^ m. a network of light clouds 
(prognosticating neither absence of heat nor of rain). 
aVrastal'S^T^ flounder a cloud (YZ. 165, 288). 
abri-bari "?rftw - Wlf^ I ^'Rt^Ic^T;'^ "'Iv., with extreme 
haste, hurriudly. 

abrok" "^rw^ i '^I'nffT: ndj. (f. abriic'' "VWf), that 

which has not been crushed, or which is so hard that 
it has not been bitten in two. 

ab*rtin ^A^'i; i wrf^>if^: conj. 2 (1 p.p. ab^r'^ ^^; 

2 p.p. ab^ryov ■^w^t^), to cloud up. 
ab^rawun •^^■^T^i; I %^f^»h^: conj. 2 (1 p.p. 

ab^row"^ ^Ttf - p-p- ab^ravyov ^t;!^?^^), 

the same as ab^nin, q.v. 
abas ^^^^ >-i-i-^ ' ^*rt'*d m- vanity, an absurdity, 

profitlessness ; an impropriety. As adv., in vain, 

uselessly (Siv. 590). 
abose ^^1% l ^^^^'JI'^^ m. throwing up in the air (as 

a kill, etc.). 
abbs' ^RT'^ f- a certain plant, the Marvel of Peru, 

Mirabilig jahpa (Persian gul-k 'abbas). Its seeds are 

used medicinally as an astringent (abasi, L. p. 75). 

-posh -1^^^ I TT'^f^^^: m. the flower of this plant. 
-ranga -^T I ^TZ^TII- ^<^i- eg- having the colour of 
the 3Iirabilifs jdlapa, light red. 
abasi-abasi ^l^ftj-'^Rftr l ^TTIT»1; adv. again and 
again, or on each limb (u. w. vbs. signifying ' to beat ' 
and the like). 

abasun "S^wsi, I W^^ST^l conj. 1 (1 p.p. abos" ^^g; 

2 p.p. abasyov ■^^^^), to twist thread, cord, 

or rope. 
abasun" ^»^^ I fl'g^S'T'in^*!; m. a machine for twisting 

abasun ^rrr^l l ■^*r7?T»J3fl[ m. invisibility. 

abasawun ^siwht^t, i ^hisf^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. abasow" 

^^^f ), iq- abasun, q.v. 
abasawun" ^«n«^sT i ^♦n«»n'T: adj. (f. -wiin" -4"^), 


abashun '^WTIT'^ I ■^^WrTW'T m. not .speaking, silence. 

abi-tabi ^f^-rrf% l •?rf\li<TT1ir^^"nc: adv. with in- 
decision, irresolutely, hesitatingly, shilly-shally. 

abaw 1 ^in^ l ^HT^: ™- non-existence of anything 
(whether it has previously existed or not) ; rarity, 
difficulty of obtainment ; impossibility. 

abaw 2 '^!RT^ I '^IT^T- ™- want of respect, disrespect. 

abawath ^^7^^ i ^^^: f. the same as abaw l, q.v. 

abawoz" ^^T^ai i '^i-Or^sfi: adj. (f. -wuz" -^f), not 

nice, not dainty, not pleasing (of food). 

abyuch" '^^^ I tif^t f^^^ adv. (u. w. vbs. of 

receiving or of giving) without asking, unsolicited. 

abyonn", abyon" w^ I '^I^TW: adj. (f. ab6n" ^^), 

not different, identical. 
ab'ybr" ^^^ir^ l ■^fir^^Trj^'l^: f. a time of excessive 

rain or snow, so great as to make the roads impassable. 
abyas '^=!IT^ I ^«rra: ni. habitual practice, repeated 

exercise ; application (cf. Gr.M.). 

aboz" ^451 , see abod". 

aboz" '^Rf I ^fT^T^tifi: adj. (f. abiiz" ^^^), first 

cooked in water, and afterwards not fried in oil, 

Ohl, or the like. 
abuz" ^^ I ^^if^fi: adj. (f. abuz'* ^%)' (°* grain) 

not parched, raw. 
abazun ^^5l«l^ l ^ttT^ m. a worthless fellow, one 

without virtue, wealth, or knowledge, owing to his 

habits being opposed to good conduct. 
abazyun" 'V^w^ I #fm^Tf?fT: adj. (f. -zin" -f?!^), 

the same as aboz", q.v. 
abizeth ^(^atJ^J l ^:g'^t%%q: m. the constellation or 
lunar asterism known in Sanskrit as abhijit; the 
name of a certain muhurta or period of forty-eight 
minutes commencing twenty-four minutes before and 
ending twenty-four minutes after midday ; (popularly) 

For words be^nning witli e, i, I, see (indfr ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, il, see under wu, wii respectively. 

ace ^^ 

8 — 

ach' 1 ^1^ 

a certain i/orja, or conjunction, occurring every day, 
but known only to professed students of the yoga 
philosophy, during which any work can be performed 
by simply calling it to mind ; hence, if any work is 
accomplished immediately on its being undertaken, it 
is compared to work done in such a yoga. 

ace "^sr^, sec Ut". 

See '?lt^, see bt". 

ach^ 1 ^'^ I ''Slf^ f- an eye (of men or animals). 

ache-dor" ^isr-^Tf; I tngit%^T f- a child's doll. 

ach'-dod" '^j^-^^- 1 ir^<tT: m. disease of the eye. 
-dbd'-put^ -^1(^-4^ I T'^ft'nrf^^T f- a bandage for 
a sore eye. -dod'lad -^t^^«[ I ^■^T^'f^ adj .e.g. afflicted 
with eye disease. — din^ ^'^^^ ' l^fS^TI^i; f- to cast 
the evil eye upon anyone, -dara -\T. I '^'^flf'^^WT; 
m. the condition or state of having unwinking eyes. 

-daras lagane -^t^ ^Tst I ^^^frf^^^fr>il»n^: 

f. pi. inf. to be in a state of having unwinking eyes 
(as when at the point of death, or when insensible). 
-gul" -^^ I ^t^^^^RH; ni. the eyeball. -gash 
-irnr l ^'^'H^ir* ™- the light of the eye ; hence, met., 
a darling son ; a darling, -hax -^ I M'^^t^ ^^^ 
f. warfare of the eyes, interchange of menacing or 
spiteful glances. — kadufi" — W^"^ f.inf., to pluck 

out the eyes (K.Pr. 175). -kada achh*-kad -?ira 

■^^-•R^ I %'^^^T^r^ adv. as it were tearing each 
other's eyes out (of the attitude of opponents in 
a quarrel), -khokhur -<|f^^ I '^rf^^f^JT; m. (pi. 
nora. -khokhar -^^'^), the socket of the eye. 
-kon" -€tM^ I '^'wr ^li: adj. (f. -kbn^ -^>T^)' 
one-eyed, -kon" pach'-kon" -^5 'T^-^g I 

jft^lT^'^ ftf^l^fs: ni. unfairness in distributing food 
at a meal (as if the distribution were one-eyed). 
— kuriin" — ^^ l if^^^^^f »l f.inf. to pluck out 
the eye (as a punishment, or in a quarrel). -kitur" 
-t^jra^ I ^f^^W^- ™- a thorn in the eye ; an ulcer 
in the eyeball ; any hated person or thing. -kyon'* 
-'ESrj I t¥S%^: adj. (f. -kbn^ -^^), having watery 
or running eyes. — lagun* — ^I^I f. inf. to be closed 
(of the eyes), to sleep, doze ; to te turned up (of the 
eyes) ; to gaze upon anyone. Cf. K.Pr. 102. -lagay 
-wll^l^ 1 'I'^^^fi; f. a combat of the ej^es (inwhich the eyes 
are the only weapons employed), -lal -^^ I ^'T^f'l^T 
ra. the pupil of the eye. -myul" -'g^ I %W^^^T: 
m. meeting of the eyes, mutual glances, intimacy. 

-melun" -^^i^ I ^"^^^i: f. id. -nbth -sifs i m^iji 

*i"SllM«l*l I f- (pi- -nbta -''n'^), a wink, a sign with the 
eyes ; pi. mutual warnings conveyed by the eyes. 
■nyuk° -^ I ^i31%^: adj. (f. -nic^ -ff^), having 
small eyes. -phokh -■gi^ I ^f^^T'SR. m. an 

intimation or warning by the eye. -pheraiie 
-^T^ I ^f^^HT^t^'^am: change of character 
from good to bad (lit. changes of eye), -phorane 
-<4i\<H I %'f^^TW'^ f-pl- throbbing or twitching of 
the eyeball or eyelid. In the case of a man throbbing 
of the right eye is a sign of luck ; in the case of 
a woman, of the left eye. -phatafie -tjra'Sf I 
■^f^^gi^ilf^ bursting or extrusion of the eye- 
balls from disease ; intent gazing along the road in 
expectation of the coming of a beloved, whose arrival 

is delayed, -phatawane -x?rrz^"5T i flfl^'^«TTT!rfTr?n- 

^''C^TH: fruitless gazing along the road for 
ii beloved who comes not. -phyor" -"Rir^ I '^jf^t^^: 
m. a spot on the eyelid, either permanent and naturally, 
or temporary, whether caused by disease (e.g. a sty) 
or not. -phynr" -^rg^ I ■•^rf^qfr^^l'l m- turning 
up the eyes, hence haughtiness shown to those to whom 
reverence is due, begotten by the sudden acquisition of 
wealth; arrogance, -pur'^ -^^ I '^f^^fJT ni. filling 
of the eyes, hence perfect prosperity (commonly used 
in blessings or good wishes). Cf. K.Pr. 84. -parda 
-V[S I %-4I^T^"TJ1^ m. an eyelid ; any veil for shading 
the eye; a film over the eye (as in cataract). 

-pranth -m^ I ^m^: f. (sg. dat. -prbnfe" -"ffi^), the 

outer corner of the eye. -rawane -TT^'^T I ^^IT^: eye-losses, hence the mutual conduct of two 
persons who were once friends, but have now quarrelled. 

■rawarane -■?j^i;-5i i ^-^^rnTfJi; fpl- an action or 

other cause which leads to friends quarrelling. 
-thyur'^ -^pi I ^Nf^^'itz: m. an ulcer on the 
eyeball. -tal^ yun'^ -B^ ^J I %^Hf^#qftT: m.inf. 
to be satisfied, to be surprised at a pleasant but 
unexpected discovery, -tal^ yiwawun" -?ft5 t^^^J I 
^^Hfft^^nT^ fj adj. (f. -wiin" -W^), causing 
satisfaction. -tembane -W'^'f I %'^ -si VJ 51711 
eager lockings of the eyes, covetousness. -tembar 
-<UJ<("< I f^fTTT^I- cataract (the disease). 

-tembor" -wts(% \ f^ifflT'^'i^ adj. (f. -tembiir'' 

-3n4^), afflicted with cataract, -tbr^ -TT^ I 'f'^trs^ the eyelids, -troparane -"^'TT^ I 'sf^f^Tt^: the tight shutting of the eyes caused by 
possession by a demon, or by the pain of smallpox or 
the like. -tovarUn" -■^^•^oT f.inf. to put on 
a terrifying look, to look fierce (K.Pr. 26). -tlth 
-Tt3 I '^t^f'Tfl^: I f. winking of the eyes, -feembor" 

-■>4Jfc(^ I ^^ft'Ti^'^: adj. (f. -bembur'' ^?4^), 

possessing ugly eyes, which are small, dull, roimd, 
and without eyelashes (cf. feembur"). -febr^ -^t^^ I 
^T^TTnf^I^% the bony part of the eye- 
sockets, -wafehar -'^WT l ^f^f%^^: m. the wide 

For words beginning with e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yl respectively, and for words begiuning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively 

ach' 2 ^^ 

— 9 — 

acor" ^^^ 

opening of the eyes ; liberality, a charitable disposition. 
■wafeha ta gashe-rafeha -^^ <T Tnr-TW I 

■^f^t^eRT^ f'T'^^Tir''T eyes with no light in 
them even when wide open, as one blind from birth. 
-vyoth" -^1 1 ^^r^: adj. (f. -veth^ Mj), large- 
eyed. — yun" — ■gg I ^"^rrffT: m.inf., to be satisfied ; 
(lit.) to enter into (and fill) the eyes, -yiwawun" 
-f^^^ I ^f^^^RTfr W adj. (f. -wun" -^), that 
which satisfies. 

achen-boche ^M«i;-^16I l ij-^-^g^ f. eye-hunger, 
a fictitious desire begotten at the sight of food when, 
owing to illness, etc., one is unable to eat. -pace 
-■R^ I ■^Srf^'^T: f-pl. arrogance, being puffed up, 
putting on side, treating persons deserving respect with 
contempt on account of one's own promotion, etc. 

-pace-phyur" -n^^r-^g^ i ^^^t: ^z (^>fR) ^m O («<H 
m. change of character (for the worse), -tresh -^^ I 
il-=(fl««Ul f. eye-thirst ; desire for any particular object 
looked at, a greedy eye ; the same as achen-boche. 

ach' 2 ^^, see och°. 

achi ^f^, etc., see ocb". 

bch ^T^ I TTtr^TT: I m. a result, consequence. 

och" ^Il| I ■^T2«lffirT^f%^^: m. a kind of perforated 
frying-pan for parching singara nuts. 

ach'-gor" ■^t^f-'iY^ l Hf^Jf^fTZ^ili^ m. parched 
singara nuts. 

6ch° ^t^ I rtlsmT^^l^i,^*?: ra. the string of the 
grass sandals commonly worn in Kashmir. acM 
gafehun ^Tfw TWI I ^f rnirrfF: m.inf. to be 
reduced to poverty ; achi gomot" ^tIw 'ft'ig I 
TTTTT^^I perf. part. (f. — gomiife" — an^l' ), reduced 
to poverty. 

achibal, see aehawal. 

ach'dah '^^^Tf bjfl l ^Stir^: m. a boa-constrictor. 

ach6kov" ^f^ I ^sj^iTtfri: adj. (f. -kiiv" -sRf^), 

unwashed, dirty (of clothes, etc.). 

achol" 'SR^gr i ^'gif^iTr: adj. (f. achuj" ^^^), dirty, 

unwashed (of clothes), achali-buthi ^l|f^-^'ftr I 
*l'3^1wl«t t^TT adv. without having washed the mouth 
(as before eating, etc.). 

achul" ^f g I ^T^T'iI^in^f^^Tf^'T: adj. (f. achul" 

^^^), unshelled, unhusked (of peas, beans, and the 

achSmb" ^|^3| I ^^rf^cT: adj. (f. achbmb" ^f 1^), 

unshaken out (of grain when threshed by beating the 
achdn" ^^^ l ^^T: adj. (f. achSn*' ^f ^). "ot reduced, 

achon" ^wtj i ^??^<t: adj. (f. acbbn" ^^T^), not 
sifted, unsifted, unstrained (of flour, etc.). 


achin-tray ^fl5«T:-^ l TlTIV!H(fV?n fHf^'. f. the name 
of a festival occurring on the third of the light half 
of the month of Vaisitkha (Wahekh), and held in com- 
memoration of Sesa-niiga, the great world- serpent. 
Kilshmlrls believe that it is on this date that snakes 
get their eyesight. 

acha-posh ^n^qtiei^ l Jtqf^^^: m. a certain plant 
growing in barren soil and flowering in the early 
spring. Its flower is described as small-petalled, 
white, and very sweet-scented. 

achar ^HTIf^ I ^'^*^ adj. e.g. wonderful, strange. 

achor" ^fi^ I '^ifirtwH: adj. (f. acli"r^ '^^), un- 
taught, untrained (of a child or animal). 
achur '^^ i ^^T1 "i- (p'- °om. achar ^^t. 

of. apor"), a letter of the alphabet, achar-boch" 
•?I^X;-^?5 I ^^T^*rf^<T: m. hungry for letters, one 
who, after much study, forgets letters, or who at the 
time of writing misspells a word. achara pat 
achara ^RWT ^fl '^B^T. adv. literatim. 
achar-wal ■^^■^-■gri^ l ^oERcm: ra- a very small 
quantity (used with verbs of giving or taking). 

achirwal ^rflf^f'^r^ i tr^ m. the eyelashes (achawal, 
L. 460). achirwal-tus^ ^l^^^^-^tj^ ' i^WTl^^T 

*T'T?TfH the motion of the eyelashes, when 
threatening anyone or when frowning. 
achlth "^ll^^ I ^^ffs: adj. e.g. (as subst., m. sg. dat. 
achltas ^lf\z^), possessing the evil eye, jealous. 

achov" 1 ^^f I '^ijq^^: adj. (f. achov" 'ssri^Tf ), 

unused, never used, not used (on account of loss, 
death, etc.). 

acbov" 2 ^^f I ■^^^T^^a?: adj. (f. achbv" "^i^Tf ), 

not well cooked, partly cooked, badly cooked. 
achawal ^^in^^^^ l '^■g^T'5I"n^ ^TT»1 m. the name 
of a place in Kashmir, in Kotahiira pargana, much 
visited on account of its natural beauty. The spring 
at Achawal is the largest in Kashmir. The bath, 
reservoir, and garden were constructed by the emperor 
Shiih Jahan, after whom the place to this day is 
called by the Musalmiins 'Siihibabiid' (El.). Vulgarly 
pronounced achibal (K.Pr. 280). 

ach3niv" ^^f I f^m^: adj. (f. achiv" ^f^f ), not 

passionate (of human beings or animals). 
OC%ar ^^^i; l ^t^«fiTT: m- assent, agreement, promise. 

acukov" '^ig^f I ^f%WTf^fifl^nt^: adj. (f. -kbv^ 
-qira), of undetermined value; (of a tale or statement) 
not proven. 

Icar '^^T^ 1 5ff^^^ m. pickles, -not'* -^5 1 ^t«mgw: 

m. a pickle jar (cf. K.Pr. 12). 
acor" ^^^ I ^^T^¥: adj. (f. acbr^ '?I^T^), not tightly 
tied, not tightly strung (e.g. a rope bed). 

For words beginiuDg with e, i, I, sec under ye, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning with u, ft, see under wu, wft respectively. 

acov" '^Nt^ 

— lo- 

ad ^^ 

ac6v» wtf I ^xn1^?i: adj. (f. ac5v*^ ^^Tf^), (of 

a calf) not yet allowed to drink (from its mother) ; 
(of a cow) not yet milked. 

acyur" ^c^ i ^fMnftf^Ti: adj. (f. acir" ^r^^), not 

wrung out (of wet clothes and the like) . 
ad '^^ I ^\5*^; m. a half ; often signifying a portion, not 
exactly a half, and hence (in compounds) incomplete, 
imperfect ; with the suff. ah of the indefinite article, 
adah, a half (cf. K.Pr. 103). -ad 1 -^^ I ^^H^aJl halves, equal parts (u. w. vbs. of making, 
dividing, etc.). -ad 2 -'^^ I "^^ilT^Sir: adv. half-and- 
half, in halves, -buda -^^ I '^I^l': adj. e.g. nearly 
old, getting on in years (of animate creatures). 
-dob^ri -^tr I "^I^Slft 'jt^^^l adv. half-hidden (of 
treasure buried in the ground). -digar -fl^'r^ m. 
the time of sunset, sunset (K.Pr. 177). -dtilshari 
-^Wf^ I ^^'- M^M^^^igbi^T adv. half sorted out 
(of a collection of things) ; half carded (of cotton, wool, 
etc.). -han -^^^ f. dim. of ad, a little half, the 
half of a small quantity, or about half (K.Pr. 153). 

-khor" 1 -^^1 ^i^ftfiTfi: adj. (fem. -khbr" -lai^), 

weighing half a khar or kharwar (about 48 seers). 

-khor'^ 2 -'lY^ I ^ai^Ji^: adj. (f. -khor^ -'ai^), 

half raised ; hence very powerless, very weak (naturally 
or by disease), very puny, -khur" -l|^ I f^raTH^Tlf^^: 
adj. ("khur" -'^^), half or imperfectly afraid; hence 
timid, -khashe -^^ l ■^^^»1^«f adv. half-slaughtered, 
half-executed; hence at the point of death (of a 
criminal under execution), -khew -'^I^ I ^^^i; 
adj. e.g. having emaciated limbs ; wanting a limb, 
maimed (by accident) or having lost a limb through 
disease or from birth. Lit. half-devoured, -koj" 
-?jtf( m. a certain time ; half-way to the morning meal, 
about 2^ hours after sunrise (K.Pr. 176). -labur" 
-^3^ I ■^\5'HW!i: adj. (f. -labiir'^ -^rr4^), half sloping ; 
hence moderately uneven, up and down. Cf. ada- 

labur'^ below, -mahanyuv" -Tfgg I '^'erg^: m. 

half a man (of a man whose body is lean from illness 
or undeveloped, or of a woman who exhibits the 
qualities or virtues of a man) . -mola -^^ I ■^^JT^»T 
adv. at half price, -monje -J^ I f^fgsJIsTJT^si 
adv. at a reduced price, very cheaply, -naner - laT^ I 
■^^WTtirW^ 'h. half-light (as of an obscured sun or 
moon) ; the half-telling of a secret, -rath -JJ^ I 
^•n5^J^, '?1>5t'I"^ m- and f. (sg. dat. m. -ratan, 
f. -rbis"), m. half a night ; f. midnight (cf. K.Pr. 176). 

Cf. aje rofe" under od". -ratan -Trfl«i: i ^^tt^ 
adv. at midnight, -ratan-bog^ -TTiTl-^TtTl or -ratan- 
bbgin -Tmi:-iirrt^«i: l TTT^^StT^^T^ adv. at about 
midnight, -ratas -TTfl^ I ^^TT% adv. at midnight. 

-ratas-bbgi -TT7ra:-^it^ or -ratas-bbgin -Tra^- 

^t'll I "Jrra1VTT'^^T% adv. at about midnight. 
-shehol" -^ff I ?I^T5tflTt^^?'f^^*ITT: m. (in the 
hot season) the cool of the afternoon, when the shadows 
are lengthening and a breeze springs up. Cf. ada- 

shehol'^ below, -shehalen -irf^t I •^^T^1S^^ 

adv. in the cool of the afternoon, -shehalen-bbg' 
-^f^«l,-^Tt^ or -shehalen-bbgin -^Tf^'i-^f'l'^ I 
■RT^ V^ ^X^% adv. about the time of the cool of the 
afternoon, -sor" -€t^ I ^^^jtwa: adj. (f. -SOr'^ 
-^^), half collected (of things gradually brought 
from one place and deposited in another). Cf. ada- 

sor^ below, -sare-mad-sare -^^-»i^-flT^ I 

TlfflTTTT fTfa^nsi: a collection of things 
purchased (such as fish, etc.), each of which is not 
very large or very small, averaging about half a seer. 
-Isari -'3TfT I ''B^tn^T^W adv. merely in a half- 
cooked condition, -wara -^'^ I ^^^W: adj. e.g. half- 
old, oldish, middle-aged (of human beings). 

ada-6m" ^^-^j i ^y^?T: adj. (f. -bm" -'^T^), 

half-raw, half-cooked (usually of fruit cakes and the 

like), -brok" -^ I ^^aif|7T: adj. (f. -briic" -wf ), 

half-disintegrated, of tough food in the process of 
chewing or of things being ground on a stone or 
pounded in a mortar. In women's abuse also applied 
to another woman. -buz" -^5> I ^^STf^fTt adj. 
(f. -buz" -W3| ), half- roasted or half -parched, im- 
perfectly roasted or parched. -chon" "^3 I 
■^^JT^i: adj. (f. -chbfi." -^T"^). balf or imperfectly 
sifted (of meal, flour, etc.). -chof^ -WJ I '^V^W: adj. 
(f. -chiife" -?Pt^), half-white, white here and there, 
partly white (e.g. a cow) ; of a dirty-white colour, 
not of a pure white, -chov" 1 -iftf I ^^S^fTTT^WTt 
adj. (f. -chbv"-e^T^ ),balf-cooked, imperfectly cooked. 

-chov" 2 -^1 I ^>jfwif: adj. (f. -chbv^ -^Ti;), 

half-used, of something lost or spoilt before it is used 
up or worn out. -cyur" -'^;|^ I ^^'f«l'«^^t%f^: adj. 
(f. -cir^ -^^), half or improperly squeezed, not 
properly wrung out (as wet clothes) ; not thoroughly 
split (as a beam of wood, by a saw), -dod" -^^ 1 
^I^^J^: adj. (f. -diiz" -^31 ), half- burnt, not entirely 
consumed ; half-burnt, burnt onl^' in jjarts. -dodor" 
-1[^ I ^^S^J^: adj. (f. -dodur" -^^), half-decayed ; 
half- worm-eaten. -dog" -^J I '^^^tTlri: adj. (f. 
-diij" 1 -^^ ), half or imperfectly pounded on a stone 
or in a mortar (of grain and the like), -dokh" -'^^ I 
^vtVTT: adj. (f. -duch" -^^), having half or an 
imperfect support (of some article which would over- 
balance without a support or which is on an uneven 
surface) ; something which is not securely resting 

For words beginning with S, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 

ad ^^ 


ad ^T 

against another firm object, -dol" -^^ I ^^^f^ITi: 
adj. (f. -diij^ 2 -^^ ), lialf or imperfectly crushed 
or husked (of grain in a mortar) ; (in carpentry, of 
a board) imperfectly smoothed down by working with 
an adze or the like, -dong" -^ I '^^Wlt^^'^: m. 
groimd which is not perfectly level, and on which it is 
hence not safe to deposit anything round, or that over- 
balances easily. -dyug^^ -^5 I ^^H^Tf^^T: adj. 
(f. -dij* -^oj), insecure (commonly of an unsteady 
base or support). -dyoP -^^ I ^^StirT'T^: adj. 
(f. -dej** -^51), half loose, not properly steady (of 
something recpiiring a support) ; not properly bound 
(of a parcel or of a book, etc.). -dyong" -vSPT I 
^VIT^«f: adj. (f. -d6nj" -^51), not secmely based, 
resting insecurely on its base, or resting on an insecure 
or unsteady basis or foundation. -g»h" -ifW | ^M- 
i?IT^S: adj. (f. -g"sh'^ "1^)' imperfectly ground, not 
in a fine powder (of sandal-wood, knhkuma, and the 
like) ; imperfectly polished or worn smooth, -gor"^ -T^ I 
^V^lfgff: adj. (f. -gUr* -'i^), liiilf-made, imperfectly 
made, badly put together (e.g. a wooden or copper 
vessel, a pillar, or an ornament). -gOS" -^T^ I 
^>5f^iv\liri:, ^^«T^qir^3>H: adj. (f. -gus^ -i[9), 
not smoothly polished, -gashel -^HT^^ I '^Vlf^cTt 
adj. e.g. half -melted, half -worn (of the impression 
on a coin or tln^ like). -hokh" -^^ I ^V'^W: 
adj. (f. -hoch" -5W), half -dry (of fruit, etc., under 
the sun, or of a lake, river, etc.). -hol" -^^ I 
^>5ff3^: adj. (f. -hiij*' -f3|), slightly crooked (either 
of a thing or of a man's natiu-e). -hpt° -grt I 
■^^1%^: adj. (f. -hofe" -5^)> half -decayed, tainted, 
'high ' (of cooked food, fruit, etc.). -kachur^ ■«'n^'^ I 
•^^gifffi: adj. (f. -kachir** -^Tf^^), half or imper- 
fectly husked (of grain in a mortar, etc.). -kham 
-l|rr»i; I ^^imSi: adj. e.g. half -raw, imperfectly 
cooked. -kol" -^g I ^>5T^^fZ^T^ adj. (f. -kiij^ 
-eBfj ), imperfectly speaking, not speaking clearly, 
mumbling with the mouth lialf opened. -kanel 
-^T^^ I ■^T^TI'^^^: adj. e.g. half lying on one side, 
almost confined to bed, feeble, weak. -kor" -'Jt^ I 
■'H^irf^f!: adj. (f. -kbr" -^'^), half or imperfectly 
boiled (of milk, fjh'i, melted butter, etc.). -kos" -«Rt§ I 
^*jru>ri?T: adj. (f. -kos" -«fii^). lialf or imperfectly 
shaved ; shaved on one side and not on the other. 

-kbshur" -^^ i =9>5^x*ftfr^: i adj. (f. ■kbshir*' 

-^ifjj'^), half Ka.shmTrT (bom in Kashmir and brought 
up elsewhere) ; of articles, made elsewhere of Kashmiri 
.stuff; of language, Kashmiri mixed with foreign ex- 
pressions ; of cloth, etc., made partly of Kashmiri 
thread. -kayur" -^^ or -kayir" -^if**^ i 



^^»?^: adj. (f. -kajrir^ -^iTn^), half a pine-tree. 
The wood of this tree is very soft and easy to pierce ; 
hence, weak, powerless, unresisting, -labur"' -«1^ I 
U^liT^nr: adj. (f. -labur** -^"R^), half -rising, (of 
uneven ground) elevated here and depressed there. 

Cf. ad-labur'^ above, -ledor^ -^«(^ • ^V'i^fi: 

adj. (f. -lediir" -^^■^), slightly yellow (of the 
complexion) ; partly yellow, yellow in one place 
and not in another. -lyok'^ -^l^ I f^=fi5f: adj. 
(f. -lec" -^^), incomplete, imjierfect, not completed 
(Gr.Gr. 162).^ -lec^ kbm*^ -^srt^i 1%^^t f^m 
f. a work which is left incomplete, -mani -M^ half 
a maund of anything, hence a large quantity, a lot, as 
in K.Pr. 169. -mond" 1 -JT^ | ^'(5'nfl?:: adj. (f. 
-miind'' -flil^), half gruel- water ; any grain boiled in 
water, from which the water and scum are not poured 
off, the whole being served together, -mond" bata 
-??ri^ mi I ^f^fs^f^^lTt^TH; m. boiled rice so served, 
in a soft slimy state, -mond^ 2 -*T1f 1 ^^S'rf^ri: 
adj. (f. -mund" -'T''!?), not properly rubbed (of woollen 
clothes in the wash), -mor" -5Rt^ I ^VflTfXfi: adj. 
(f. -mbr* -'n^), half -killed, half -dead, -mur" -W^ I 
^\5t*1^H^^: adj. (f. -mur*^ -^^)' half -husked (of 
grain, etc.), half-shelled (of peas, etc.). -nyul" -•SFT I 
'S^fTfi: adj. (f. -nij" -'^%), half blue or green; (of 
grass, etc.) not thoroughly dried, -phol" -^^ I '^l^- 
^i^: adj. (f. -phiij'^ "^^)> lialf worn out, neither 
entirely new nor too old for wear (generally of clothes). 
-phoP -^^ I -■^>^^^f%fT: adj. (f. -phoj" -gi^), half- 
expanded (of flowers) ; half -blown ; half-opened in the 
morning (of flowers tliat close at night and open in 
the day), -phot^ --^ I ^^ff^W:, '^^^Tg: adj. (f. 
-phut" -"mz), half -split (of wood) ; incompletely sprung 
from the earth (of a seedling) ; half-expanded (of rice, 
etc., being boiled) ; not completely i^lunged in water, 
etc. ; not having reached full age, before one's time (of 
a man, tree, etc., dying or the like), -phyor" -MMI^s^ I 
^^^JTtf^ST'H: adj. (f. -phybr" -■R>Tt^), half -strained ; 
that from which the cooking water has not been 
thoroughly strained (of grain, vegetables, etc.) ; im- 
strained generally. -paj°r" -TT^^ I "^^^I(T: adj. 
(f. -paj^r** -^si^), half hemmed and felled ; (of 
clothes) hemmed together, but not finally felled, -pok" 
-■qt^i I 'il^^: adj. (f. -pbc*' -'^^). incompletely 
cooked. -pop" An I ^^qu: adj. (f. -pup" -'4^), 
half-ripe (of fruit, grain, etc.). -pron" -'R^ I '^T^^W: 
adj. (f. -priin'^ "'^)' imperfectly wliite (e.g. dirty 
clothes), imperfectly clear (e.g. water). -pr6n° -'Rtf I 
^^Jt^: adj. (f. -prbn" -irV^), half-old, neither new 
(or young) nor old. -shehol" -Tff^ I ■^l5lftfl'3i: adj. 

Kor wnrrU hesriiining witli e, i, I, fw under ye, yi, yi respectively, uad lor wcinls I) siimiii'; with u, a, see under wu, wu respectively. 

<; a 

ad ■^srs 


ada ^^ 

(f. -sheh''j'* -ITf f_), balf -cooled (of something tangible 
that has been hot). Cf. ad-shehol'' above, -shur^ 
-■^ I 'SB^^: adj. (f. -shir" -if^), half or im- 
perfectly repaired, -sor" -^^ I W^: ^^WT^^^"^- 
Wri: adj. (f. -Sbr^ -^T^). half -collected, not properly 
collected (iisuaUy of liarvest bundles not properly 
stacked) ; half-felt, half-touched. Cf. ad-s6r" above. 
-sur" -^ I ^srai^ftTTT: adj. (pi. dat. -soren -^Eft^'i: , 
f. sg. nom. -sur" -^, dat. -sore -¥t^), nearly spent, 
nearly exhausted, nearly used up. -SOV'^ -^^ I '^- 
int^: adj. (f. -SOV" -^^). (of a living creature) 
half caused to lie do\vn, half put to sleep ; (of a post 
or the like) half thrown down on the ground, -syon" 
-■^g I ^sfHT^^ja: adj. (f. -sSn^ -'^^)' half -softened, 
half tender (of vegetables, etc., in cooking) ; insufficiently 
salted or spiced (of the same), -syon" mada-syon" 
-^3??^--^gi ^*i«j3iq^ri: adj. (f. -sSn" mada-sen" 
-^^ fl^-'^"^), the same. ■syuv'^ -'^J I ^r^t%fi: 
adj. (f. -siv" -■ft^ ), (in cooking) half or imperfectly 
boiled or stewed ; (of birds, monkeys, or the like) half- 
domesticated, half-tamed, -thol" -^^ I '^T^WW^I^: 
adj. (f. -thuj'* -^51 ), having branches half or im- 
perfectly trimmed (of trees, creepers, etc.). -truk'' 
-■^^ I -^Hf^fT: adj. (f. -truc'^ -■^^), half -gnawed, half- 
chewed (of food, or of damage done by mice, etc.). 
-trosh" -|^ I ^^^5i: adj. (f. -trosh" -^\), balf- 

hard, hence (of parched grain) requiring chewing but 
eatable ; (of climbing plants and the like) partly dry, 
partly withered, -tov" -tftf I ^iJrlTf^fT'. adj. (f. -tov'' 
-rTTW ), half or imperfectly heated (either in the sun or 
by fire), of grain or of metal vessels, etc. -feom" -^Tl 
ijra-gx^; adj. (f. -■biim" -^h), half -dry, withered but 
not quite dry (of something which was once green and 
fresh), -feop" -'Stj I 1>5Ht^fi: adj. (f. -febp" -^\\), 
half-chewed, half-eaten (of something so tough that it 
cannot be swallowed, or of something, such as sugar- 
cane, which is chewed and then ejected from the 
mouth), -■feor" -'3t^ I '^jyS^^sj: adj. (f. -■fabr^ -^3T^), 
half-selected, hence not properly sorted, imperfectly 
sifted (of grain and the like), -feosh" -^^ I '^^m^: 
adj. (f. -tsbsh" -^to), half or partly astringent in 
taste; liaK bitter-salt (as sea- water), -bot" -^fZ I 
^>jf^^: adj. (f. -but" -^Z)> half -cut, hence (of 
a human being, tree, etc.) living only half his or its 
time, cut off before his time, dying in the prime of life. 
■tsyut" -^ I ^ff^: adj. (f. -feit'' -'^^), half or 
imperfectly pounded to powder (in a mortar or the like). 
-wahor" -^fr^ i ^rtfflTfzr!: adj. (f. -wahbr" -^fi^), 
half or imperfectly spread out (as clothes, straw, etc., 
to be dried in the sun), -wtin" -JJ I -^nS^^i: adj. 


.'.0 I 

(f. -wun" -T^T), half, imperfectly, or badly woven. 

-venor" -^r"^ i -^q^^a: adj. (f. -venur*^ -^H(^), 

half or imperfectly separated (especially of grass or 
vegetables from the husk or shell), -wushon" -^^^ I 
qi^t^: adj. (f. -wushiin" -^'^)> half -warm, luke- 
warm (either by nature or from the aj)plication of heat). 
-WOth" -^^ I ■^VJffTZ: adj. (f. -WUtsh" -'4^), half- 
open (of a door, etc.). -WUth'^ -^^^S I '^T^'^fgrT: adj. 
(f. -WUth** -53), half or imperfectly twisted (of ropes, 

etc.). -vefehon" -^wg i "^f^^TW: adj. (f. -vebhun" 
-5lf|"^), half-sejjarated ; (of cotton) half or imperfectly 
teased out ; (of literary compositions) half corrected or 
half explained. -WOZOl" -ff ^ I '^^^ tlf.' adj . (f . -wSzuj^ 
-^ajU), half red, light red ; partly red, red in parts. 

-zamot" -sJTTg I '^^rfwai^T;: adj. (f. -zamuts" 
-5n?Tg), (of seeds, etc.) half -sprouted, imperfectly 
sprouted, -zumot" -5f?iw I ^^^1^: adj. (f. -zumiib" 

-aUT^), lialf worn out; (of animate beings) thin, lean ; 
(of plants) half-dry, half-witliered ; (of creepers) half- 
dry, easily broken, flaccid ; (of clothes, etc.) worn thin, 
easily torn. -ZOV" -^f I •^^iffrTW: adj. (f. -zbv^ 
-gri^), lialf-born ; (of plants) half or improperly 
sprouted ; (of milk) not properly or entirely curdled ; 
(of a portable brazier or kdg'^r") not sliowing signs of 
fire, half -lighted. 
ada ^^ I <!<T: adv. then, thereafter, thereupon, therefore 
(both of time and of causality). Very common with 
interrogatives, in which case its use closely resembles 
that of the Hindi to, as in the following, -kor -^^ I 
»Tf^ «fif^pin^ adv. then where ? then in what dii'ection ? 
as if we were to say, " if it's not there, then where is 
it ? " i.e. " it's nowhere ". -kor-klin -^^-gist. I rrff 
^fWTi^i tbe same as ada-kor. -kora-kani -^T- 

"fif*! I (lf^ ^^JTiTT'trj: adv. then wlience ? -kus -^i^ I 
aff W. ( -kossa -iraf, inan. -kyah -^ilTf ), 
adj. pron. then who ? then what ? hence, then there is 
no one, or nothing ; (inanimate) what else, of course. 
-kus-sana -^^-^it I <Tf| W. IJ, the same as ada- 
kus. -kus ta ada-kas -gnj; ti •^^-^h; i tiff ?r: ^%, 
then who, and then to wliom ? i.e. there is no one 
(to give), and therefore no one to whom to give (or no 
one need expect anything), -kati -^fTT I <!ff grW, or 
-kati-sana -^nfn-'CriT 1 nfi ^'^ T^c{ adv. then where ? 
(used after a verb signifying 'to put', etc.). -kot" 
-^5 I ffff 5^, or -kot"-kTUl -^-^'i: I <\fi ^W^^ 
adv. then where ? then in what direction ? -kut" -^g I 

ciff fwmj^ (f. -kiife" -4^), or -kut"-sana -girj-^^n 1 

<Tff t^^T'i; f 5 adj. then how much ? -kiit^ -^j^ I 
rrff gif?T (f. -kUba -^^ or -kaifea -fi^), or 
-kUt*-sana -gi^-3FRT I Wft t^ni^ T^, then how 

For words beginning with e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and lor words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wfl respectively. 

^ ada ^^ 


66} ^t^ 

many? -ketha -^aw I rjff ^iTf^, or -ketha-sana 
-^qjra-HiT I «!t^'^^^ 1^, or -ketha-poth' -^^-T^it? I 
aff %i "HSRTTW, or -ketha-poth'-sana -'^jnr-T?T^- 
^TTT I <{f^ ^-T TI^I^T!! 15 adv. then how ? then in what 
manner ? -kotall -^rJTf I riff f^nm^ (f ■ -kaifcah 

-fi^f), or -kotah-sana -^aif-^iT I Hflf^i^fi^ 
adj. then how much? -kaityali -^WTf I rlfl fsR^^fi: 
(f. -kaitsah -^^Tf), or -kaityah-sana -§?arTf-^iT I 

flf^ f^^«a1' "TJ adj. then how many? -ktityun'^ 

■W^J <Tff l^^sTc^^rr^: (*r^:) (f. -kutiii" -^a^), 
or -kutyun^-sana -f^^-^'n I ffff f^^c^rwr^: adj. 

then consisting of how many ? then of what price ? 

-kawa -^!^ I rfff jfT:, or -kawa-sana -^^-^ir I 
nfi gifft 'IT*?, or -kawa-kani -gr^-^f^ 1 ({f^ ^sf 
'^TWT, or -kawa-kani-sana -^'^r-^f^-^'n I riff ^1 

^TT^I f^fl. adv. then for what reason ? then why ? 
-kyah-6 -mif( I <lf^ t^ »fr: adv. then what, sir ? 
i.e. here it is, do j'ou want anything else ? what else ? 
of course. -kyuth^ -^ I rflf ^\^: (f. -kifeh" 
-f^), or -kyuth"-sana -^-^'!T I fiff ^f^ ^g 

adj. then of what kind ? 

ada is also frequently employed with verbs ex- 
pressing propriety or necessity, and is then equivalent 

to the Hindi to. Thus, ada gotsh" tot" gafehun" 

^^ ^ i^ Tl|g I fiff ^7^ <\-^ TSB^JRl^ci;, then it 
is proper to go there, in that case you should go there. 

— lagitatibihun"— ^f?! aftT f^^^ I fTfi: ^TH fT^T- 

■f^fl^, then (in that case) it is proper to settle there. 

— pazi tati dapiin" — xrfgr rrf^ ^55 1 fi?ft i^izf 7^ 
Wfh'H*i, then (in that case) it is proper to tell (it) 

ada combined with vocative particles often expresses 
simply ' yes ', and wth an interrogative adverb simply 
' no ', in the sense of agreeing or refusing to do some- 
thing that one has been asked to do. Thus, ada 
(ada + a) ^i[T I ^^ adv. yes (addressed to an 
inferior), ado (ada -f 6) ^^ I "^^ adv. yes, that's 
right (addressed to an inferior who is at a distance). 
ada-ba '^^-^T 1 ^r^ »1^: adv. yes (in addressing a male 
of equal rank). -bin" -f^^ I '^^ 'ft: adv. good, 
yes (in addressing a female of equal rank), -kati 
-^t^ I •iff adv. then where ? hence, in the sense of a 
negative, ' no.' -SO -?IT I ^^ 'H^'. adv. good; yes, sir 
(respectfully addressed to a male). -kya -^JTT I 
^r^ adv. good, yes (addressed to a person present), 
of course, -kya-ba -^T-^ I flff f^ Ht: adv. 
good, yes (addressed by a woman to a man, or by 
a man to an equal), -kya-bin" -WF-f^"^ I rfH f^ 
^ff^I adv. good, yes (addressed by a man to a woman 
of equal rank). -kya-sb -WI-^T I <lff f^ 'ft: adv. 


good, yes (used respectfully by a man), aday ^^Tl | 
^I^ adv. good ; yes (used in answer to an inferior or 
younger woman). 
ada 2 ^^ I •^Wtf^ (for ada l see ad), bones, 
especially those of the forearm and of the shin. -BUT 
-^■^ I '^f^H^ m. bone-ashes ; a severe beating, which 
(metaphorically) reduces the bones to powder. 
■trakor'i -^^ I ^-ytTTf^JiTi; adj. (f. -trakur" 

-■^eB'^^), having hard or strong bones (especially those 
of the forearm and shin) ; (of a woman) one whose 
foreann or shin-bones are so hard that they do not 
easily allow bracelets, etc., to be put upon them, 
ada ^^, see ad. 

adau-a ^^V'^ I '^^T: ni. the name of the letter a. 
ade or adye ^rra adj. e.g. first, primeval (Siv. 7). 
adi ^f5[, a beginning, in adi-karan '?nf^-«RTT:«l. I 

T^^Ttm ni. a first cause. 
od" ^^ I ^: adj. (sg. dat. adis '^f^; f. nom. iid" 
■^^, sg. dat. aje '^(^), half, halved; a part, odu-y 
^^^, only half, hence incomplete, as in puth' cheh 
iid^-y M^ Wf ^^^' ^^^^ book is quite incomplete. 
adi-pbri ^f^-xrrfx: I ^«1^'fl'TT»T adv. (u. w. a vb. 
signifying arrival, etc.), lit. at half a side or direction; 
hence, very near. ud"-har '^I^-fT'^ I ^^JT^f^T!!^ 
f. half a cowry ; a thing of the size or value of half 
a cowry, -mun'* -W^ I ^^ilT^I^I, f • a certain measure 
of weight, half a niiiii" ; a thing weighing half a iiiiin". 
A milu" of 30 pals is equivalent to a seer and a half. 
An M"-muff' is therefore tliree-quarters of a seer or 
15 pals, equivalent to 60 tolas. It approximates 1| 
English pounds. 

aje hari-hond" -^m frfT-f^ i '^^f^iW^fl;^: 

(gen. of iid"-har, above), of half a cowry, worth only 
half a cowry, worth nothing, contemptible. — rofe" 
— xi^ I ^^Sk;!^ adv. (sg. dat. of M" ratb ^^^■^T«r, 

cf. ad-rath ■^^-TT^ under ad), at midnight, ^ofe"- 

bbg' — TT^-^^, ov — rbfe^-bbgin — T"br-^l«i:i 

'IIT^i>^^T^^% adv. at about midnight. — wati 
— ^ftf I ■^'^^ adv. (sg. dat. of iid" wath M^ ^^, half 
a road), at half-way (to or from a place) (after a verb 
of resting, etc.). — wati-peth. — ^f?I-tSI3 I ^^JTT^^l 

at half-way, having reached half-way (lie did so and so), 

e.g. aje wati-peth trowim bor" "^m ^f?i-^3 ''^'^ 

^5, half-way (on the journey) he tlirew away his 
load, ajiy wati ^si^ ^ft[ I ^"tlTT^ vyf adv. (for 
aje -1- y wati '^m + ^ ^), even at half-way, 
exactly half-way. 

bdi ^rrt^ or bdidi ^f?[t5[ , bdith wrf^ 1 ^^ ^^7i 

^T% adv. to-day in past time, in the part of to-day 
that has already expired, -nan -Mi;, -nas -1^ I 

For words beginning with S, i, I, see untlev ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words begiuuing witli u, ii, see under wu, vi rcspettively. 

od' #t^ 

- 1^ 

adin "V^^ 

■^^rT5lf^5r?ITrfoRT#, adv. the same as od'. -petha 
-■BI3 I '^^fI'rf^^fftf1^^T^T«I adv. (continued, etc.) 
from the expired part of to-day. -shutun -"^^^ I 
■^^fTfRIfftrf^^Tf^yf?! adv. the same as od'-petha. 
bdi-y '?rrf^-'«l^ l ^tw 1fl^T% adv. in tlie part that 
has expired of this very day. bdyuk" ^TT^ I 
^^TT'lf^'l^nT^H^^si: adj. (f. bdic^ ^'Tf^^), of, or 
helongiiig to, tlie expired part of to-day. 
bd' ^f tl[ I "^tSR f . a dust-storm ; hhndness caused by 
a dust-storm, darkness ; the metajihorical blindness 
caused by terror, eiTor, or the like. 

bdic** ^if^^, bdikis ^if^f^Pa;, «ee bdyuk". 

adda ^^ l ^WTfl^TIf^ m- a shed or place where men 
and cattle assemble, or where articles are collected for 
sale ; a stand, a station, a meeting-jilace ; a lounging- 
place for idlers. 

adod"^ ^^ I "^JIVC. adj. (f. adiiz" ^^5t),not burnt 
(whether tliis is a defect or a perfection). 

bdid' ^'if^^ I ^^H'lr^'l^TfT^t adv., i.q. bdS q.v. 

adog" ^^5 I ^f fi:, ^'nf ri: adj. (f. adiij" 1 ^^^), not 

struck, not liit (by a blow of the tist or a hurled 
missile) ; not pounded (on a stone or in a mortar) (of 
spices, food, etc.). 

adbg" ^i-if I ^l^llfT^e!: adj. (f. adoj" ^^), not 
husked (as of paddy in a mortar). 

ad'-hyol" ■^^-fr^f I ^^raw: m- a square coin of the 
value of half a pice ; the Hindi adheh'i. Formerly in 
Kaslmiir articles of small value were purchased with 
cowries. Twelve cowries were called a bahagaii 
^^tjj'g^ ; twenty-five were called a pfilshuh ^W^ ! 
fifty or half a hundred were called ad'-hyol" '^t^- 
^^; a hundred was called a hath f^, and was 
considered the equivalent of one pice. In the rural 
parts of the country a pice is still called hath. Cf. 
bahagan, and ET.Tr. ii, 312. 

adij« ^fg^ I ^f^ f. a bone (cf. K.Pr. 173, 226). Tliis is 
tlie general term, cf . ada and adyul". It is the feminine 
form of the latter, adiji-khokhur ^f%f^-TiTfi5^ | 
^r*S(M^T: ni. a skeleton ; a main bone of a complete 
skeleton, -panzul'^ -XT^^ I ^t^nn^^^T m. a skeleton ; 
a li\ing skeleton (of one who is very lean). -trangUT" 
-■^5^ I ^rf%*l«j^: m. a string of connected bones 
(compared to a knotted string, or a rosary). 

adoj** '^i^, see adog^. 

adiij'^ ^^W, see adog" and adol". 

adokh" ^^^ I wtiT^?;f?fT: adj. (f. adiich" wk%), 

having no support, of an article which will over- 
balance or roll away unless it has a support. 
adikar '?nt^^T'[ l ^V^X: m- power, capabiUty ; office, 
rank, position (Si v. 36). 



I adikbri wf^^TTt l "^t^^T^ m. a person in charge of 
I any th lag or ha^4ng power over it (Gr.M.). 
ad*l ^W^ J^i I f^TFT- 111. justice, a just decision (used 
principally by old-fashioned people of the rural jiarts or 
by women). 
bdil JjU adj. e.g. just, upright, sincere (Gr.M.). 
adol" ^^ I ^f^^iq: adj. (f. aduj"2 ^^),not torn, not 
sliredded (of spices, such as ginger in a mortar) ; not 
crushed (as of paddy, etc., in a mortar) ; (in carpentry, 
of a board) not smoothed (with an adxe, the native 
substitute for a jilane). 

adol" ^Tt^ I ^qfT^f^<T: adj. (f. adbj" ^^^), not 

removed, that of which the position is not changed, 
not put aside; not cleansed (of barley, etc., by a 
mnnowing sieve) ; not removed (of a disagreeable 
odala 'iR^T^ I ^^"^T f. disregard, contempt, disdain. 

adal-badal ^^^-w^^, adal-wadal '^^^-^^^j or 

adal-ta-wadal ^^W-TT-^^W I xrfT^^li; ni. ex- 
change, interchange, substitution ; as adj. e.g., con- 
fused, of a contrnry dispo.sition, K.Pr. 2, 102. 
— dyiin'' — ^5 I ■qf\;wp5 ^TIJ^; m.inf. to exchange. 
— wanun — "^^^ l '^^Tg^m^^^ m.inf. to make an 
incorrect statement in conversation ; to give incorrect 

adilis ^f5f%^ etc., see adyul^. 

adalat' '^^T^t^ l 5?n^Vl'?i: m. one who presides in 

a com-t of justice ; a judge. 
adalath ^^M^ c:J1jl= I ^ff\^-, fT|^ '^ f- (sg. abl. 
adaliife" ^^T^^ ), justice, the decision in a law case ; 
a court of justice (the building). 

adal-wadal ^^^r-^^^ i "^^mHiji riT^S'ni; f. abusive 

language, attacking abusively. See also adal-badal. 
adam ^^J^ I "^J^J??: adj. e.g. low, mean, vile. 

adorn" -^jr i '^r'anf^n: adj. (f. adiim*' ^^), not 

given enough air (of a furnace supplied with air by 

a bellows). 
adam-zad ■^^T^-SI^ I ■^SI^JIT'^ adv. very little, used 

regarding the partial return of something deposited. 
adan 1 ^^^^ I ^^fvi: m. a jieriod, time, term, limit of 

adan 2 ^i^i;, in adanuk*^ C^^?f • '^Tf^i'^^O m- 

(f. adaniic*^ ^^l'^), a first-born child of a woman. 
-boj" -^t^r I ^T^WIHT ni. a brother-friend (used of 
two men who from- childhood have grown up together 
as brothers, but are not brothers by blood), -yar 
-'?IT'^ I ^l^^^T ni. one who has been a friend from 
adin ^^^t. I 'R^i: adj. e.g. depending on, subject to, 
under another's power ; poverty-stricken. 

Kor wonls licf;imiiii^' witli e, i, I, see uiuler ye, yi, yi respoctivelj-, and IVir w.irds l)c<riiinin!r with u, u, sre under wu, wu ivspectively. 

adun ^^»r 

15 — 

adwaith ^\^ 

adun •^^'T, I ifiifiT, ^^fjT^ffr: conj. 3 (2 p.p. adyov 
^g^jt^ ) , to become lialf ; hence, to become lean or 
wasted (from sickness or old age) ; to persevere, be 
intent on the attainment of some difficult object. 

adun" ^f;^ l^^f^f rj: adj. (f. aduii" ^^i^^), not carded 
(of cotton, wool, etc.). 

ad^naw ^ii^ ( = ljjl) I "^ffa^"^: adj. e.g. vile, 

mean, of vile occupation. 
aden '^trgT^ I TTTI: f. the name of a well-known 
village about 30 miles west of Srlnagur. 

adin-gadin ■?rt%^-'rfs^ I m^^ f. goods and 

adon*ru-y ■^^T=r^ l t^^tj^r f^^^ adv. even without 

thought, without takiiig any consideration whatever 

(u. w. vbs. of taking and the like). 
adop" ^^3 I f%»IT «*'!|»i f^T^ Wl adv. without speaking ; 

without giving any order. 

ador" -^^ I w^: adj. (f. adiir" ^^^), not firm, not 

steadfast ; not firmly fixed ; not strong, weak ; (of 
rain) not incessant. 
ador" -^^ I f^l4^: adj. (f. adur*^ ■^^), not fearing, 
without fear, brave. 

ador" 1 ^«fr^ I fM^: adj. (f. ador^ ^^T^), without 

fortitude in adversity. 

ador" 2 ^^"t^ I '^^fT: adj. (f. adbr" ^^i^), not put, 

not placed (of any material thing, or of confidence, 

belief, etc.) ; not given on loan. 
adar '^^ I ^^T^ ni. honour, respect, -bav -«rR I 

?ff=|iTT' ni. respect shown by an inferior to a superior. 

-satkar -^«=liT^ l ^?ni«1'l m. honour, respect. 
adar ^s^T^ I '^>TR;: m- a support, prop ; a stop to 

prevent a ball rolling away. 
adtir" ^^^ I WtuTl'^uVtC f. an untidy or worn-out turban. 

odur" ■^^ I ■^■^: adj. (m. sg. dat. adaris, ag. ad^rS 
abl. adari, pi. nom. ad*r', dat. adaren ; f. ud"r^ 

^(^^, dat. ad^re, and so on), moist, wet, damp (either 
naturally or by the application of water). Cf. K.Pr. 18. 

-zen-hyuh" 5iR:-Wf i ^^flT;: adj. (f. ud"r"-zen- 

hish" '!f^^-^'T,-f^^T ), very wet (of mud and the like). 
ud"r"-khal -^^^-ti^^ I ^fffWirrf^WW; f • extreme 
insult, giving extreme dishonour, or (with reference to 
an inanimate object) consigning to destruction, iid^r"- 
ziit" ^i.'^-ir^ I ■^ST^ W^l5^^'a''^'l f • a wet rag ; an 
old rag used for wiping off sweat, for mopping up liquids, 
or the like. ad*ri-kani ^^fJC-5|it% I '^^5{^=*l !«!*(, (sg. 
dat. of iid^r'^), "for the moist articles," an expression 
used with reference to the price of sweetmeats sent by 
Kashmiri Brahmans as presents for their married 
daughters on various festivals. 
bdiir'' 1 ^T^^ l -4ll^<4i^ f • green ginger. 

odiir*' 2 ^T^^ I '^T^T'I'^'^ f ■ the name of one of the 

lunar mansions or asterisms. 
od"r"-bod*r* ^W^-^^ I f^^T^Jlfu^IWl f- a wrong 

mixing, a wrong uniting. 

adrakh "V^ I ■^T^*l m. (sg. dat. adrakas), green 

ginger (Ziiirjiber officinale), -mbnd" -J^ I ^BT^-T^TT 
f. a cake flavoured with ginger, the lumpy root of 
the ginger plant. 

ad*run "^^^i; l ^^»T^t»i: conj. 3 (2 p.p. ad^ryov 
^(^^^), to become moist (of something which has 
been dry). 

od"^ran ^rr^TI l fil^WT , ^T^: f- a mixing, mingling ; 
a commencement (of a work or of making sometlung). 

bd*run ^Vf^T. I ^ffl'^TO'!: conj. 1 (1 p.p. bd^r" ^i^^), 
to mix up together, to heap up ; to conniience, begin 
the making of anytliing. bd»r'^-mot" 'S'Tf^-'!^ I 

^tM^TTT:, ^T?;«i: perf. part. (f. bd"r"-mufc" ^^^- 

H'Sf), mixed, mingled; commenced. 

adorer ^^'^ or adorer ^W^T'^ i '^rr^^Ji; m. dampness, 

moistness, wetness. 
ad^rawun ^^f^TTfn. i ^T^^T^'l conj. 1 (I p.p. 

ad^row"; 2 p.p. ad^ravyov ^TT^^). to make 

moist or wet. 
bd*rawun ^t^TT^I i t^T^^TWl conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

bd^row" ^T^^t^), to mix (as flour \\ith water) ; to 

set a person to work ; to commence. bd*rO"W"-mot" 

^n^''C^5-'f? I firf^fT: perf. part. (bd*rbw"-mufc" 

^T^'^T^-?^^), mixed (of flour, etc., with liquids) ; set 
to work ; commenced. 

adath ^^n^^ cujl^ i ^'^rra: m- (sg- dat. adatas), 

custom, habit, practice (cf. K.Pr. 88; 138). 
bdith ^Tf^^ 1 ^51 TfT^Ti adv., i.q. bdS q.v. 
adav 1 ^^T^ 1 ^^: ni. hatred, malice, desire to injure. 
adav 2 ^^T^ 1 H^^l'rfwr^'lT^inT: ni. the wooden 

beams which support a large log when being sa^vn 

asunder (cf. ara 1). 

aduv'^ -^f^^ I ^^»n^: adj. (f. aduv*^ ^^^), not 

swept, not cleared (of a seat or the like). 

adaven ■^^gi'^^ l JTI'Slf^^: f- the name of a well- 
known pargana in the Maraz part of Kashmir, 
commonly called ' Adavin '. See RT.Tr. ii, 471. 

ad-w6y" ^-^^r or ad-wby' ■^sr^-'^t^ i f^iHT^^fir^: 

m. a broker in wheat and other grains. His wife is 

ad-wby'-bay ^5;-^^-^^. 

ad-wal ^-^^^ I tlf^ifZ^Tr'H^ m. the weight of 
2 tolas (about 1 ounce) ; literally half a wal, Skr. pala, 
which was equivalent to 1 dhatakaH. 

adwaith ^^ 1 ^^rtiTT??; m. (sg. dat. adwaitas 
■^lirl^), the admita or monistic Vcdanta philosophy 
(Siv. 26). 


For words beginning with 8, i, !, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wft respectively. 

ady ^^ 


— 16 

adye ^3i , see ade. 

ady ^1^ I ^rrf^ m. a beginning, commencemenT(Gr.M.). 

aday ^^. we ada. 

adoy 1 "^^ I H^Tflfi: adj- e.g. not distinct, not 
different (both of opinions and of things). 

adoy 2 ^5^ I Wm. m. knowledge. 

bdyuk" "^srh^ l ^^f^HTTHSr: subst. m. and adj. 
(f. bdic^ ■^Tf^^), subst. an agreement to maintain 
another's horse or cow for half the profits of its labour 
and for lialf its offspring ; adj. of an animal so kept. 

bdiki-dar -•^snt^fgR-^ I ^^JT'^f^T'Tsi'J^TTsr^rn:^: m. one 

who gives a liorse or cow on such terms to another for 

adyul" ^^J^ I TfTf^ m. (m. form or adij^ ^f^ 

q.v., cf. also ada ■?(^), a large bone, such as tliat of the 

leg ; generally used of the bone of limb rather than of 

the trunk; according to EL, the rounded head of a bone. 
adyuth" '^^J 1 '^'^f^fTJi; adv. without seeing, without 

ady ay tR^ITI I ^'Sni: "i- » chapter or section of 

a book. 
aduz^ ^^^ , see adod'^. 

0d"-zbd" ^Tf-IITf I fIT^*I»T(^1Tr^ f. quarrelling, 
including hitting each other and mutual abuse. 

afin u«-J^ f. the opium poppy, Papaver somm/eruw, L. 330. 

afsos, afsus i^y^\ interj. alas ! W. 101 ; afs5s larun, 
to become vexed, K.Pr. 153 ; yih chhuh bod" afsus, 
this is a great pity (Gr.M.). 

aftab t_;bjT m. the sun. Sg. dat. YZ. 176. 

ag ^T I ^BT'tlTlf^I 111- ^ knot in wood ; the knot in 
a tree. Cf. L. 461. aga-zyun" '^IT-S^J 1 ^rf?T?Tf^- 
^t^'^'iJi; m. firewood in which there are many knots. 

ag ^Ji in ag-bag "^T'l-^'i I m^qfr^^: , t^^x;: m. 

checking, careful examination. Cf. 6g^-b6g° '^J-'^J- 
aga '^»I Ul I ^TJi^ni. a master, lord, chief ; cf. K.Pr. 25. 

-bay -^T^ l ^rf'T'^ f. a master's wife, a mistress ; 

cf. K.Pr. 263. 
og" 1 ^^5 in agi lagun ^fai^jl,! '^J^lf^^ ^iTJlitS 

lI5»T?mTT'rtTrf^5^H^1»i; m.inf. to go forward 

with the object of self-destruction to meet a calamity 

(as if walking into fire), such as an approaching 

enemy, or to deliberately expose oneself to infection 

in an epidemic. 
Og" 2 ■^^ in og"-d6h ^J-^f I T(^tm<l ni- the first day 

of a lunar fortnight. 
Og'^-bog" ■^5-^"^5 1 ^Tmgftlfa^TTinT m. the same as 

ag-bag ; see under ag above. 
agad ^TTJ I ^jftf'WtT: adj. e.g. fathomless, very deep 

(of water) ; hence also, profoimd, earnest (of character). 

agadi gabhun %^^f^ ar^^ i ^3f<jwfTr: m.inf. to 



— ogun ^3?!: 

persevere steadily, to persist till one has gained one's 
object ; (f5H«*Kt!i sftVlt^Wn;:) to display causeless 
wTath against one who is mthout fault. 

agah ^TRf ( = »^^). adj. e.g. aware, acquainted (with), 
cognizant (of), apprised (of) ; compassionate (EL). 

ag'h" ^57| I '^Itrf^fi: adj. (f. ag"sh*' ^^r^), not ground, 
not reduced to a fine powder (of sandal-wood, kunkunia, 
and the like) ; not poKshed or worn smooth. 

agal ^»I^ I ^t^sr^m ^rfllTT adj. e.g. knotty (of wood). 
-magal -^Tl^ I lft*r'nilftHT'l adj. e.g. dirtied (said 
of sometliing itself pretty, but mixed up with foreign 
matter, such as straw or mud). 

agol" ^ift^ I ^ITflrJT: adj. (f. agbj" ^TT^), not molten, 
not melted, still unmelted, not reduced to a liquid form 
(usually of metals exposed to heat). 

agal-magal ^sri^-'TTT^ i ^srr^rtl^M: adj. e.g. the same 
as agal-magal, q.v., dirtied, etc. ; used specially of 
incorrect \vriting full of mistakes. Pandits apply the 
term to copies of MSS. made by Kiiyasths, which 
require much correction. 

ag^n ^^%, ag^na ^»isT, see ogun. 

agan ^1t I 'au^fjt!!: , Tl^fi^pifr 'n m. onefold ; a frac- 
tional part, or at most one, of anything, aganas- 
dogan '^I'R^-^I, I TI^JW^ ^^'Tl adv. twice the 
right amount (usually employed with verbs of giving 
or bringing). 

agun ^3T^ I ^fm; m. (sg. dat. Iganas ^f»If^, and 
so on), the angana or courtyard of a house; cf. L. 
459, angun. 

og^n •^Jji^ I ■^f^: m. (sg. dat. ag^nas '^'Ti^a; or 
agnas ^'to; (Siv. 124), abl. ag^na ^^f or agna 

^^, pi. uom. ag*n ^^'l., and so on), fire, generally 
appHed to flaming fire (as e.g. in K.Pr. 40). 

ag*na-k6nd "^iivi-in^ l ■^rf^gjTS^Jt m. a hole or 
enclosed space for the consecrated fire at a sacrifice. 
-kuth" -gij I ■^f^^t^:, ?T^^H^: m. the name of 
a particular muMrta, or moment, fixed for sacrificial 
purposes, -mokh -?W^ m. having Agni (the god of 
fire) in the mouth ; a title of the god Siva ; voc. he 

ag^na-mokha, Siv. 378. -manan -f{^^ I ^rf^^iT^- 
t%^^: f. a movable receptacle for consecrated fire, for 
use in a domestic fire-sacrifice, -pendav -WiJ^^ or 
-pend*' mikj l '^iftr^l^: f. a sacrificial altar, or piece of 
ground used as such, -prbpyun*^ -■HT''53 I ^f^MW^Hf^ 
m. the share of sacrificial food taken by the officiating 
priest, -tyok'^ -'asTf I ^t^fn^^fC m. (sg. dat. -tekis 
■aifqi^), a mark made on the forehead with ashes of 
a fire-sacrifice, -wat^r -^cT^ I ^t^it'^ f- a general 
name for all the articles offered in oblation at a fire- 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wn, wS respectively. 

ogon '^^'^ 


ahan ^^ 

ogon 'sY'^l, I ^^II' ni- defectiveness, absence of good 

Ogun" ^55 I H^JTJT: adj. (f. ugun" '^'i'^), onefold ; 

composed of a single strand, not twisted with other 

strands (of a rope, string, etc.). 
agond" ^»}Tif I ^^uf^f!: (f. agund" ^irxr^, dat. aganje 

^jjair), not tied up (of bundles and the like). 

agnas ^p^, ag*nas ^'i'!^, 



aganzor" ^ig^ I '^^^nrT: adj. (f. aganzV '^img^T^), 

uncounted, i.e. left uncounted (in counting). 

agar ^ipc or gar aj^^l,^ i ^arf^ , conj. if. 

agor ^'ftr ni- Aghora, not terrible, a euphemistic name 

of Siva (Siv. 48). 
agor" '^r^ l ^^f|?T: adj. (f. agiir*^ ^"i^), not worked, 

not smoothed oft', rough (of metal vessels or ornaments, 

earthen vessels, wooden pillars, and the like which are 

* worked ' by artificers). 
agor" ^aft^ l ■^if^: (f. agbr^ ^TT^), not searched 

for; hence also, forgotten (usually of persons). 

agur ^3^: in agara-kath ^it-^^ i "^J^-^^ , m. 


agur ^jp: I ■JTT^'^^ni'C m. (sg. dat. agaras ^TIT^. 
and so on), a place of origin or source (of a river, story, 
etc.), ef. K.Pr. 233. 

agarchi ^ii^ ''■^v^^ • ^raf'i conj. although. 

ogur"-thogur° "^ijr^-'ij^ i ^^J^n^nRf^^: (f. ogur^r 
thogur" iRin^-^^T^), having uneven members, ill- 
proportioned (of anything whether animate or 

agaste-posh ^»I^-tftlT l '^l^arg'OT'l na. the name of 
a certain plant described as blooming in the autumn, 
having a strong scent, with flowers of nearly every 
colour, and very useful as a medicine, probably Agasti 

agya ^T^T I ^^T f. an order, command ; permission ; 
a decision (of a judicial officer, etc.) ; (honorifically) a 
statement, proposition. — din" — ^^ f.inf. to give 
an order ; to decide (a case). — kuxiin'^ — 5pT^> 
f.inf. to make an order ; to make a proposition 
(honorific) (Gr.M.). 

agay ^1^ l iW^H<4»IH, f- the immediate appearance 
of something inquired after, information, cognizance. 

agyan ^UTt ni. ignorance, want of intelligence (Siv. 16). 

agaz jUT m. beginning, commencement (EL, Gr.M.). 

ah 1 ^^ , a suffix added to the nominative case singular 
of any noun, and giving the force of an indefinite 
article : thus, kalam-ah eR^r^rr?, an expression ; 
manah (mana + ah) ?T1T^, a prohibition. When 
a nominative singular ends in an aspirated consonant, 
the aspiration is retained even when not original. 


Thus, from murat, sg. nom. murath '^T.% murath- 

ah ^T^Tf , an imago. 
ah 2 Wf I ^^Ijs^f^^^: m. a sigh, a groan, an in- 
articulate sound uttered in illness, grief, etc. ; sg. gen. 

ahuk" (YZ. 494). — kadnn —W%^, m. to sigh (ib.). 
oh '^f I 'JJ^t%^^: m. an interjection, or cry, of sorrow 

or pain. 
ahi mf^, f. a prayer (El.) ; prob. i.q. bhi (q.v.). 
aho ^fY m. a deer (EL). 
ohi ^sHTfY I ^?fY: f. a blessing, -path -TTra I -'^if^: 

^ZM^C, ^»^T5I»m ni. the recital of a blessing ; an 

expression of politeness in greeting or leaving a friend 

(cf. K.Pr. 182). -wad -WT^, m. a blessing, with indef. 

suff. ah, ohi-wadah (spelt ahi") (K.Pr. 15). 
ohuda iX,^ ni. an appointment, post, office, rank (in the 

army), and so forth (Gr.M.). 
ahak ^f^? m. lime (L. 461). 
ahok" ^f ^ I ^^^r^J^ m. the central pin or pivot of 

a pair of millstones, round which the upper stone 

aha-kij' Wf-f^t?' ' f^rr^^'R^^^'l. f- the pin of a 

plough from which the yoke is suspended or to which 

it is tied. 

ahal '^TfTW, ra. in ahal gafehun ^f T^ Tf ^ i 

^ftTf^<ft*r^'I1 . m.inf. to be skilful in any work, to 
be well practised in 'anything, to know how to do 

ahalu ^?^, m. mistletoe (Viscum album) (EL). It 
attaches itseLf to the walnut-tree, and its berries are 
said to be the favourite fruit of the bxdbid (L. 81). 

ahalakar ^I^JaI m. an official, a Government officer 

ahalun ^?^ I »nTT»T. conj. 1 (1 p.p. ahol" %^, 
2 p.p. ahajyov ^B^'lfl'W), to agree to any action. 

ahalawun" ^f^'Rj I ^flT«fi»i:, m. (f. ahalawun* 
^^^T^'3^), one who causes anotlier to agree to any 

ah*l-mar ■^f^-?n: l ll^^lf^'il^: m. the name of a 
quarter of the town of Srinagar, situated on the east 
bank of the River Jeldam (Veth), said to be the site of 
Ahalya's matha or hut. Hence its name. 

aham '^^?^, thou earnest to me {dkh -\- am) (YZ. 138, 
250, 262), .see yun". 

aham-bavi ^TTfT-^T^, adj. e.g. selfish (EL). 

ahan '?rr?»l, interj. of respect (Gr.Gr. 101) and adv. 
of assent, employed in the following compounds : — 
ahano 'SR'lf 'ft l ^TQlfff adv. yes, used when ad- 
dressing a male of equal or lower rank ; it is an 
expression of doubtful assent, ahanu ^If <? | ^firfir 
adv. yes, addressed to a junior male of rank equal to 

For words beginning with 9, i, I, see under yS, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, i, see under wn, wfl respectively. 

oh-noj" '^f-'rr^ 

— 18 



the speaker, -ba -TT I "^tf^ »ft: adv. yes, addressed 
to an equal or superior male, -bin" -I^T^ I '^t Hf'rf'T 
adv. yes, addressed to an equal or superior female. 
-mbi" -»!T3r l ^t ^la: adv. yes, addressed to a superior 
or very senior female. -SO -^ I "^ »ft: adv. yes, 
used by a m.ale to a superior or senior male, as in -SO 

karan ha-sb chub -^ ^tti. f ht i|f I ^t ^\: 

«fif1^ *ft; yes, sir, he is doing it. abanuv "^ITf J^ I 
'irrfflfTT adv. yes, addressed to a male equal or inferior 
in rank, ahaniy ■^Tf f'!'^ I ^Tfflf?T adv. yes, addressed 
to a woman inferior or equal in rank. 
6h-nbj" '^Yf-TTW I 11^1%^^: f-pl- the two pipes in the 
throat, the windpipe and the gullet, both of which are 
considered by uneducated natives as conve3dng food to 
the stomach, as Avell as for breathing. Cf. bh'-riind". 

6b-nbj"n gafebun -^f -Wr^'T TffT^ i fttrrtrif'iT'CWR 

m. to go the wrong way (of food, when swallowing). 

abankar ^^KIT l ^i^T: m. pride, vanity, overweening 
or insolent behaviour, whether due to wealth, know- 
ledge, or family ; the conceit of individuality, belief in 
the independent existence of the ego (Siv. 125, 336). 

ahankbri ■^f^f^ l ^f^Tt adj. e.g. proud, conceited, 

abar '^TfT^ m. food. — karun — =Ji^»l, m.inf. to eat 
(with dat. of obj. §iv. 4). 

abor" ^^ I ■'B^^fVf: m. the examination of a portion 
of a crop in order to determine the amount of the 
whole ; appraisement of a crop. — kadun — ^i^'t. I 
'Praff'T'^^II'i; m.inf. to calculate the probable result 
of any work by examining a portion of it at its 
commencement ; skilfulness in such appraisement. 

abur" ^r^ I ^Trf?i^: adj. (f. abur^ ■«^^), not 
returned (of a debt, or anything lent) ; (figuratively) 
of a child not yet recovered from smallpox or other 
similar disease. 

ab*r-bal ■^^•^-■sr^ l ^^f^^'^: m. the name of a well- 
known district and waterfall in Kashmir, where the 
River VCshau (or Visoka) issues from the Kons'r Nag 
lake on the north side of the Pir Pantsal range. 

ah*nin ^^^ i 3iTgi^?q»^ conj. 3 (2 p.p. ab^ryov 
^f^^), to be distraught from fear, sorrow, or the 
like ; also, to show extreme obstinacy. 

bb'-riind'^ ^it^-Tf I f. the clavicle or collar-bone. Cf. 

ab»ranyo-mot" -^^XTsft-^m I ^^^Hri: adj. (f. 
-ranye-miife^ -T;^-?}^), one who has become hard or 
obstinate by perversity or change of nature. 

abar-tbabar ^f^-^f^ i *n»n!i*c m. the causing of 
a person to be confused or agitated by terrifying him, 
or the like. 


ob"ryund" "^g^ I f^iN^ adv. a short way off (u.w. 

vbs. of putting and the Hke). -pahan -'T^T'l^ I I^WtT- 

■?n f^t^^ adv. id. 
abi-sar ^ff -^ I ^m: m. a curse, imprecation, especially 

an imprecation uttered by one in extreme trouble. 

^f^T^T'^ ^ f sa;ydng ' yes and no ', assenting and 
dissenting, indecision, hemming and hawing ; the 
groaning of a sick person, or any imitation of it. 
Cf. tib^b-ptife^b. 
abyof^ ^?l^5 I ^fffl: adj. (f. abeb" ^isi^), unfriendly, 
acting in opposition to anyone. 

aje ^m, aji 1 ^f%, ajiy ^f^r^, see od'^. 

aji 2 ^f^ or az ^aj I •^^r adv. to-day (W. 95), see az. 

aj^da Ujfl m. a boa-constrictor (El.). 

ajiia '^w, i-a- agya, q.v. 

ajiian ^'^Ti:, iq- agyan, q.v. 

ajer ^3t<< l ^^S^^'t ni. the condition of half -ness ; hence, 

maimedness, the condition of wanting limbs or members ; 

also, leanness of the body. 
ajor" ^ai^ I '^^ff^'flt adj. (f. ajlir^ ■^^^), plain, not 

jewelled, not set, not mounted (of ornaments, etc.). 
bjbr^ ^1 ^ 1 ^ I mfl^T^ the lower orders, common 

people, -mbjbr* -?TT%Tt5^ ' ^^sTttw^it:, ^^ii^'n ^^ the lower orders, common people ; poor people ; 
peojile of lower caste. 

ajes ^5g^ i JWm m. the name of a village in the Liir 
Pargana of Kashmir, situated near the River Jehlam 

ajwain, see the following : — 

ajwend ^^n^ i ^^rft^, ^t^ftrf%^^: f. a -svild plant 
gro^ving on the mountains, the fruit of which is 
used as medicine for indigestion. Tlie same as the 
Hindi ajwdn {Carum Coptictim). L. 330, 346, calls it 

ajiy ^f3i^, see od". 

bjiz js^U adj. e.g. poor, helpless. 

aka Isl one of the speUings of akbab in the Persian 
character (W. 34). See under akb. 

aki ^t?fi' aki ^f^, akis ^^rf^R^, see akb. 

ok"^ 1 "^^ I n^^: m. card. (dat. akis ^t^ ; gen. ak^- 
sond"^ ^t^-^^ or akyuk'^ ^*i^ ; ag. ak' ^t?R ; f^^^- 
aki '^f^ ; but these forms are usually referred, not to 
ok" W^ but to akb '^Ti, q.v.), one, one only, a single 
one. This word appears mostly in compounds. The 
usual word for ' one ' is akb, which has borrowed all 
its cases except the nominative. Hence, for compoimds 
beginning with ak* '^^ or aki ^f^ see under akb. 
The present article deals only with those com- 
poimds which commence with ok" W^- -ok"-wari 


For words beginning with e, i, 5, see under ye, yi, yi respectiTely, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wH respectiTely. 



— 19 — 

akh ^i| 

-■^fi-TTfT; I Il#^li: adv. singly, one by one. -bor" 1 
-^ I Tl^^T<<I«j: adj. (f. -bur'^ -'5[^), where there is 
room for only one foot (of a road or the like), -bor" 2 
-^ I TJ^i^T' (f- -biir^ -■^^)> possessing only one 
door (of a house, etc.). -dol" -^5T I Tr^WTV; ^f^<!: m. 
grain or the Uke which has been pounded only once in 
a husking mortar, or wliich is imperfectly husked. 
-dandor" ■^^;^ i n^^fz^: adj. (f. -dandiir*' 

-^"^^), having only one edge, as a cooking-pot, or 

a sword, -dandarel -■(^j?^*}^ i UcR^fz^n^ e.g. 

a thing, like a cooking-pot, or a sword, which has only 
one edge, -dor'^ -^^ I TI^H^?[TT: adj. (f. -dor* 
-^1^), possessing only one side- or back-door (of 
houses, etc.). The feminine is diminutive (of huts, 
etc.). -kol" -^^ I H^^rrf^^: m. one who eats 
food only once a day, whether on certain holy days, 
or on account of a vow, or on account of sickness. 
-kauel -^■31^ I "?lfrlf«l<|^: adj. e.g. very weak, 
having no strength, as possessing only one rib. 
-kosh'lad -^^5515 ' Tl^qWT^THT: adj. e.g. one 
who would suffer from one day's fasting, either 
owing to want of food, or on account of sickness. 
-lob'^ -^ I TI^qT^^: adj. (f. -liib" -^^)> having 
only one side or edge (not applied to living creatures). 
-labal -^^^ I Tf^nTT^ ^^ e.g. a thing which 
has only one side or edge (not applied to living- 
creatures), -lor" -^ I X!^<i'i3iw^: adj. (f. -liir*^ 
-^j^), a rope or string of one strand, -nor" -•f^ I 
H^^T^^: (f. -niir" -^^) or -narel -1^^ I 

H^'^T^JlT'l. e.g. having only one arm. -p6r" 
-■qt^ I H^qr^fT: adj. (f. -pbr'^ -qi^ ), on one side, 
one-sided (e.g. of a person sulfering from hemiplegia, 
of sitting on one side of a seat, of the motion of a 
carriage, or of a house supi)orted on one side). -pur° 
-q^ I T!^^^'n?i; adj. (f. -pur" -■q^), where there is 
room for only one foot (of a road, path, or bridge). 
-posh" -4^ I Tt^qZ^: adj. (f. -piish" -4^), ha\-ing 
only one roof, pent-roofed (of a house). The fern, is 
diminutive (of a hut), -ros" -^5 I Tl^T^: m- any- 
thing one - flavoured, as for instance food merely 
soaked for boiling, or fruits or medicinal herbs 
from which oidy one flavour can be extracted. 
-toh" -«ft| I Tl^^f : (f. -tosh" -^i{^'^J, single-fold, 
not of double thickness (of a bed-covering, wrapper, 
etc.), i.q. okMosh" below, -top" -cft^ I ll^i^- 
TTTriq 'JTf^'jr: adj. (f. -top" -^t^^), placed once in 
the sun or before a fire to dry. -tosh." -«i1^ I 
■H^T^^H; adj. (f. -tosh," -«nW ), single, not folded, of 
a cloth, etc. Of. ok"-t6h" above, -tasal -ZT?r^ I 
l{<^9jr<^4: adj. e.g. making the sound ' fas ' only 




once, i.e. going olf with a bang, like a gun, etc. -tov* 
-<i^J I H^^Tt fnf^a: adj. (f. -tbv" -TTT^), heated 
once in a fire. -feor" -wt^ 1 ^Wtf^^^: m. a small 
fixed or movable fire-place, large enough for one 
cooking vessel at a time, -"wor" -Wl^ I T!3R%S»lt adj. 
(f. -wbr" -^T^), having a single twist (of a rope or 
string), -wari ok"-wari -TtfT ^^-Trfr; i uli^: 
adv. one by one. -warish" -^fT^ I H^fi^q =!<<<* I f- 
a female child or animal one year old. -worshin 
-^Tf^s) I Tj^^if^^T f. a female or a crop, born or 
produced in the same year with something else referred 
to by the speaker ; of the same year, -zong" -51 J 
(f. -zung" -5j^) or -zangal -^1^, e.g., Tj^i^nff ^: 

possessing only one leg, of a Hving being, or of a tiling 
(bed, stool, etc.). 

okuy ^31^ , Uk"y ^^i^ , see under akh. 
ok" 2 ^^, in the following : -shur' -'VtT f-, or 
-shur" -It^ I ^^RTT^Tf^^^l in- the name of the 
sign Co employed in the >Saradu character for non- 
initial 0. -shewahay -n^f^ I '55ft^iT^T:t%^ f. 
the n^me of the sign €13. employed in the Sarada 
character for non- initial aii. -sangor -^'lY?^ I 
It^^T'^T^ ITT m. the name of the sign JIP" , put, 
in schools, at the commencement of the alphabet after 
the Sanskrit words Olil SVasti ^ ^1%) and before 
the syllables t% i'. It itself is read as ekam H^, 
and the whole auspicious formula is therefore oni 

svasti ekara siddham ^ ^f^ Xl^ fwt- 
ekbari, a wide kind of blanket made at Shupiyon in 

one breadth ; compare the dobari blanket made in 

two breadths sewn together (L. ^70). This word 

should probably be' spelt akhbari. 
akoch" ^^f I ^qiTt^a: adj. (f. akbch" •^^'^), not 

wished for. 
ekadanth X[qi^T5^ m. and N. of the elephant - god 

Ganesa, lit. one-tusked; voc. -danta -^«»f (Biv. 7). 
akh ^''^ I Tl^i^ , card. num. e.g. [in declension this verb 

takes the remaining cases from ok" '^^. Thus, 

dat. akis ^rf^ (Siv. 473) ; gen. ak'-sond" ^t?>-^ 
or (referring to something inanimate) akyuk" ^^^ ; 
ag. ak' ^^ ; abl. aki ^f^ (Siv. 64). These are all of 
common gender, and are used even in agreement with 
feminine nouns, as in akis khas kathi '^if^i^ Wm, 
^if^ to one special matter], one (Siv. 512, 543) ; (as an 
indefinite article) a, an (Siv. 509), a certain. Cf. 
akhah below. This adjective, when used as an 
indefinite article, often idiomatically follows the 
noun it qualifies, e.g. YZ. 140, Siv. 64, 97, and 
Gr.M. 1427. — ak^ kya nam akh — ^^ ^n 
TTJ^ 'WS , once one is one, the formula of multiplication 


For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning witli n, fl, see under wu, wu respectively. 

D 2 

akh ^^ 

— 20 — 

akhunz'' ^^g 

Cf. aki below. — akh — ^I^ l W^^ adj. e.g. all, all 
together (as in aU went together) ; each, one another 

(as ill akh akis madath karun ^^ ^f?R^ ^^ 
cR^«(, to help one another) ; adv. (W. 95), singly, one 
by one. -bari, see ekbari. — hor" — i^ I V^ ^^"K 
m. a pair, a couple (either animate or inanimate, but 
more usually inanimate). — hath — f ?f 1 11^ W^ m. 
one hundred, a hundred. — ^jora — WtT i^-- or — jur^ 
— 5r^ I 1J^ ^mn t a pair, a couple. (Although one 
of these words is masculine and the other is feminine, 
either may be employed without reference to the 
gender of the things composing the pair described.) 
— ta paniin" — 7T ^^i^ 1 ^f^^l^m f • one and my own ; 
hence extreme selfishness, allowing no one to stand in 
the way of one's own interest. — ta z^h karan — TT ^I^ 
^T»t. I ^f?T9|l VIH adv. doing one and two; hence, 
very quickly, at once. 

akhah ■^xjlTf I H^nT^ e.g. amounting to one, 
just one ; any one, some one ; (as an indefinite article) 
a, an, a certain, yus akhah '^I^'^iaTf , whoever. 
In the Persian character we often find this word 
spelt akah il^l (e.g. YZ. 263) or aka 1^1 (W. 34) ; 
K.Pr. spells it akha in 7 and akhah in 150. 
— khanda — ^''S^T I VT^ TI^'TT'W'l e.g. about one, 
nearly one. 

ak* kya nam ^t?R ^TT fF[, the formula used for 
one in multiiDlication, as in akh ak' kya nam akh 
^^ '^t^ ^T ^^K ^^ ' oii°<3 0^6 is one ; z^'h ak' 
kya nam z% ^f ■^t^'i ^T Tr*t ^f , twice one are 
two (Gr.Gr. 86). ^^ 

aki-aki '?lf^-'^fJR l TJ^^i^: adv. one by one. -cyali 
-■"Snl^ I <**<lHs(1WT adv. in some way, in an 
undetermined way. -cyali-aki -■^nf^-'^fsii I ^r?nf^- 
^«IfTr Ttsrr adv. in some way or other, in some 
manner or other (the second form is the more indefinite 
of the two), -doha -^1 1 V.^^ adv. on a certain day, 
once upon a time, -ddha-aki -^f -^foR I ^f^if^^^- 
f^f^ef% adv. on some day or other. -lati -«lfz I 
TJ.^^TT'^ adv. at one time ; once, -lati-aki -^rfz- 
■^fsR I ^^rtf^^^MT %^T?n'^ adv. at some time or 
other, -nata aki-lati -^ti '^sifqi-^fz i ^^tf^^^T^rm: 
adv. at some time or other, at some hour or other. 
-phiri -fiEfx; l H^f^^^ adv. at a certain time, once 
upon a time ; in one time, once, -phiri-aki -f'iifT-'^f^ I 
Tt<*l^''<*r<lif^t«irr% adv. at some time or other. 
-pari -XlTfx; l Tl^^^rt: adv. from (or on) one 
side of any country or thing ; cf . ok" por" M^ "^(W ■ 
-por' -trrt^ ' TI^^T^ adv. on (or from) one side 
of any country or thing; cf. ok" p6r" ^^'ft'^. 
-ranga -"t^ l H^TT^T^'JI adv. after one manner. 





-reta-aki -'^rr-^f^fi l Tl^fif^'int adv. in some month 

or other, -samaye-aki -^Jm-'ssif^ I H^W^M1%- 
c^TT^ adv. at some time or other, -warihe-aki -'^'fTlJ' 
-^fefi I ■5;^fw^t^f^l[^ adv. in some year or other. 

okuy ^f^ I H^ Vy( adj. (i.e. ok" + emphatic y) 
(m.abl. akiy^^f^^, Siv. 469, 471 ; f. uk"y ^^), 
only one. 

akiy-phiri ^t^-fqift I il^ii^Tfl^ ^^T?rm; adv. 

at only one jDarticular time, only once, -pbr' -'PT'^ I 
U^^^^ 'TT^ri: adv. on or from only one particular 
side, -lari -^fx; l H^m'^ HW adv. on one side 
only, -lari ta akiy shanda -^fx: H '^f^^^-in'^ i 

T?^^T^ tn^<T TfSfif^l^^VJT^ adv. only on one side 
and only on one piUow, a phrase used in imprecations, 
i.e. may you never turn in your bed, and may you 
never raise your head from the pUlow, equivalent 
to wishing a jjerson to die as soon as he goes to bed. 

akh 1 ^Ti^ I Ni^H ™- (sg- dat. akhas •^■ra^, and so 

on), a scar, the mark of a healed wound, or of 

akh 2 "^t^, thou camest, or (Siv. 81) he, belonging to 

them, came; see yun". 
8kh ^W I ^^r^: m. (sg. dat. okas ■^T^^fj; and so on), 

a numeral mark, 1, 2, 3, etc., especially made for 

purposes of identification. 
akah i^\ see akhah under akh. 
akhuj" '^r^^, see akhul". 
akhal '^srrer^ l f^^fi: adj. e.g. bearing a scar, marked 

with a scar. 

akhul" '^w I '?r?lTf2fi: adj. (f. akhuj" ^m^), 

unopened, not opened, not untied. 
akhon" 1 ^^5 1 ^^i^f^: adj. (f. akhiin" ^^^), 

undug, not dug. 

akhon" 2 ^^^ i ^^rf^TRTY^TTR: adj. (f. akhun" 

^;^3j), unclothed, naked. 
akhiin" ^^nw^ 1 ■^Wtfsi'fiT , f ■ a story of old times, a 

romantic legend, a historical romance, either ^vritten or 

okhun ■^^^ u^^^ 'gin'sn^: m. (sg. dat. akhunas 

^^1^, pi. dat. akhunan -^^lli:, YZ. 387), an 

dkhun, or Persian teacher ; a teacher of Persian, a 

Mussulman religious teacher, -bay -^T^ I '^mWT'T^I' 

f . the wife of such a teacher. 
okhung '^^'T I 1lJWt5>5»niTl'T: m- a disease (? an 

ache) affecting half of the head ; described as not 

occurring on either side of the head. 
akhenis ^»3rf*i^, see akhyon". 
akhunas ^T^^i^etc., see okhiin. 
akhiinz" ^i^g I fT^^t^^f^fi: adj. (f. akhunz" ^sf^g ), 

not plucked (of hair or feathers) ; that of which the 

For words beginning with S, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 

okhanbz" •^Wttsj 


akash ^wiv 

hair or feathers have not been plucked out (e.g. a fowl 

not prepared for cooking, or a beard, the hairs of which 

are plucked out by some ascetics). 
okhanbz^ ^'K'TT? I ^qT«rr^«^ f- the office or 

occupation of a teacher, see okliuil. 
akhir, bkhir^.=i.T, adv. at last (W. 95). 
akahar ^cfifi'^ i TT^^^It: m. a wrestHng arena. 
akhar^c^ '^^Tf I ^^r^ft^Ji: adj. (f. akliar"c*' ^r^-^^), 

imexpended, unspent (of money, etc.). 
akahot" ^^fg i ^M'isr: adj. (f. akahuts" ^^f^), 

very distressed, very depressed (owing to insults offered, 
loss of property, sickness of a dear one, or the like). 

bkhith iRTf^^ I ^"Bf^T m. (with reference to giving an 
account of any circumstance), the opposite state of the 
case, giving an untrue account, untruth ; generally used 
as an adverb, -mbkhith -?nf'i^ I -<l^rtIHI<<H ^dv. 
untruly, not exactly truthfully (with verbs of 
narration, etc.). 

akahaith ^^%Z I IJ^^f^: card. e.g. pi. sixty-one. 

akahaithyum'^ '^^l^ I Tt^i^fSfi'T: ord. (f. aka- 

haithim*^ ^^f f^), sixty-first. 
akh^tuy ^WJ^ I TT^H adv. moreover, rather. 
akhyon" ■^^j i ^»f^^f^: m. (sg. dat. akhenis 

■^^f*!^, and so on), lit. not eating, hence inability to 
enjoy or reap the benefit of what is one's own ; 
esp. an imprecation wishing that an enemy may incur 
this liability. 

akl Jib, f. inteUigenee, wisdom, understanding (K.Pr. 
10, 228). 

akal ■^qrra adj. e.g. timeless, eternal; as subst., N. of 
6iva (6iv^ 622). 

akol" ^^^ I ^^lf%^: adj. untimely. Used in the 
following compounds, akbl'-marun ■^^■('sr-'i^^ I 
■^rarr^ 'TXTU'I , m. an imtimely death, to die before one's 
time, a death during an epidemic of cholera or the like. 
akbl'-warshun •^^t%-'^3^ I ^^T«R'^'!R:m- untimely 
rain, rain which injures crops. akali-posll ^^rrf^- 
^llt I ^eirrat^^ S^^I'l na. flowers blooming out of 
season, e.g. a fresh bloom coming again immediately 
after the regular fruit has ripened ; hence a child bom 
imexpectedly to a woman late in life. 

akoljnin" ^gi^g I '^vj??^^^^: adj. (f. akSlin* 
^Blrf^^), of low family, belonging to one of the 
inferior Brahmanical gotras. 

akim'^ ^^, see akyum". 

akanb ^gi»rr I TJ^re^Tf^ff^r: m. the name of the 
symbol for the nvmiber one (1) in the Sarada character, 
in which it is represented by a small circle on the line, 
thus = 1, 0. = 10, and so on. 

akin-gom" '^gfi^-'frw l ^??Tr*T m. the name of a 


village in Kutahar Pargana, sacred to the goddess 

Sivii (Devi). See L. .'Jia, §iv. 112. 
akanamath ^c(i»iTr^ i Tj^«|^f?i: card. e.g. pi. ninety-one. 
akanamatyum" ^^^HT^ i Ti^^r^fTTrTT: ord. (f. 

akanamatim" ^sfisurt^^), ninety-first. 
akanandun ^srst^-t i ijeRf ^?^: m. (sg. dat. -nan- 

danas -•I«^T^), an alfcctionate term for an only son. 

akonz" ^jr^ i ^»if^tT: adj. (f. akunz" '^i^ ), 
unsinged, prepared for roasting, but not singed (of a 
plucked fowl, an animal's head, or the like). 

akar -^llqn^ i '?n^if7T: m. form, shape, appearance, the 
expression of the face. akara-gopHh 'ilT«inT-'^^ I 
^Sl^-^: adj. e.g. one who conceals the expression of 
his face, one who dissimulates. 

akar ^"t^T) ™- a confession, admission (cf. K.Pr. 14) ; 
an agreement ; a promise. — karun — ^T^'t. , to confess ; 
to agree to anything ; to promise, pledge one's word 

akor" '^^t^ I ^^mfsjfT: (f. akbr" ^^bt^), unboiled, 

(of liquids, such as milk, etc.). 

akur" -^^ I ^ftjf^^:, -^t^^^ ^ (f. akur^ '^^^). 

not loosened in the roots, not soft, stiff, hard, firm, as 
the roots of hair before being lathered for shaving ; 
from which the kernel has not been extracted (of 
walnuts and the like). 
bkar ■iH'tri m. a kind of heron peculiar to Kashmir 

okur'' '^35^ I ^"Wf^^^: m. the name of two villages, 
one in the Anatnag (Anantaniiga) and the other in 
the Liir (Lahara) Pargana of the VaUey of Kashmir. 

ok"ra-dukar ^^-^^ I ^iiSTr^mdTt^tfTfT: f- collapse 

omiig to the faU or withdrawal of a support, as in the 
case of the sudden withdrawal of an old man's stick, 
or the support on which a porter wearied of his burden 
is leaning. 

okur^-dukur'^ ^^-^gr^ I H^ ^m m. only one (used in 
the sense of ' there is only one ', ' only one can do 
it', and so on). 

akar-phu ^^-^ 1 '^^^Tf^^^: m. pride, self- 
importance, arrogance (of one raised to a high 
position or affluence). 

bkar-shbhi '^gr^-irrf^ 1 •^f?I'^: adj. e.g. of universally 
accepted purity (of a current coin or the like). 

akash ^^Tir 1 ^l^li: m. the sky, ether, firmament, 
atmosphere (Siv. 48, 200, 468, 501, 508). 

akashe-gang '^rt^btit-t^ or -ganga -^i^ 1 

^T<*I3J'I^'T f. the Ganges of the sky, the Milky Way. 
-gath -11^ I ^^SJ^lfti: f. (sg. dat. -guti" -ai^, and, 
so on), the power or act of going in the atmosphere 
(e.g. of birds, gods, or superhuman beings), -wbni 

For words begiuniug with e, i, i, see uuder ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with n, a, see under wu, wil respectively. 

akashith ^^iift^ 


all ^■^ 

-TRI' I ^«BTHTrW^ f- a voice from the air or from 
akashith ^^if^^ I H^T^T^fH: card. e.g. pi. eighty-one. 

akashityiim" ^^Tf^eg^ i ir^TTilfWflT: ord. (f. aka- 

shitim" ^^jraf\f(T^), eighty-first. 
akasatath ^^«cT^ I Tl^^Ff^: card. e.g. ph seventy-one. 
akasatatyum" ^^^tT^j i n^^irfflfTi: ord. (f. 

akasatatim*' '^r^'acrf^^), seventy-first. 
akof^ ^ff^ I ^fWW: (f- ak"fe" ^^^l,)' ^^t moistened, 

not wet. 

akof^ ^% I ^^fSff: adj. (f. akiifc^ '^%)> of cotton, 
wool, etc., unsjjun ; also spun or twisted hy hand, and 
not in a spinning-wheel. 

akatbjih ^^^ifiTf^ i Tj^r^'^Tftiifi; card. e.g. pi. 


akatbj^yum" ^^kTT^^^ I ti^r^^Tftn: ord. (f. 

akatbj'him" ^^fifTit^ffW), forty-first. 
akator'' ^^f^ I ^^fsajr: adj. (f. akatiir*^ ^^ri^), 

not cut in slices (of fruits, vegetables, gourds, and 
the Hke). 
akatr^h ■^^^ l IJ^N^rci; card. e.g. pi. thirty-one. 

akatr^hjnim'' ^^"^^^^ I Tl^fit^^: ord. (f. akatr^him" 

^^^ff^), thirty-first. 
akawuh •^^ir^f^ l Xr^f^^lf?T: card. e.g. pi. twenty-one. 

akawuhyum" ^'sfiJ^J i ^^f^ijfTtfTH: ord. (f. aka- 

"WTlhim" ^^^fflT), twenty-first. 
bkawan ^^qj^ft^ i -^jfjijifj^ f . an estimate, appraisement, 
valuation ; an inference as to results. 

akawanzah ^^i^Tf I Tl^qgiilci; card. e.g. pi. 


akawanzbhyum" ^^i^^TWJ i Tf^ttgr^TT?!: ord. (f. 
akawanzbhim" ^^^gifffl;^), fifty-first. 

akiy ^f^^, okuy ^^rgt^, "iik^y ^^^, ak3nik" 
"^^f^ > see akh. 

akyum'' ^^R I Tf^W- ord. (f. akim" ^f^BTT), first, 
first in order. 

al 1 ■^^ I gj^f. (pi. nom. ala l W^, K.Pr. 10), a pumpkin, 
gourd, squash, Cucurhita maxima (EL), Cucurbita Fejm 
(L. 346), cf. YZ. 404. 

ala-bar*g ^^-^t;3I I g?g\xi'^ m. a pumpkin leaf. 
-byol'^ -«?t^ I ■^'^^^m m. a pumpkin seed, -dokh^ 
-^^ I flt^ijl^ilT^: m. a trellis or hedge on which 
pumpkin vines are supported, -del -^^ i 7TJ^^«B 
m. the husk or rind of a pumpkin, -gador'^ -1^ I 
g*4ir<l%ti: m. a kind of gourd ; with the interior 
extracted, the outer shell is used by religious 
mendicants as a water-vessel (Siv. 593). -gadur" 
-T^^S^ I '^^^TT ^5RU^^fj?^ f . a small gourd used as a 
water-bottle, or for holding powder or the like, -hiit" 
'^^ I fl«^i: ^<»*<s|iis: f. pumpkin-wood : a piece 




of dried pumpkin flesh. A kind of hour-glass shaped 
gourd which ripens in the autumn and is skinned. 
It is then cut up and dried for eating in the winter, 
or used as a medicine, -hace walane -f^ TT^T^f I 
^TJ^TI^^^^R; f. pi. inf. to strip a gourd for the above 
purjiose ; hence, when a person is wearing a 
garment, to tear it from top to bottom, -khund" 
-^''^ I H^^ni' f- 3- piece or slice of a pumpkin. 
-kuk^r*^ -^i^''ll^ ! fTJ^^oR f • the hard outer rind of a 
jjimipkin. -kul'^ -^^ I H^^TrlT m. a pumpkin vine 
(cf. K.Pr. 9). -kuiis tula-kul^ ff^^ ^^-f^ • 
^SJT»Irff^>inf*I m. a mulberry-tree for a pumpkin 
vine ; hence, lengthening out a small affair by 
turning: truth into falsehood and falsehood into 
truth (e.g. in a court of justice, or in a matter of 
business), -kiind" -^'"I^ I gJ^^T^ f. the globular 
rind of a certain gourd, which when over-ripened in 
the autumn is extremely hard, -kaniij" -^•r^ I 
Hl^flj'ST f- the edible tendrils of a gourd vine. 
-kanoP -ofiT'ra' l fn^=rwt m. the branches of a 
gourd vine, -nov*^ -'I^ I »1'«J»JI<^H'^T!IH m. the 
festival of eating the first young pumpkins. An 
auspicious moment is selected in the summer, when 
the fruit first appears, -phal-har -tS^-^T^ I ^B 
Tn^iftWU^ m. eating food consisting only of cooked 
pieces of pumpkin, on fast days. -posh -tJ^IT I 
gj^xg^tqxqji; m. a pumpkin flower, -poshe-mond'^ 
-TftTT-'^^ I ^1^3^^^: m. spiced cakes of wheat 
flour and pounded pumpkin flowers, cooked in a sauce 
of ghi or oil. -poshe-mond'^ -tftlj-^^^ I gj^gm^^; 
f. a similar dish eaten with curds, -thaph -'Sl^ I 
gj^1^^^?j: f. (sg. dat. -thapas -^nRC.), a fuU lump 
of stewed pimapkin raised by the hand for insertion into 
the mouth ; hence, metaphorically, a mass of leaves or 
papers firmly stuck together. -til -fft^ I %Wt^§^' 
m. an oil extracted from pimipkin seeds, and used as 
a medicine ; said to benefit the brain and blood-vessels. 
-Isur -^ I gJ^H^TsiVfim m. a process in the 
cultivation of pumpkins, in which the earth is turned 
up and the roots are cleaned. -wagan -WT'I't, I 
fT*4tc|ldl^Tf'T pumpkins and egg-jjlant fruit 
[halgan), the name of a dish in which these two are 
cooked together, -wbr*^ -^^ I <3<<Nl«JlfZ^ f- a 
pumpkin garden, -wath^r -^'^ I gj^M-^H m. 
the leaf of the pumpkin vine. -z^lun -sfjfl. I 
•f^^Trf^T'^: m. the refuse — rind, seeds, etc. — of a 
pumpkin prepared for cooking. 

al*-al^ khasun ^t^--^t^ ^hi; i ^fTtgf^mfTT: m.inf . 
to become very stout ; lit., to mount like a pumpkin 
plant, which is slender but has large fruit. 

For words beginning with S, i, J, see under ye, yi, yi respectiyely, aud for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectirely. 

al 2 ^^ 

— 23 

aulad o1j\ 

ali-ti-shaph bali-ti-shaph '^f^r-ffT-^n'S ^f^-fH- 
in^l ^^TriM*(ridTf%<»*Kt m. both a curse at a pumpkin 
and a curse at a sacrifice, cursing a person whether he 
is offering a service of very small value, or whether 
he is doing anji;hing of great difficulty and involving 
self-sacrifice ; hence, general dissatisfaction, of a master 
who is always blaming his servant, whether right or 
wrong, or of a servant who is always grumbling at 
his master. 

al 2 ^X^ or ala 2 "^Sf^, an intensive prefix. See the 
various words below in alphabetical order. 

al 3 ^^, a primary suffix added to the root of the verbs 
dyun" ^, to give, and dawun ^^, to cause to 
give, %vith an obscene sense. Thus, dinal fcf^l^H or 
dawal ^T^^, an unchaste woman, maje- dinal 
JnsH-fe^M'Jj or maje-dawal Jn^H-^T^'^ , one wlio com- 
mits incest with his mother, and so on (Gr.Gr. 107). 

al 4 ^I^, e.g. a secondary suffix forming adjectives of 
possession. Thus, dor" ^T^, a beard, darel (i.e. 
dari -f- al) ^^^, bearded. When added to an abstract 
verbal noun, that noun takes the feminine form. Thus, 
from thekun ^^i'l;, to boast, we have thekiiiel, 
^at^rsf^, a boaster"(Gr.Gr. 120, 133). 

ail ^5r I IJ^T f. a cardomum ; pi. nom. aila ^'51 
(K.Pr. 30 ; Siv. 577). 

aul, V. 61". 

il ^;]^ f. secondary suffix used to form nouns of condition 
from substantives. Thus, chan ^T't. , a carpenter, 
cllbnil IfTf'T^r, the condition of a carpenter 
(Gr.Gr. 142). 

ala 3 ■^^r l f^R; (for ala l and 2 see al 1 and 2), 

f. a plough. Cf. ala. -bbn" -■^i^ i f^is: f- the 
main beam of a plough, cf. al-bbn" (s.v.) ; (?) a goad 
(El.), -kij' or -kij" -f^^, -f%^ I ^^rrofi^efi: f. a pin 
of a j)lough, to wliich the yoke or other part is fastened. 
-phal -'mm l ?^m^: m. a ploughshare ; (by extension 
of meaning) a collection of articles used in husbandry, 
plough, bullocks, digging implements, etc., equivalent 
to the Hindi hal-bail. -wath -^^ I ^^^^ f. (sg. 
dat. -"wati -«rfiT), a plough -furrow. 

ala 4 •^^, in ala-banun ^^r-^T^^i: I 1^%W 
f^^V«n^ I m.inf . to bring in trembling ; to cause 
something fixed to totter ; hence, to scare one who is 
weaker by a hasty move of the hand, cf. ala-ala 
feanun below. 

ala-ala '!J''I-^«T I ^ly^ff m. unsteadiness, 
trembling, tremulousness. -ala afaun -'^sra ^i^ I *1^3rr- 
f^lT •fi'ift m.inf. to tremble from fear, cold, or ague. 
-ala feanun -■^^ ^3^ l Hllfl m.inf. to bring in 
trembling, to cause to tremble, to terrify. 

ala ^T^ m. a plough (sg. ag. alan ^T«I't' K-Pr. 10). 
Cf. ala 3. ala-phjnir" ^7^-i^ i f^m'r'nJi; m. the 

soil turned up by the second ploughing after the seed 

has been sown. 
al* ^f^ or ali ^f% , a secondary suffix forming adverbs 

of time, as in tel' (U^ or teli (irf^f, then (Gr.Gr. 156). 
alu 1, m. the potato, Solamiiii tuberosum (L. 316), i.q. 

oluh, q.v. 
alu 2, in alu-bukhara ^j^.^'\ or or**, m. the Bukhara 

or Persian plum, Pninus communis (L. 348). 
61" ^"^ I ^ItH m. a nest (cf. K.Pr. 65, 100, 144, 

where the word is spelt aul) ; a recess in the wall 

used as a shelf, -yerun -^^'^ I ^^Sfl«4l^»n^ m.inf. 

to put together or build a nest ; hence, to make 

anything or do an_yi;liing gradually, bit by bit, 

and secretly. 

aU drav '^rrf^f '^^ i ^i'srmf'i^: m. just issued 

from the nest ; hence, a young person when he has 
first left house and home and set up for himself, 
an inexperienced person; just bom (see below). 
— nerun — ^^'t^ l ^rrai^ ir^^'W; m.inf. to issue from 
the nest ; to set out from home to make one's way in 
the world ; to be bom (the womb being compared to 
a nest), 1 past m. sg. 1, ali dras (K.Pr. 10). 

bl'-nash ^Tt%-'IT^ I gi^T'erTT^; m. destmction of 
a nest ; hence, the sudden destruction of a human house 
and home. 

Ill" ^W (f. "j" ^T^), a secondary suffix forming adjec- 
tives, as in gata TTZ , skill, gatul"^ TTZf (f. gat"j" 
?rra^), skilfid (Gr.Gr. 145). 

alabda s^W m. a signature (El.). 

albail, m. a fat man (K.Pr. 10). 

alebale '^%=r% I ^^B^Tfj;^ adv. suddenly, unexpectedly, 

mtliout cause. Cf. aleprale-koletas and alatbsi. 
al-bbii" ^JI^-TT^ l ^Tf'^m f. a plough, the same as 

ala 3, q.v. Cf . ala-bbn" under that word. 
ola-bor" ^5t-^^ l t^^fi-SI<: m. an insecurely fastened 

burden, a load slipping oif the shoulder. 
bl'-byTlC" ^T^-^^ I ^^^RT^g^^^ra: m- humbugging, 

cheating, a term used in children's games ; cf. byuc". 
blic" ^rrf^^ I ^MlfSI't: f- a certain fruit, a small sour 

plum, Prunus domestica (EL). Tliis may be the same as 

the aluchci (a.>-JI) of L. 73, 348, which he translates 

by " bitter cherry, Prunus cerasus, var. b ". 

blici-kuj' (or -kuj") ^rff%f^-f1% (or -^) i 

T^!^^^5lfTT f. the bush on which it grows, -rang 
-T^ I f^flTB^^^'tfTT m. the colour of a plum, plum- 
colour, purple -red. 

alich" ^^^ , see alyukh". 

aulad J^jl f.^ offspring, children (K.Pr. 133). 

For word* beginniog with e, i, i, see under yi, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning with u, 3, see under wu, wtl respectively. 

alddbar' ^^4^ 

— 24 

alond" ^^^ 

aldobar* ^sr^^ft l ^f?I^^ adv. very secretly, without 

exciting suspicion. 
aladala ^^^^ I «!X:^»n^: m. swinging, swaying (as 

of a child's cot or swing). 
aladev ^^^ I ^ffi^'si: adj. (as subst., f. aladevin 

■^^'Sjft^), very stout, very fat, of a man or woman; 

hence, foolish, wanting in intellect. 
alif-be, aKph-be, «=:''— ^^ ™- ^^"^ alphabet (in the 

Kaslimiro-Persian character) (Gr.M.). 
alog" ^^ I ^V^mW^m. adv. unsuitably, not fitly, 

algob ^^TW s^^ ' 'SI^TTl'i: adv. unknowingly, im- 

wittingly, by chance. 
al*-gad ■?f'^-^'5 I ^fNft^^t f. a certain fish described 

as being large and handsome, but insipid as food. 
alagadi, m. a great man, K.Pr. 9, where it is opposed to 

malagadi, a base man. 
ol"-gol" ^^-'I^ I f'f^Ti''(^H'I'Wt m. delay in answering 

or refusal to answer, usually employed when the 

refusal is dehberate, owing to unwillingness or intent 

to deceive, and not to ignorance. 
ala-gufear ^T^-^T^ I ^^'^t: f- a polite greeting, 

saying, " how do you do? " Cf. ol'-wakh. 
oluh '^^ I '^T^raw; m. a potato, Solanum tuberosum ; 

cf. L. 346, where it is spelt alu. 
alahada ^^^iif^ uSsAz i f^fij^: adj. e.g. pi. separate, 

apart (in position, form, quality, or action). 
bl^-hbnz'^ "^Tt%-fT^^ I ^nsrg'aRi'iWi; m. the hole cut 

in one end of a log of wood recently felled, for 

attaching the rope by which it is hauled. 
Ol^-hbphiz ■^llT-fTt^^ liJl^ JU I -^Sfi^j: m. a blind 

al^'ka '^^ I ^tJH^THf^^^: a kind of earring, 

flat and roimd, in the shape of the leaf of a fdl palm 

(HindostanI tarki). -hor" -^ I ^fT§<*|i|<IH m. a pair 

of such earrings. 

al^'kan ■^^sfi'i; l H^^fisiofrr m. a single one of 

such earrings. 
alaka ^\- m. connexion, concern, relevancy (Gr.M.) ; 

an estate (EL). 

of an estate (El.) 
alkab i—jUII m. a style, title of honour (HindostanI 

Xitah) (Gr.M.). 
bl^-kadal ^Tt^-^3[^ I ^jf^^^: m. the name of the 

fifth of the seven bridges which cross the V6th 
(Jehlam) in Srinagar. 
alakh '^ra^ m. (sg. dat. alakhas ■^^I^ra;), the Invisible, 

N. of Siva (Siv. 555). 
alkhblikh ^f^if^ti jJU^l i sf^^f^^^: f. a certain 
garment, shaped hke a dressiag-gown, extending from 


alaka-dar jtjiiic m. the owner 

the neck to the feet, and open in front. It is like the 
kabd (Li), but has buttons instead of strings. 

alakondul '^n^ipTBi^ i ^ni^^^: m. (sg. dat. alakon- 
dalas w^H^^rai, pi- nom. alakbndal '^n^anis^), 

a circle, a circular mark ; the inner, circular, earthenware 
receptacle of the latngvi or portable brazier. 

alii ^^^ J-ii I ^ffT^iu: adj. e.g. weak, sick, worn 
to a shadow from sickness or the like. 

alal-khan ^^IT^-^Tt, I ^TSnf^g"W: m. a proper name, 
used metaphorically, like our Crojsus and Dives, to mean 
the heir of a rich man or king ; used as a respectful 
term when referring to such an one. 

al^-ali khasun •^^-■^■^ ^§i: , see al 1. 

al'-alam sal'-alam ^t^-'^T^w; ^t^-'^5r»^ I ^ff^- 

irf'STefi'^ m- that which continues both in this world 
and the next (as fame, etc.), said to be connected with 
or" ^^ firm, i.e. of this life, and sor" ^FT^ absorbed, 
vanished, i.e. of the next life. 

alam ^^m; ^- l TflT^T f. a banner, a flag (usually 
a small one), including the staff, -posh -ifrtT I 
^f!T«ii7^^^t ™- the cloth of such a flag (usually three- 
cornered), -tul" -g^ I xmT=RtWr^: m. the height of 
a flagstaff, -tulis kharun -'^f^^ IT^I. I f'l'^'nn- 
■^"ti^UJH m-iiif- to cause to ascend to the height of 
a flagstaff ; hence, to render a person liable to general 
reproach by abusing him. 

alami-kut" 'ii^ftjT-^ i tJigj^xjui; m. a flagstaff. 
-posli -ift^ I ■"^flT^'^l^^'H m. the same as alam- 

alam Jlc m. the world, the imiverse (YZ. 177). 

alom" ^^ I ^^HTSRf^: adj. (f. alum" ^^^), not 
dragged, not pulled out straight, not extended (of 
a rope, etc.). 

almadath ^i^^ I wp^^i; m. (sg. dat. almadatas 

^^?I^fl^and so on), an exclamation of encouragement. 

alam-galam -^^i^-ji^r; I ■^i^w^g^^iT^ m. cheating, 
swindling (in keeping accounts and the Hke), 

alamnor" ^5{J^«ft^ l ^ur: m. the name of a village 
about 16 miles north of Srinagar, close to where the 
River V6th (Jehlam) enters the Wolur Lake. 

almas j-^Ul m. a diamond (EL). 

bl'-mashid w^-»Tiftf jcs--* ^!U i ^'^^^^i?^: f. 

the name of the chief mosque in Srinagar. 
alun •^^ I '^g^rTT conj. 3 (2 p.p. alyov ^^^), to 

be insecure, to shake. 

alun" ^i^ I ^iTfi^r^TFf: adj. (f. alun" ^^^), not 

reaped (of a crop). 

alond" ^^^ I ^^^j^ttr: adj. (f. albnz" ^^T^), 
suspended, hanging down. — tshSdun wf^'t. , m.inf. 

For words beginning with S, i, J, see under ye, yi, yi reBpectively, and for words beginning with u, 4, see under wu, w4 reepectiyely. 

alont" ^ih^ 

— 25 

all tashia 

to seek to get a thing that is hanging out of reach 
(K.Pr. 10). alanden-thapa karane ^wP3R^-^r 

eft <^ 51 I fsr^^Jn^^mi; f- pi. inf. to stretch up the 
hand to tilings suspended ; to grasp at a worthless 
alont" ^'Tt^ I ^^^?5?nT: adj. (f. albnfe" ^^ti ), 

suspended, hanging down. 

alanawun ^^pn^'^ I ♦^■c(tm«»h conj. (1 p.p. alanow" 
■=5!j^r^^), to cause to oscillate, to set swinging (e.g. a 
cradle or a cliild's swing). 

al-pal ■^^-TTwj 1 fl^^rNnf^^wt , ^f^xi^'ra: m. the five 

tilings commencing wth the letter f{^ m formerly 
employed in their religious worship by followers of 
the left-hand Siikta sect, viz., madija, wine ; mdmsa, 
flesh ; matsija, fish ; mudnl, sjiecial attitudes ; maithuna, 
sexual intercourse ; hence, in modern language, 
any vile and utterly impure food. -ta-mal 
-fI-fl«T I ^fTllT^i'ITmflTO'^R; m. anything extremely 
uncatahle or luidrinkable, or which if eaten or drunk 
produces illness or is indigestible; lit. "al-pal and filth ". 

alapala '^^tp^f i irr^: adv. about, approximately. 

alipali ^t^^XT^ f. asparagus {Asparagus filicinus) (El.). 

aleprale-koletas ^%ti%-i;1^t^ i ^f7ir»(<,«i'**i adv. 

very uselessly, futilely. Cf. alebale and alatbsi. 

alor" ^^^ I '^i^iv^iff!: adj. (f. albr" ^^i^) 

(of vessels) not polished, (of clothes) not properly 
fullered ; on which fuller's earth or polishing paste 
has been applied, but the final polishing or cleansing 
has not been carried out. 
alaran '^SJ'TTI, l ^ST f. swaying, swinging (as of tree- 
branclies) ; trembling, shivering of the body (from 
cold, etc.). 

alanin ■^^r^i; i ^liiq^iK; conj. 1 (1 p.p. alor" ■^^^), 

to cause to oscillate or tremble ; to move something 
from rest, to shake. 

alarwon" ^5iR:^5 i ^arftg?:: , t^^f^^n:: (f- alarwbn* 
■^^fT^T^T ), very insecure, easily shaken ; also, not 
very secure, moderately secure, of a stone or the like 
fixed in a wall. 

alarwanen-kaiaen^3n:q^'l,-5R^i: I ^fH^^^T^T- 
•^^Tcfn adv. very insecurely, in such a position as to be 
easily upset, u.w. vbs. of placing or of position, etc. 

alarawun ^sr^ff^ I %^<i»i*i.conj. 1 (1 p.p. alarow' 

•^^•^t^j, to set in oscillation, to cause to swing (of 
a child's swing, or a cradle). 
al^rawun ^^rrr^s^^ I fTT:#«*<u!H conj. 1 (1 pp. 

al*r6w° -iiwl^t^), to cause something fimi to be in 
movement, to sliake, cause to oscillate or tremble. 

alarawun" ■^^nr^f i ^w^srci; adj. (f. alarawiin'' 
^B^r^^fSf ), one who causes to oscillate or tremble. 


al'sh ^t^^T I '^f|^'\ f- flax, Linum usitatissimiim ; also the 
seed, linseed. Cf. L. 330. 

al'shi-kad ^^rftf-^irff i "^JcJ^Nt^r; m. the stem 

of the linseed plant, -khuj" -ts|gr I ^SRT^t^i^n f. 
linseed oil-cake, used as a cattle food, -khal -^^ I 
^JT^^t^: f • linseed oil-cake, -kriit" -'^ I ^rl^fe^ 
f. (sg. dat. -krace -W^), linseed chaff, used as 
a cattle food, and, mixed with earth, as a wall-plaster. 
-kosh" -^"g I ■^rj^^^ m. the husk of linseed. 
-kath -o5T3 I ^cT'^rTIIJ^ m. the stem of the linseed 
jilant. -phal -^^ I '^fT^^^'^ m. linseed, as ready 
for sale or use. -proj*^ -TtM I -4I<1^«<^H f- linseed 
chaff, see above, -til -<ft^ 1 '^rl^^^Ji; m. linseed oil. 

alish '^Tf^lJ m. Ruhiis fruticosus (El.). 

alsreth ■^^^H^ I "^fHgSfTg: adj. e.g. (as subst., m. sg. dat. 
alsretas ^^#Z^), very stout, very fat (of an 
animate being), hence very foolish, witless. Cf. 

arsreth. -hyuh" -■^^ i ^?rf7T'T'|: adj. (f. -hish*'- 

ff^), id., a fat fool. 
alseth ■^^^ef I '^fwgs: adj. e.g. (as subst., m. sg. dat. 
alsctas '^'5T€Z^), very stout (whether suitably so or 

not), -hyuh" --^ 1 ^tli^^: adj. (f. -hish" -fff^), 

too stout, too fat (of an animate being or inanimate 
thing) ; hence, (of a person) a fat fool, (of a thing) 
unsuitable, useless. 

olut" ^^5 I ^^^: m. (sg. dat. alatis ^sif^r^), 

lac, lac- dye. 

alatacha ^^rlW I ^(Sfl'f'J^l^ m. eager desire, eager 
anxiety for anything or for the success of any action. 

alath ^T5f^ I ■^JTTTf^^ f. the ceremony performed in 
adoration of a god by moving circularly round the 
head of the idol a platter containing a five-wicked 
burning lamp, flour, water, and incense ; a similar 
cereraorty performed on a bride and bridegroom, on 
the occasion of the second visit of the bride to her 
husband's house, and on other similar occasions. 

alith ci-.1T m. membrum virile (EL). 

alatamon" ■^^fi^j I f^'?: adj. (f. alatamiin" ^^frui"^) 

verj' ill-looking, very uglj^. 

alatroje ^5t^w i ^>^mjn?mT, ^fTi^nf^flT f.pi. 

extreme anxiety or distress, e.g. that caused by terror, 
the afflictions of those we love and the absence of any 
means of their relief ; helplessness. 
alatbsi ^^ziftr l tif<^<*H adv. fruitlessly, in vain. 

Cf. alebale and aleprale-koletas. — d6h kar-lbsi 

— 5f ^-^iftr I f%T^^T^%m^i7^T adv. desiring to 
pass one's time fruitlessly. 
ali tashia (corruption of ^Jf^j tgl^c). The term by 
which SunnI ^iishmlrls refer to Shl'a Musalmiins ; 
a heretic. Cf. L. 284. 

For words beginning with 8, i, i, see under ye, yi, yl respectively, and f(ir words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 

ali-ti-shaph ^1%-fJi-irTO 

26 — 

am 1 ^»i[ 

ali-ti-shaph bali-ti-shaph ^f^-1?T-iiT^ ^f^-trr-irns- 

Sec al 1. 

alafeh^ '^rr^^ or alafehi ^t^i# i ^^m: adj. (as subst., 
f. alafehi ■^T^nft" or aliifeh" ^^), lazy, idle, 
weary, tired, -bufi" -^ I WT'ST^^f^^: f- " tlie 
weary one's plane-tree ", tlie name of a famous chenar, 
or plane-tree, under which pilgrims rest on the way 
to Jwalamukhl. -mar -JT^ I ^^^?J7: m. " home for 
the lazy ", the name of a place in the village of KharV 
or Khruv, in the Vihl Pargana of Kashmir, traditionally 
said to be a foundation by some merciful person for 
the benefit of the weary or the work-shy. 

alofeh^ ^T^ff I ^T'^I^I't ra- weariness, idleness. 

alafeh'lad ^T#^^ adj. e.g. idle (W. 21, where it is 

spelt alafelad). 

alav ^^T^ I '^r'CI^^^T m. a fire in a pit in the open, 
a bonfire, -ta-jelav -fT-3*(5TR I JT^T^T^ m. a great 
conflagration (e.g., a house on fire, or the burning 
of a stack of wood) ; hence, met., the burning of 
fever, etc. 

alav 'SIT^T^ I ^T^MJloi^: m. a loud, clear, call or cry 
(Siv. 1187) ; alav dyun^'^TW^^Jm.inf. to call, shout 
to a person (K.Pr. 102, Siv. 532). -milav -fJT^ I 
■^TST^nj^:, <T-rJ<!*n>S'«l5|«<^ m. a loud, clear, call or 
cry ; any loud, clear, sound. 

aliv^ ^^^ ' ^^^ alyuv". 

bl'-wakh Vil%-Tra i xn:^t "g^l^^T m- (sg. dat. 
■wakas -^T^^and so on), a polite greeting, a "how 

do you do ? " Cf . ala-gufear. 

alawan ^rr^^i; l T^'trtT'^T'npi; f- the act of bringing 
a boat to or near the shore. 

alawun ^T'srj'i. i ^^%ft ^rmmJi; conj. l (l p.p. alow" 

i!ll<!t^), to wave round one's head, wave aloft, to 
wave (the hands), esp. in a propitiatory ceremony as 
described below (Siv. 108, 1692, K Pr, 50) ; to bring 
a boat near the shore; to row (El.), gful^ alawan', 
m. pi. inf. to pass the hands over the head and face 
in order to pacify, to show affection (K.Pr. 13). 

alawith ^^t^^ i ftn:f^ trfx;>fH?T conj. part, 
used as adv., waving an offering to a spirit of evil 
round the head before casting it forth, as in 
a ceremony for warding off a calamity, -palawith 
-■m^rf^ I fSK^slY »?f»TWT Tlt^^ adv. waving round 
the head and casting forth, as in the above ceremony. 

alawun" ^vw^^ i ^r»TOT^: adj. (f. alawiin*^ '^'51^), 

trembling, shaking. 
alwand, ? gend., a kind of woollen cloth, plain or 
unembroidered pashmlnd (L. 377). 

alay ^r5r^, in alay-zal pyon" ^t^^-^^ xgj I ^t^'c^ 

TSyf Trf^BlHTT' in. inf. to be in the condition of an 



orphan child, on whom devolves all the burden of 
supporting a house. 

alay-balay ^^rt^-^^'i i ^g^l^^l f- (pl- "om. alaye- 

balaye 'SSl^l^-^^^), pleasure and pain, happiness 
and misery. K.Pr. 134 translates this word by 
' sacrifice ', in the sense of the use of the word by 
women whilst waving platters with lamps, etc., round 
a person's head, to remove all evil. Hence the words 
have come to mean ' offering ', ' sacrifice ', ' victim '. 

Cf. alawun. alaye-balaye kadun ^^m-^^rra 

^i; I ^T^^Wt f^wf^^*l in. inf. to expel by this 
waving, to deliver a child from infantile dangers, 
much as smallpox and the like ; similarly, alaye- 

balaye-nishe rachun ^^i^-^^i^-f^ T^l I 

'SJT'iWif T^W^ m.inf. to protect from calamities, as in 
the ceremony above referred to. 
alyukh" ^^ l ^^ITT: adj. (f. alich" '^^^), un- 

alyov" -^^f I ^?i?!ti: adj. (f. alev" ^^^), not 
licked, of a dish or vessel to which some dainties are 
still adhering. 

alyuv" ■^K^r^ i ^f^TT: adj. (f. aliv" '^rt^^), not 

plastered, of the surface of the ground, or a wall. 

'loz |^^5I or ilbz" ^5IT5I f- a secondary suffix used to 
form nouns of condition from substantives or adjectives. 
Thus, mot" Vfn, a madman, mat'loz ?T^^^, the 
condition of a madman ; breth ^^ , ignorant, brith^OZ 
^Vt?^?!.. ignorance (Gr.Gr. 143). 

am 1 "^SR; I »-T^X!lf?Ii^ m. the act of eating, eating 
(a nursery word, generally used of food offered to 
a child being weaned). 

am 2 '^Pl pron. suff. appended to the finite tenses of 
verbs, with the force of the ace. dat. or ag. sing, of the 
1st pers. : me, to me, by me. If the verbal form to 
which it is added ends in a vowel, the a of the' suffix 
is usually elided. Thus, karan ^i; , they will make, 
karan-am efi^«f?^, they will make mo or for me ; 
kor" «J!^ , made, koru-m ^^5B[ , made by me, I made. 
When added to the 3rd sing. fut. or to the fut. impve. 
the a is not elided, but, together \s'ith the final i of 
these forms, becomes e. Thus, kari ^It, he will 
make, karem eir^n; , he will make me or for me ; 

kar'zi ojj-^fsr, you should make, kar^zem 4(<,^H 

you should make me or for me (Gr.Gr. 183). 
am 1 -^ll^ I ^^<<*li: m. human intestinal worms or 
entozoa, lumbricus (El.). 

ama-dij" ^-R-^sf^ i ^^'^tg^^z^^'fRT^: f- 

a mass of such worms, -kyom" -^I^ I '3^'^5^: 

^Z^?: m., i.n. am 1. -lofeh" -^?f i ^2Tt4«l*^2- 
fl^^^: m., i.q. ama-dij". -phokh -^^ or -phukar 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively 

am 2 ^i^ 

27 — 

om-kar '?i^-Jtni: 

-■^^iT^ I ^<^^«BldOl' ra- the disease, accompaniGd by 
swelling of the belly, of liaving these worms in the 
body, most commonly in children. -shbsh* -1^^ I 
^^TtW^^ftZ^^W gTOTfvwi f- excessive breathing 
or panting caused by tliis disease. 

am 2 ■^■R^ j»l£ adj. e.g. common, general (Gr.M.) ; 
common persons, people of low birth, amas Stity 
har, a quarrel with the common people (K.Pr. 11). 

am 3 "^m, he came to me, see yun°. 

om •^ or ■^^^, V. om-kar. 

ama '%(^ f. a grandmother. The word is said to be 
common among the prostitute families of Srinagar 
(El.) ; an old prostitute, a bawd. Cf. am-ji. 

ama 1 ^?rr l f«R TW ? adv. an interrogative particle, 
indicating a desire with doubt as to its accomplishment, 
equivalent to sentences such as ' will you, pray ? ', 'is it 
the case that ? ', ' why, pray ? ' or the like. Probably 
the same word as ama 2. -kyasana -^TRRT I f^ 
t^ft,«IT?? ?adv., i.q. ama 1, but more emphatic. 

ama 2 U' , conj. but, moreover (El. and W.), (W. 100 
spells it amma, with a double m as in Arabic), -poz^ 
-vm I Trr<T coni. but. 

am' ^^ , ami ^fi\ , see ath 1. 

6m" -^rt^ I -%nw> adj. (m. sg. dat. bmis ■^ifj?^, abl. ami 

^Tftr; f. sg. nom. bm" ■^TTT , pi. nom. ame '^T'^T), 
raw, uncooked (Siv. 1216); half-cooked; unripe. 
— dod — ^^ I ^q^X}^: m. unboiled milk ; fresh milk, 
sweet milk. — pan — '^^ I ^??H'^<1«fi: ra. loose-spun 
thread. — tok" — zt^ I m^ff fi: ^T^: m. a cup or 
similar earthen vessel of unbaked clay. — zom" — ^JT I 
3qTr»??lfflW adj. (f. bm^-zbm" ^rTfl;-?rR), mixed up, 
confused, not clear, of a command or prohibition. 

— zamot" dod — 5rr?Tg ^^ i ^fV^^ ^nf*?^ m. 

a mixture of sweet and curdled milk. 
amb 1 '^J5 I ^\hi', f. a mango (the tree or the fruit) 

amb 2 •^l^ m. a bramble (EI.). 
amob" ^m>f I ■^srfTTirsnTi: adj. (f. ambb" ^TR^), 

exceeding, excessive, or adv. exceedingly, excessively. 

amba haldi W\^ ?^^ f- Curcuma zedoaria (El.). 

ambar 1 "^ijgj i cRTT^ m. a large pile (Siv. 996) or heap 
of grain, earth, etc., cf. ambar. — karun — ^i^^ I 
T!nn'<*<,<Sr*{, m.inf. to heap up, make a heap. 

ambaras asun "^H^^^T^i; I ^ig: ^^HT^: m.inf. 

to be (a material) for piling up, to remain over and 
above ; hence, met., to have a fresh lease of life after 
recovering from the point of death, or after rescue 
from mortal peril. — karun — W^^i; I ''ClfSTf^^^^- 
4^J!I*( m.inf. to make to a pile, to pile anything 
(e.g. grain) up, to make into a pile. 


ambar 2^-- m. ambergris (Siv. 1008). 

ambar ^?^ ,L1 i T^^: m., i.q. ambar 1, q.v. 
(Siv. 68, 1079", 1610). 

ambar' ^J^^ in the two following. Cf. L. p. 349. 
-trel -^^ I '5^f%^'^: f. a kind of apple, small in size 
and of excellent flavour, -feftth" -^3 I TT^WflJi^; 
m. another apple, large, round, red and white, ripening 
in October, and keeping in condition a long time. 

ambbr' ^Jgf^ ^s-O^-^) I ^rf^^J?: f. a canopied litter, 
with ornamented housings, used on an elephant 
(Siv. 967). ' 

ombura ^?^ I <T^'RTT^fVf^^^: m. a vice or forceps 
used by carpenters or blacksmiths for extracting 
nails, etc. 

ombur-buth ^^-W^ I ^WT^f^H^: m. (sg. dat. 

-butas -^fT^ and so on), i.q. amar-buth, q.v. 
omburher ^f^fT 1 '^T'wHf^^wt ^»Tf^^^: m. 

the name of a village about -i miles north of 
Srinagar on the road towards the Sind Valley. The 
ancient Amarcsvara. Cf. RT.Tr. vii, 183 n. 
ambar-nath ^J^-^i^ 1 ^jtt'JJ<,'S(H*i; m., i.q. amar- 
nath ^JT^-^rra;, q.v. 

imbrzal (?), a kind of good white rice with a dark leaf 
(L. 248, 463). Perhaps connected with amreth, q.v. 

amuch" ^^ 1 ^j^t^m: adj. (f. amuch" ^^f^), not 

brought to a conclusion, not accomplished (of a day on 
which a fast or the like has been undertaken, but 
on which the final oblations, etc., cannot, owing to 
some rule of ritual, be performed). 

amdd" '^ufff I ^rfii^aft!: adj. (f. ambd" ^mf ), not 

mingled, not mixed, not kneaded up (of flour or the 

like in water). 
amdam '^SIH^i^ adv. at one's own free will (Siv. 586). 
amdani |<JA-»' f. income, receipts, revenue (Gr.M.). 
amahol" ^TJ»?'^ I ^rn^fTT, '^ifn^aRTVfT m. numbness 

caused by contact with snow or ice, frostbite ; pain 

in the teeth from drinking very cold water or from 

eating ice or snow. 

amahor" ^JTft^ I ^^fiiinr: li«i: adj. (f. amahbr*' 

^1?T'^), not broken to pieces, not reduced to powder 
(of a lump of boiled rice, sugar, earth, or the like). 

am-ji ^!R-^ f., i.q. ama, q.v. (L. 215). 

amij*' ^jftw , see amy ill". 

amoj" ^'^ . see amol". 

amdj" ^mf I ^f^^R^gffi: adj. (f. ambj" ^»if^), 

not cleaned, not scrubbed, not j^olished (of a metal 
vessel or the like). 

amiij" '^jt^ , see amol". 

om-kar '^-^■PC l insr^r- m. the mystic sj'Uablc 6m, used 
at the beginning and end of a reading of the Vedas, 

For words beginninj^ witli e, i, 1, sea under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, a, peo under wu, wfi respectively. 

am-koth" •^T[-ii'3 

— 28 

amur" ^?t^ 

previously to any prayer, and also as an auspicious 

am-koth" ^Ji;-aJ^ m. raw-kneedness, having weak knees, 

inability fo walk properly (of a child learning to walk), 

K.Pr. 260, where it is spelt am-kut. Said also to 

mean incomplete, immature. 
amal J-*j: m. work, action ; employment (K.Pr. 10). 

— asun — '^TO't. m.inf. to be brought into use (K.Pr. 

10). — karun — '^'l, m. inf. to act ; to obey (El.). 

— karanwol" — »fiT11^^ '"• '''■ certain official, a 

taJmidar, a collector (El.), cybnis wananas peth 
—karun wf%^ ^T^ ^if — qi^«(, (Gr.M.), to act 
upon (or comply with) what you say. 

am61" ^»#^ I f^^: adj. (f. amSj'* ^'^^)' without 

price, priceless, that for which a price is impossible ; 
witliout price, gratis, as a free gift. 

amol" ^fl^ I ^JTt^rr: adj. (f. amiij" ^'TW), not 

rubbed or shampooed (of the body or a limb) ; not used 

in shampooing (of the customary oil or medicament). 
om^a ^H^ I ■^TTI^^ m. the plant EinUica myrohalan, 

Emhlica officinalis, Gsertn. 
am^liaca ^Hf^-*IN, m. Viburnum steUulatum (El.). 
amalun"^ '^JI^TT I ^flaistmrHH m. the state or con- 

dition of possessing a raw or unripe odour ; musty 


amma, see ama 2. 

aman ^Tfl*^ I ■^TTI'^; f. change for the worse ; a 

condition of corruption or of malodorousness. 
amun ^r*1^ I ^f1«^: m. a smell of burning or 

scorching cloth, especially cotton-cloth. 
Oman '^?JT»l I ^^flTTIT m. disrespect, contempt shown 

by one to another. 
amani ^cJL.1 f. a certain land tenure, in which the state 

takes its share of the actual produce of a village 

(L. 403). 
amun" ^wg I ^i^i^rfi^t!: adj. (f. amun"^ W"^), not 

pounded in a mortar for the removal of husk, not 
husked (of rice and other grains). 
amond" "^»J^ I '5!iif?r»i^«!: adj. (f. amiinz*' ^v^ ), 

not churned, not fully churned (of milk, etc.) ; met., 
not fully considered, not worked out (of a story, 
theory, etc.). 

amond" ^?r^ i ^mf^tr: adj. (f. amiind" ^^i^, pi. 

amanje ^JiSH), not kneaded (of woollen clothes kneaded 
under foot in water in order to soften or clean them). 

amandoch" ^*?5^i^ I ^»?^T^: adj. (f. amandiich** 

■^J!«^^), without shame, shameless ; bold, daring, 
confident, audacious. 

among" ^tp!^ i ^^if^: adj. (f. amiinj" ^iif^), not 
asked for ; got without asking. 

amanun ^iT^'i: i t^^T: conj. 3 (2 p.p. amanyov 

■^TT"*!^^), to change for the worse ; to look exhausted 
from fatigue or hunger ; to go bad, become corrupt 
and malodorous (of food, etc.). 

amanyo-mot" •^??5?ft - »f^ I iTT'Rt^^lT' perf . part. 
(f. amanyb-mufe" ■^»!JgT-'i^), changed for the 
worse, disimproved; apjjearing exhausted from fatigue 
or hunger ; become corrupt, malodorous (of food). 

amanath ^jttt^ ci^jUI i Jinfl'^WT:, f5T%tj: m. (sg. dat. 

amanatas ■^JTTffT^), depositing, committing property 
to the trust or care of a person ; a deposit, a thing 
placed in charge (K.Pr. 30). amanatas khiya- 
nath, embezzlement of a deposit (ib. 11). -ciri 
-^^t^ I f^^'qtjf^^ f. a document certifj'ing a deposit, 
a deed of trust. 
amanay tRTIT^ I f^l>f?i: f- change for the worse, applied 
to food grown stale and beginning to be offensive. 

amiinz" '^it^ , see amond". 

amane ^?T% l fl^T^nrJi; m. the receiving of anything 
into the mouth, usually applied to a suckling child 
receiving milk. -ta-gproth -fl-^ I ^^T^^ir^^^ 
r«1'l<U!*(^m. putting into the mouth and swallowing 
(without chewing), usually applied as before to a 
suckling child. 

amin" "^Jf^, see amyun". 

amane-gamane ^jf-sf-^m^ I ^n^^^r'i.fpl- perturbation, 

fluster, agitation of mind, from fear or other similar 

ampa ^THT I ^f^Trrt >J%:, ^iWt'^: f pi- the feeding of one 

bird by another, beak to beak, -mangaiie -T^'I I 

th: ^TT: 1I1^<1|: asking to be fed in this manner ; 

hence, met., persistently and repeatedly asking for an 

urgently desired object. 
um"-pum" ■^?T-TT'T I irf^TJI •IB^*RT^ f. the throwing 

away and scattering of a powder or anything minutely 

subdivided, so that to all intents and purposes it 

ceases to exist. 

amri, ? f. L. 349, i.q. ambar', q.v. 

amar ^»r^ adj. e.g. undying (Siv. 931, 935) ; N. of Siva 

(Siv. 622). 
amer ^T'JJT I '^TWffT m- rawness, unripeness. 
amara '^JTT, a suffix added to cardinal numerals giving 

indefiniteness, as in aith-amara ^HTTj about eight 

(Gr.Gr. 84). 
amara ■^JTTT: ( = ij^j^) m- a wanderer (EL, who writes 

it dmdrah). 
am^rbi ^in^^rrl; f. a species of elm [Ubnus erosa and 

jmmila) (EL, who spells it nmrdt). 

amur" ^^^ i ^f^j^^c^^: adj. (f. amur" ^^^), 

not shelled, not husked (of peas, vetches, and the like). 

For words bei^nninR witli e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with n, fl, see under wu, wu respectively. 

am^rabad ^f^l^T^T? 

— 29 

an 1 -^s^ 


am'rabad ^^T^Ts^ I ^31-r1%^: m. the name of 
a celebrated garden on the Dal Lake near Srlnagar. 
It was prepared in the latter half of the eighteenth 
century by Amir Kliiin Jawan Shi-r. 

amar-buth ^JT^;-'^ I ^?Tx;^t7i: m. (sg. dat. -butas 

-^n^), or ombur-buth '^r?^-^^, a certain white 
powder applied to the limbs by pilgrims to Amar- 
niith (q.v.). It is made of the gypsum rock of which 
the cave is composed. Its application is believed to 
possess great religious efficacy. 
am'ra-kadal ^^t-^^^ I %gf%^^: m. the name of 
the uppermost bridge over the Veth (Jehlam) Eiver 
in Srlnagar. It was built by Amir Khitn Jawiin Sher 
in the latter half of the eighteenth century. 

amar-nath ^?jjr^-?iT^ i ^?T^g-^%^ m. (sg. dat. 
-nathas -^rra^) or ambar-nath ^1^3:;-^^, Lord 

of the Immortals, N. of Siva (Siv. 192) ; N. of a cave 
about 70 /ids cast of Srlnagar among the sources 
of the Sind River (Siv. Ill, 522). It contains a 
large block of transparent ice formed by the freezing 
of the water which issues from the rock. This is 
worshipped as a linga or emblem of Siva Amaresvara. 
It is a place of great sanctity, and the pilgrimage to it 
in the month of Sravana or June-July attracts many 
thousands of people not only from Kashmir but from 
all parts of India. The pilgrimage is one involving 
great hardships. See El. s.v., L. 41, and RT.Tr. 
II, 409. For a description of the modern pilgrimage, 
see Vigne, Tracels, pp. 10 ff. 

amreth ^n^%4, -^^ i -ii^idH^ m- (sg. dat. amretas 

'T'^'^fra and so on), ambrosia nectar, always repre- 
sented as a liquid (Siv. 15, 167, 195, 473, 501, etc.); 
hence, met., any particularly dainty or delicious food. 
amreta-zal ^WjT-ST'?! m. the water of ambrosia, liquid 
ambrosia, nectar (Siv. 1^9). 

amis ^srf'T^, amis"y ^^rf??^^, see ath 1. 

amot° ^TJT^ I ^Tifi:, ^fiw: adj. (f. amiife'^ ^HT^), 

the perf. part, of JTUn", q.v., come, arrived (e.g. Siv. 
44) ; of seeds and the like, just sprouting, just appeared 
above the ground. 

amoth'^ ^?Tg I ■^Jif^fi: adj. (f. amiifeh* ''ni^), not 

rubbed (of oil, medicine, or the like, rubbed on the 
body) ; not rubbed, not brushed, dusty (of clothes). 

amathor" -^jth^ i ^rajftan: adj. (f. amathbr'^ 

^W3T^), not levelled or straightened ; hence, of 
a vessel or dish, etc., not hammered out. 

amfltr" ^i^ 1 ^irf^: adj. (f. amfitr" '^i^), not 

rendered subject to charm, not charmed against (e.g. 
a snake) ; not offered to a god, etc., with the proper 
spell or invocation (^mantra). 


ama-taw ■^HT-flT^ I ^Tfftl^H 'n. the mark of slight 
burning, or scorching, on cloth or the limbs. 

amiibh*' ■^jtw , «<^o amoth" ^^m • 

amawashy ^JfT^^ m. the night of the new moon 

(Siv. 1658). 
amiy ^fij^, amiy ^f»T^, amyuk" '^'3^, see ath 1. 
amyul" '^'^ I ■^^firf^rri: adj. (f. amij" '^'f^). not 

united, not mixed ; not met with, rare, difficult or 
impossible to procure. 
Om'-yam ^Tt»T-^T»l, I l^^^ll^^nR; f- the feeling of disgust, 
accompanied by vomiting and diarrhoea, experienced by 
a woman in the earlier months of her pregnancy. 

amyun" ^«Tg I •^fJTfi: adj. (m. dat. sg. aminis ■^if^f^, 
ag. amin' ■^jft'(«T , abl. ameni ^aOt; pi. noni. amin* 
"^nft-^, diit. amenen ^^^^i;, ag. and abl. amenyau 
^flsft; fem. amin" wt'si , dat. ameni ^^fsf, and 

so on), not measured, not weighed. 
an 1 ^«t^ I ^^J^ m. any edible grain, cooked or uncooked ; 
grain food generally (Siv. 969). As the first member 
of a compound this word often takes the form anna 
■^g, see below. — karun — ^1; I *ftlR-*l^T!lfl[ 
m.inf. to oat food, generally used as a j)olite formula 
in addressing a superior, -kath -^3 I ^^T^W^l m. 
inferior kinds of grain such as barley, pulses, or the 
like, eaten by the poorer classes, -kuth -^i^ I 
fl-=ir«(^^: m. (sg. dat. -kutas -^Z^), a pile of grain ; 
esp. a pile of grain and other food distributed to 
the poor at various festivals, especially at the close 
of the rice harvest. Cf. El. s.v. ankiit and L. 271. 
-kitar' -f^rT'^ 1 ■^T^f^^^: a kind of rat which 
infests granaries. Emplo3'cd in the plural, as they 
appear in great numbers, -pan -Tji^^ | ^^JTWlf^^'T 
m. a reduplication of an '^•^ ; grain etcetera, grain 
and the like ; all kinds of food eaten with grain. 

ana-gagor" ^'t-'pt^ I f^^Ts^i^: m. (f. -gagiir" 

-H^I^), a musk-rat (W. 115 connects this with on" 1). 
-kan -^'t^ I f^TS^t^^: m. a kind of cake in 
the shape of a ball made up of rice, etc., and offered 
by Briihmans to deceased ancestors, a pinda. -mur" 
-?n5 or anna-miir" ■^w-T^ 1 I^T^ m. a kind of 
grain-rat, apparently a kind of musk-rat ; according 
to El. (s.v. anamur), a mole. -met" -^ffV<L or anna- 
met" ^g^-fS(Z I *TWl1'^f^^^: f- the amount of cooked 
grain taken into the hand at one time to put into the 
mouth, a gobbet of rice ; hence, met., any small quantity 
of food, a mere mouthful, -moth -"^Z or anna- 
motb. ^3-J^Z I ^a^rfs: f. a fistful of grain, such as is 
given to a beggar in charity ; hence, met., a very small 

quantity of grain, -maye -T{m or anna-may e ^w- 

WJi I ^aHfjT^ ^rfs; ra. the satiety produced in an 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and fo-- words beginning with u, a, see under wn, wfl respwtively. 

an 2 -^^ 

— so- 

on" 1 


invalid by eating only a small quantity of food ; the 
satisfaction of an invalid's hunger, -pan -m'l. m. 
bread (El.), -prashun "HT^ I ■^JW^nipT'i; m. the 
religious ceremony of putting rice into a Ilindii child's 
mouth for the first time. Cf. L. 260. 
an 2 ^5^, pron. suff. of the 3rd pcrs. sg. in either the 
ace. or the ag. case, and added to any finite form of 
a verb. If the verbal form ends in a vowel, the initial 
a is dropped. Thus, karan chuh-an ^TT^i; ^^'l, 
thou makest him ; koru-n ^^s^, made by him, he 
made. If the verb be in the 3rd person, an in the sense 
of the ace. is not used, as ^^ being substituted, as in 

suh karan chu-s ^f w^T'T; W^, not suh karan 

chu-n ?ff W^TIl Wi;, he makes him (Gr.Gr. 185). 
an ■^•(^ is also used to indicate the nom. case, when 
the nom. represents the object of a transitive verb in 
a past tense, as in tr6w°th-an, he was released by 
thee, thou releasedst him (Gr.M. 1057), so moka- 

lowHh-an (Si v. 3). 

an 3 ^•t, a jjrimary sufiix forming abstract nouns from 
certain verbal roots. In the case of three verbs whose 
roots end in e (viz., chyon" '^ni , to drink ; khyon"^ 
5^J, to eat ; and hyon" 1I«T , to place) the initial a is 
dropped, and the abstract noun is masc. Thus, cen 
^P[^ , drinking. In the case of the other verbs with 
which this suff. is used, the abs. noun is fern. A list 
of these verbs will be found in Gr.Gr. 120 ff. 

an 4 '^^, ani 1 -^Rt, anas '^R^, or anan ^ri;, 

a secondary suff. added pleonasticall}' to adverbs of 
place (see Gr.Gr. 155). 

an 1 ^Tl. I ^T'^ f. an order, command, used in the 
following : -mbni -JJT^ I qi;^;n:T^TtlT^'m; f. obeying 
(mutual) orders, mutual respect ; mutual confidence, 
mutual loyalty. — maniin" — "fl'I'^ I ^JTT'gmH^q 
f.inf. to obey orders ; to become subject to anyone. 

an 2 ^Tl,, a prim. suff. forming the pres. part., as in 
kar-an ^BTTI: doing (Gr.Gr. 104). 

an 3 ^T^, a sec. suff. added to some few words, giving 
an adjectival force with a bad sense, as dand "^y^, 
a tooth, dandan ^^i;, having an ugly tooth (Gr.Gr. 

ana 1 ^TR I t^1[^»TT«I^39JI; m. the name of a certain 
coin or sum of money, an anna. 

ana 2 ^TR I flf^ adv. at a (certain) time, only used 
-», as in tami-ana (rffl-^Tf, at that time. 

ani 2 '^rI" (for l see an 4), a primary suffix indicating 
necessity, like the Latin part, in -ndum, as in karani 
^TMY, it must be made. Added to a root ending in 
a vowel, the initial a is dropped, as in dini f^^, it 
is to be given (Gr.Gr. 1 11). 



aina ^ or ona ^TR ( = <uJl) l ■^T^: m. a mirror, a 
looking-glass (8iv. 500, 558, 1547). K.Pr. spells this 
word alnah, transliterating the Pers. <iijT . -dbr" 
-3"r^ I '^TT^^^TZ. a door ornamented with mirrors. 
-gor" -^ I ^MU!f<^T^<l)- ™. a mirror-maker ; a seller 
of mirrors, -khiind" -^TJ^I "^(^ul^l!^: f- a piece of 
a mirror. -khap"t" -^tJZ I fl'^^ ^7^: f. a small 
mirror, of no value or use. -khot" -^Z I ^T^^ftVT'm: 
m. a mirror-cover, or mirror-case. -phut" -'^tT I 
»{^^^^qT!r: f. a broken ijiece of looking-glass. 
-Wbj" -^T^ I ^^^fft^^ f. a kind of finger-ring, 
fitted with" a tiny mirror, -zompana -STJ^^TR I 
^T^^JT^ftrf^^T m- a palanquin, the doors and other 
parts of which are made of mirrors of glass, crystal, 
or the like ; hence, met., a very fragile conveyance. 

bna ■^nf, see aina. 

bn* ^T'^ , a prim. suff. forming a kind of adverbial pres. 

part. Thus, kar-bn' cfiTTT^, while doing. It is only 

used by rustics (Gr.Gr. 196). 
on" 1 ^g I ■^'^: adj. (m. sg. dat. anis ■^f'ra;, Siv. 746 ; 

f. un" ^■^ sg. ag. ani '^f^, K.Pr. 66), blind (Siv. 16). 

— sapanun — ^cra'T'l,, to become blind. 

an'-arath ^^-^TT^ I t!Tf'i'^fl»niT: m- (sg. 
dat. -aratas -^TTH^), evening, twilight; cf. arath. 
-bishta -f^TfT I ^'^^SRfrff m. one who acts 
like a blind man, one who acts without foresight. 
-gash -irnr l 'SRW^ini^inr: m. all the light that 
is visible by a blind man ; hence, met., dimness, 
very little light, -luth -WS I ^'^^T!3>fri^ , ^^^VH'. 
m. looting by a blind man, circumstances under which 
even a blind man can plunder; hence, met., mis- 
government, tyranny, -mushta -JTTfl I ^l^^'^^TTT- 
^g?lTf^ f-pl. hitting by a blind man ; hence, met., ill- 
treating without excuse, ill-treating or striking the 
wrong person, -raz -'?^3t | ^^tjf^: f . a string of blind 
men. A number of blind men form a line and go 
along the pilgrim-roads begging. The front man sings 
a song, to which the others reply in chorus. -SOr" 
-?rn^ I '^tTOTT'JIT f- search by a blind man ; hence, 
met., searching for anything in the dark ; or searching 
futilely and without system for anything lost or 
destroyed, -thapa -W\ I ^•^^^J^'m grasping 
by a blind man; hence, met., when the proper resource 
is wanting, using the first thing that conies to hand as 
a substitute, or taking hold of anything without first 
seeing what it is. 

anis mushHh hawiin" na sawab na gonah 
^fi^ ^^^ fT^ 1 «^^ 1 ?^*TTf I Oj^Ts^inrre: 

to shake one's fist at a blind man is neither a good 
action nor a sin (he does not see it, and it neither 

For words beginuiiig witli S, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with n, n, see under wu, wu respectively. 

on" 2 'STT 


and ^^ 

pleases him nor angers him) ; used of making an 
exertion the result of which is absolutely indifferent. 

ane-ach*-gash ^"sj-^^^-Ji-nr I "^^^Tf^n^lT: m- 

the light of a blind ej'e ; the little, but much treasured, 
light of a blind eye ; hence, met., an only son, a 
darling son, a favourite son. -chapUT*' -^IT^ I 
Wt^lf^^: f- fi children's game. One boy is blind- 
fold and another boy hides, the former, after being 
unblindfolded, having to find out where the latter is. 
-gath -11^ I ^^t^t^^h; m. (sg. dat. -gatas -TTrl^ 
and so on), a disgrace, a mark of shame or dishonour 
brought on as the result of some sinful act, or (in 
the case of a family) by sinful practices. -khorot' 
-ITTTfil I ^(?rft^^: adj. e.g. extremely unpleasant, 
deserving to be hidden away. 

ani-gata ^rf^-iz f. or -got" -^5 m. 1 ^!^i^?:: 

darkness, whether by day or by night (Siv. 157) ; met., 
the sensation of darkness caused by fainting or the like ; 
f.abl. aiciigati, in the dark (K.Pr. 13, 82, cf. 226). 
-gatilad -itZ^S^ adj. e.g. dark (of a night, or the 
like) (Gr.M.). 

on° 2 ^^ , see anun. 

on" 3 ^5, un 1 ^5^, un" 1 ^3, a m. prim. suff. 
forming (1) the verbal noun or infinitive, and (2) the 
future passive participle, as in karon" 'fj^, karun 
qi^5^, or efi^ karun", the act of doing, to do, or 
about to be done, necessary to be done. See Gr.Gr. 
112 ff. 

un 2 B*!; (for 1 see under on" 3). A sec. suff. indicating 
condition, omy noted in mait-un ^1., the condition 
of a corpse (Gr.Gr. 144). 

un" 2 ^1 (f. un" ^l^), a suffix forming the genitive, 
used mostly with masc. projier names, as in ramun" 
TJ^^ (f- ramiin" TT'T^), of or belonging to Riima, 
and with the word pana m«I self, forming the adj. 

panun" ^^ (f. paniin" i^^sr), own (Gr.Gr. 

42, 152). For un" 1 see on" 3. 
un" 3 ^, a sec. suff. used with the words kut" g?^, 

a beam, and dag ^, a blow. Thus, kutun" ^ZT, 

a small beam; dag^n" ^J, a club, a mace (Gr.Gr. 

anubaw "5^^ m. perception, understanding, experience. 

anubawa-baw ^sr^^^-^^ m. a condition in wliich 

one is capable of experiencing or understanding the 

merits of any person or thing (Siv. 75). 
ancar '^t^^T^, see lear. 

and ^R^ I ^"tJ: m. either end or edge of any inanimate 
thing ; the end or limit (of a person's greatness, 
existence, majesty, etc.) (§iv. 46, 97) ; a boundary, limit 
(L. 458) ; the end, conclusion, or termination of any 

action or condition ; adv. to the end, right through 
to the end in due order (Siv. 120) ; in various 
idioms noted below the word ' end ' is extended to 
mean the outer end, the exterior. Cf . anta and onth. 
-bor" -4^ I ^?TTf?T^T'5'3n^ ni. nearness to a con- 
elusion, getting near the end. -god -1^^ I '?n^»fm m. 
the end and the beginning, the beginning and the end, 
the alpha and omega of anything. — hetb — '^^ I 
^^jfr^jg lit. having taken the end; hence, as an 
adv., from the beginning, from the first, -peth -WS I 
*T^5i^ c|i^Ti$<!!H a*^^- 'i''- o" the outside, the converse 
of gara-peth T'^-XSra, q.v. under gara. Used with 
reference to a bride being made over to her husband's 
house, as contrasted with a son-in-law who lives with the 
bride in hor parents' house. — watun — «rTfl«t^ I ^^TT- 
■H^H^PW;, ^^Hm^^ m.inf. to arrive at the end, to be 
successfully concluded ; to conclude a long and suc- 
cessful life. 

and' ^tr'T ''^'^^- °^ *'^° edge, outside (YZ. 40). -and' 
-^^^ I ^f^^f^:, i^f^: adv. round and round outside, 

as in -and' bith' yegyes -^^ ^t? ^n^ra^ 
they were seated round the sacrifice (Siv. 78), -and' 
pakun -^tr^ ti^T. or -and' pherun -^^ ^1;, to 

walk ceremonially round any person or thing, keeping 
him or it to the right hand, as a token of reverence 
(cf. YZ. 89). — gabhun — T^'i: I ^fl»Tf^: m.inf. to 
go outside ; hence, of a missile, to miss the mark 
or, of a person, to act vainly or uselessly (Siv. 22). 
— karun — «ir^«j;. I i^f^^ni: m.inf. to make outside ; to 
separate from a group or collection; to despise, reject; 
to abandon, -pakh' -4tj^ I ^f^^f^^ a^v. outside 
and here, outside and inside ; here, there, and every- 
where ; u.w. vbs. of searching, etc. — thawun — ^fWl. I 

^^qi'T;, iq- anda thawun ab. -wati -^^ 1 

fHWn'Nl iidv. by an outer way, by another way 
(usually with the idea of secrecy) ; u.w. vbs. of going, 

etc. -wath ken^ -^^^ 

I trft^'W'JI finf- to 

take the outer way, to go away secretly. 

anduk" ^'^f I ^f'fl'?: adj. (f. andiic" "^^f^), of 

or belonging to the end, final, the last. — and 
— '^•?" 1 ^ilU'Sftif'TmHTT: m. the end of all, end, e.g. of 
a row or of a strip of cloth. 

anda-kani ^R^-cfifsf 1 ^•(1«rr% adv. in the end, at 
the end, to one side, on the outer side, close by, u.w. 
vbs. of placing, pointing out, and the like ; apart 
from, free from, devoid of, mayaye anda-kani, free 
from delusion (Siv. 422). -kani manz-bag -^fJI »Ta- 
W[^ I ^StTf^fTT^rHfTWn't adv. being on the outer 
side (to sit) in the middle ; (of any action) going off 
right into the middle of things (cf . K.Pr. 12) . -kanjruk" 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under yS, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning with u, 4, see under wn, wtl respectively. 

and ^T^ 

— 32 

and^ryum^ ''f'5^? 

-^'9? I ^5fT»iTn»T^: adj. (f. -kanic" -^f5T|^), of or 
belonging to the end, edge, outer side or vicinity. 
-petha -■or3 l ^l^', '^'rnft Wf adv. from tlie end, as in 
counting from either end of a row. -petha OnthaS-tafi 
-■JqS "^rijsr^-JTT's; I ^?nf?fftS 'riq^'Tl?^ adv. from one end to 
the other, from beginning to end, thoroughly, u.w. vbs. 
of investigating, searching, and the like. — thawun 
— ^^^^ I 1^^q»fJ^ m.inf. to place outside, to hide 
anything away, -wand -^-^ I ^if^rT: 'ffJTTFT'rH^ adv. 
from beginning to conclusion, u.w. regard to any- 
thing implying length, such as a lino, a road, or the 
like ; continually, without cessation (of time) (Siv. 334). 
anda-and '^•^-■^^ adv. on the edge (L. 460). 

and •^Tl^m. an egg (EL). 

bnd' wf^, see od'. 

anod' ^5|T^ or anbr> '^RT^ I "^Rfnir: adj. e.g. un- 
skilful, awkward, clumsy, inexpert ; inexperienced, 
unpractised ; ignorant, uncouth. 

and'hir" ^t'i^'C^^ l '^T'aR; f. the thick darkness of 
a clouded dark night (Siv. 1034) ; clouds or a dust- 
storm, causing such darkness by day; met., tyranny, 
injustice. Cf. od'. 

andakar •^•^cni^ l ■^•^=BT^: m. darkness, want of sun- 
sliine or other light; met., tyranny, unjust rule (cf. 
K.Pr. 126) ; as a religious tech. term, the darkness of 
delusion, the conception of sense, egoism ( = Sanskrit 
akaMam) (Siv. 3, 18) ; sinful delusion generally 
(Siv. 59, 66, 67). 

andim" ^f^^, see andyum". 

andun "^^i^ I ^WTRtn^^w; conj. 3 (2 p.p. andyov 

•«C"srV^), to be ended, concluded ; of a lawsuit or dis- 
pute, to be decided, settled. 

andon" -^^ \ h?itth^^: adj. (f. andun*^ ^5^), fit or 

worthy to be ended ; approaching the conclusion (of 
a story, action, etc.). 
andar ■^^^^j.jl l ^nl'^H adv. and postpos. inside, 
within (Siv. 763), in (Siv. 21, 866). As postpos. it 
governs the dat., e.g., khabas andar, in a dream 
(YZ. 80) ; nayi andar, on the plateau (K.Pr. 156) ; 
magas andar, in the month of Miig (Siv. 590) ; 

netran andar, in the eyes (Siv. 767 ) . — afeun — "w^^ 

or — galshun — Tfi:, to go in, to enter, -kun-^i^^^ | 
•Sl'tH.HT'} adv. to within, u.w. vbs. of placing, etc. 
-kuth --^ I ^mrf^^: m. (sg. dat. -kutas -^^, and 
so on), the name of a village in Kashmir some 14 miles 
below Srlnagar on the left bank of theVeth (Jehlam). 
It is on the site of Jayapura, the ancient capital of 
King Jayaplda, see RT.Tr. iv, 506-11, and II, 479. 
-nebar -HTT^ I '^nl^ff : adv. inside and outside, within 
and without. — yun" — gj m.inf. to come in, to enter. 


and^ra 1 ^^T l '^•tlTTfl, adv. and postpos. f]om 
within, from inside ; from among (as in one from 
among several). In K.Pr. 156 it means simply 
' inside '. As postpos. it governs the abl. For 
and^ra 2 see under and^r. -kanen -^jigs^ i 

•^•friTT^^ adv. inside, within, -kanyuk" -cfi^^ I 
^SiWrTH^: adj. (f. -kanic" -^ifsj^), of or be- 
longing to the inside, internal, interior, -neb^ra 
-tq^ I ^5fJ^f^: adv. from within and from without. 

and^r' ^^t^; ' '^•'TTt; adv. from within, -and^ri 

-■'^i'^iT; I '^•n"^«nT'^ adv. very private (of a con- 
sultation, etc.), secretly between the parties. -and^r"y 
-^•^^^ I i!J»flT;«rli; ^^'^ adv. quite within ; very 
privately, -dam -'^^ I '^T'H''C'^^f'rft>ii: m. the name 
of a disease in which there is inliibition of the breath in 
the air passages caused by the morbid accumulation of 
phlegm ; bronchitis, ? asthma, -kin' -f^^ I '^^ITT'I , 
JltSfi^TITft. adv. in the middle, within, inwardly (Siv. 
764) ; from within, from in. -tam -rfJi; I ^nl^O'lHT- 
t?|^H m. darkness of in the middle ; hence, fainting, or 
extreme pain, owing to an internal disease, of which 
the symptoms are not visible. -feur -^T! I I^Ttl" 
m. a thief of in the middle ; a hidden, incurable, internal 

and*r '^•§^ i '^'^K ni. entrail, intestine. Cf. and^ram. 

Its abl. is and*ra 2 ^fT > hence the following. 

For and^ra 1 see under andar. 

and='ra-chal 'ss^x-^w I ^f^^^n f. rupture or 

exposure of the intestines ; lesion of the intestines ; 
? hernia, -humal -^IT^ I IT^Ttrf^TT: adj. e.g. one 
who is in the habit of offering entrails in sacrifice ; 
hence, met., very mean, miserly. -wath -'^T^ I 
■^n^m^: m. the chief organ in the intestine, the main 

anadar ^HT^^ I ^snrr^: m. disrespect, contempt, rude- 
ness offered to one to whom respect is due. 

and^ram ^"^li; l ^'Srn m. an intestine, entrail ; the 
intestines, as a whole. Cf. and^r. -kutun" -giZ«T I 
^«T!(*sm^: m. a piece of intestine ; a portion of 
the intestines, a gut. -lofch" -^^ I ^«F?i*ili; m. 
a lump of intestine ; hence, a portion of extruded 
intestine, the extruded intestine in hernia, -lofehur" 
-■^fl'^ I '^'^T^^Z'^ f. id., but of a smaller lump, 
-nor'' -«ft^ I ■^•T^'nTl' m. a tubular portion of the 

and^ruth" '^^^^^ I ■^'Tix;mffn ni. \he condition of not 
being cooked within, of not being cooked through and 
through ; hence, met., indigestion. 

and^ryum" ^^g^ i ^sr!»^:adj. (f. and^rim" ^^?:flf ), 

witliin, internal, inner (cf. K.Pr. 13) ; met., inner, 

For words beginning with S, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 



— 33 — 

angal'-war ^|ft?f-^T^ 

heartfelt, sincere (of affection) (Gr.M.). The converse 
is nebaryxun" •q^^ir, q.v. (El. spells this (indamm.) 
— nebar karun — sirt ^i^l I ^T'in:^ ^fff^VR^l 
m. to make what is within outside, to turn inside out ; 
to slay by evisceration. 

andashe ^RS^ I ^^^^Sf»t adv. without connexion 
with, apart from, excluded from. 

andusurun ■^•^■J^'i; m. Wrightea nntidysenterica (EL). 

andyiun" ^^ i ^f^?i: adj. (f. andim" ^rf^), 

final, concluding, last. 

andyot" ^'^rg I '^'^^^'Tr^'W: m. (sg. dat. andetis 

^'^rfa^), the reciprocal giving in marriage of children, 
as when two persons have each a son and a daughter, 
and agree to marry the son of one to the daughter of 
the other and also the daughter of one to the son 
of the other. 

andaza ^^T^l ijlojl l ■^f^'HTI m. the desired result of 
any action ; an approximation, rough calculation, 
estimate (Gr.M.). 

ang 1 '^T^ I ■^^l^ m. a limb (not only of a living being 
but also of a tree, etc.) ; a member of the body 
(including such members as eyes, ears, etc.) ; a relation, 
a person related by blood, belonging to the same 
family. — dyun" — ^ I ^^5 ^Wl1<^?U!^ m.inf . to 
apply to the body, hence a certain ceremony ; when 
a new garment is procured, the body or appropriate 
limb is touched by it for the first time at a lucky 
moment, as a preliminary to bringing it into wear. 
This is called ' applying them to the body '. — hyon" 
— 115 I •TfTl^^^lf^^XiWl^ m.inf . to put on new 
clothes for the first time, usually applied to putting on 
one's own body some one else's new clothes, so as to 
take the newness off them. This wards off the evil eye, 
etc., from their real possessor. 

anga-buz ^STf ^ • ^'fglBWiVarsntj^ m. food 

or medicine which makes the limbs stout, nourishing 
food or medicine, a tonic, -dor" -^ I ?ST^: adj. 
(f. -diir** -^^). having firm or strong limbs (generally 
of men or animals), -dush -^^ I ^^^t^: m. a 
fault or blemish in a person's limb or member of the 
body, e.g. one-eyedness, which would be, for instance, 
considered as a blemish in arranging a marriage with 
a person so afflicted, -hyun" -Ug I fllTf : (fem. 
-hin*^ -■^■ar), wanting a limb or limbs, or having 
a deformed limb or limbs (usually of a himian being 
or of an image^. -rag -TT^ I ^^ili: m. a cosmetic, 
especially the lac-coloured cosmetic appHed to the 
cheeks, etc., of a bride, rouge, -wol" -^^ I 
^<^4iiL^<;IH ni- ^ small permanent earring fixed for 
luck in the lobe of the ear, from which larger 

earrings or other ear-ornaments may be suspended. It 
is made of gold or silver, -watukh -'TF^ I '^nfHVT- 
^gi: m. (sg. dat. -watakas -^TZ^i^, and so on), 
a treatment or medicine which helps to unite a 
broken limb. 

ang 2 ^!f^ I ■^XST^TT^'^ m. granulations of a healing 
sore or wound. — yun" — ^g I ?im l^<| O'^^ Ifj^H 
m.inf. to begin to granulate, to show signs of healing 
(of sore or wound). 

anga 2 ^'^ \ ^qfTOTf^WTT: fpl- (for anga 1 see 
under ang 1), a method of ridicule, when a crowd 
of children or the like shout imitative sounds over and 
over again at a person. — Wllthun — ^"l. m.inf. or 
— wuthane — 53^ f. pi. inf. ^^^^1^^:, to adopt 

a method of ridicule or abuse employed by low-caste 
people and the river population when quarrelling and 
abusing each other ; it consists in the disputant 
twisting up rags into the form of a doll and showing 
it meaningly to the other (wuthun, to twist). 

angoca ^^^ I ^f^JTT^I^TH: m. a bathing-towel, 
a towel. 

Qjjguju -^f^^^, often written ong"j' '^J^ I ^l'^ 
f. a finge^ (cf. K.Pr. 59, 157, 191, 218) ; a toe. 
— gafehun" — IW'5 I ^^TTHrfH: finf. to be cheated, 
to be swindled out of anything. 

ong"ji-gand ^^^faj-^TSi; 1 '^j^^'^^t'er: m. a finger- 
joint, a toe-joint. -nam -'TI^ I '^^^TTf: m. a 
finger-uail, a toe-nail, -pbtsam -'^hcii I qTWlt^^: 
f. a method of swindling, as when a thief who is 
caught stealing conceals somewhere the stolen property 
and displays his five fingers, i.e. liis open hand, 
to show that there is nothing in them. -tyond" 
-^T!^ I '^^^^IT m. (sg. dat. -tendis -affx!^^), the 
top joint of a finger or toe, a finger-tip, a toe- tip. 

ongul ^Tf^^ I ^f^r: m., i.q. ong"j", q.v. -» (added 
to any word expressing a thing capable of measure- 
ment in length), a finger's breadth, a measure of 
length equal to about eight barleycorns (cf. K.Pr. 226). 
— dyun"^ —^ I ^^1T<5 ^^i^^TT^: m. to tickle 
the throat with the fingers in order to induce 

ongula "^W^ I ■^T^^Wli: m. -» measuring one 
finger-breadth (see above). 

angolika ■^I^t^^T I ^^5lf^^^: f. an indecent action, 
thrusting the finger into a woman's privities ; a slang 
term for swindling. 

angal*-war '^^^-^^ I ll'^'JrfWTT: f. a particular 
astrological period, i.e. when the planet Mars {Mangala) 
is in the twelfth, first, or second sign of the zodiac 
from the particular sign in which the moon was at the 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, y: respectively, and for words beginning with u, S, see under wu, w5 respectively. 

angun ^|^ 

34 — 

anun 2 '^f ^^ 

time of the birth of a person ; such periods are 

unhicky for that person. 
angim ^T^, iq. Igun, q.v. 
angur 'W^, m. (pi. nom. angur ^'^, K.Pr. 180), 

a grape (W. 155). 
anugrah ^T?rf m. favour, kindness (Siv. 885). 

anugraha ^1^ interj. show favour! show mercy! 

(Siv. 127). 
angrasha ^^-^ISIT m. Spircca Kcuntschatika (EL). 
angrizi ^#f^ adj. e.g. English ; subst.f. the English 

language (Gr.M.). 
ongutia "^Wfi I ^WT ^^"0 m. the small cutters used by 

a jeweller or goldsmith. 
anguza s\<(j\ m. Narthex assafcetida (EL). 
an-huhur" ^l^-^^^ I ^^^: adj. (sg. dat. an-haharis 

^1 fltr^) and so on; f. an-harish" "sjrsi^-^tx;^), 

un wedded, unmarried, (m.) a bachelor, (f.) a maid. 

Cf. K.Pr. 13. 
an-haharer ^'if l4^ I ^rf^^fffl^l m. the state or 

condition of an unmarried person, bachelorhood, 


anhar '?I1,1T^ or anahar '^ifT^, a prim. sufP. 

indicating fitness, as in karanhar qi^»i;^'^ , fit to be 

done, khenahar ^•ITI'^> fi* to be eaten (Gr.Gr. 129). 
an-harish^ ^1-lfX^. see an-huhur". 
on'^has ^5^, he was brought by them, see anun 

(cf. YZ. 129). 
anahata-shebd "^•TTf fl-^^ m. the Limitless Word, 

a mystic N. of the Deity in Yoga philosophy 

(Siv. 1656). 
an-h6fe" ^s^, igj:!^, see an-hyot". 

an-hefear ^1-ir^ I "^f^fl^fl m. unfriendliness, 
malevolence, ill-nature, unkindness ; of an action, an 
iU result, a result which only does harm to the doer, 
a disappointment. 

an-hyot" ^^t.-^ I ^rf^^Sci: adj. (f. an-hefe" ^i:-'?r5 ), 

unfriendly, malevolent, ill-natured, unkind; of an action, 

having a result harmful to the doer, disappointing, of 

evil efl'ect. 
anaj ^TI^ m. grain, corn (Gr.M.). 
anjabarjUac*! m. Polygonum historta (EL), a creeping 

plant, from which a drink is prepared with sugar for 

obstinate colds and haemorrhages. 
anje-kor" ^R^JT-W^ I ^TT^^^ m. a large vessel brimful 

of anything. 
anjam »^\ m. end, termination, conclusion (El.) ; 

completion, accomplishment. — sapadun — ^q^si;, 

to be completed, finished, accomplished (Gr.M.). 
anjuman ^^y^^\ m. an assembly, meeting, company, 

society (EL). 


anjir r^i?^^ ni- Ficus cariea and Ficus caricoldes. It is 

small and wild (EL). 
anekh ^^^ adj. e.g. many, manifold. 
ainakh ^^^ i— ^^^ ' ^^^'^^1 m. (sg. dat. ainakas 

^«B^), a pair of spectacles, an eyeglass (either for 

improving the sight or for protecting against glare). 

-gara -it I ^^•I'^TW^ m- a spectacle case. 
onukh ^1^^ they brought (with masc. sing, obj.), 

see anim. 
ankar jl^l m. a denial (EL). 
ankar ^i^-i<, , see Ikar. 
onkar ^^T . see §kar and om-kar. 
anekata '^%^«rr f- manifoldness (Siv. 1486). 
ankath ■^•I^^ l nfclctivj^ adv. word by word, statement 

by statement, u.w. vbs. of remembering and tlie like. 
bnkawan -iii-^cii., see Bkawan. 
auam "^^m^ or ^5?^ aniun, in the following compounds. 

-nenam -jq^w; or anum-nenum ^5»l-^3f»i: I '?if^'^- 

fT<l*^.adv. without due regard to projiortiou, unthriftily, 
uneconomically, without considering e.Kact quantities, 
u.w. vbs. of giving, bringing, etc., giving wthout 
considering whether tlie gift is excessive or too little. 

-nenam-pbth* -^^p^-ttt^, anum-nenum pbth^ 
^^-3l^Ji;-xiTt^, -nenam-pbthin -3niJi;-T?Tf3i:, or 
anum-nenum-pbthin '^si^i^-sijT^-qTl^'l I ^^f=^ciii- 
^T^ adv. id. 

anom" ^Mj 1 ^h^^^tr: adj. (f. aniim" ^Mw), not 

bent, not bowed down ; not humble, not polite by 

anman T!I«r»n»i; 1 ^^^tj; m. setting one's hand for any 
purpose to any work, whether that work is being 
already performed by another or not ; ability to 
understand the purport of any such work, acumen, 
comprehensive power. 

anaman ^ssr^ti; i '^^^tt^mj^, ^^vt'RI m. the 

occurrence of an opportunity, the right moment for 
doing anything, an opportunity ; intentness, attention 
applied to any work. 
ani-mani '^nfl-^nt'T l •=!(^fIIfM^I^1«Rt^: m. ignorance, 
or want of comprehension, of the meaning of anything, 
failing to understand anything. 

anna ^w, see an 1. 
anan '^•I'l;, see an 4. 

anun 1 ^J'l. 2nd sg. impve. of anun 2, with sufiix 3rd 
pers. sing, ace, 'bring him' or 'bring it', liable to 
be confoimded with anun, the infinitive. 

anun 2 ■^51; or anun ^T^l, I ^stt'T'sH'I: eonj. 1 (1 p.p. 
on^ ^, f. un" ^^; 2 p.p. anov ^^^), to bring, 
convey, fetch (Siv. 194, 516, 589) ; to bring, conduct, 
invite (a person) (Siv. 72, 89, 154) ; to bring forward 

For words begiuning with S, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, a, see under wn, wS respectivelj-. 

anand "^^^ 

35 — 

anathnag ^^r^tt^ 

(arguments, etc.) ; to bring forward, quote, borrow 
a story (YZ. 239) ; to bring forward, grant, give 
(Siv. 603). tab anun, to bring forward endurance, 
to endure (Siv. 584). — nad dith — ^J^ t^^, to bring 
having called out, to caU for, summon, send for. 

on^-mof^ ^f-'^f I ^^ci: perf. part. (f. un^-miife" 
^■^-?i^), brought, conveyed; brought into tlie house, 
hence a slave, bondman, servant, ane-mafee-hond" 
fe6n"-mot" ^^-T?T-f^ ^^-'rg i ^fvi^TTi^: adj. 
(f. ane-mafee-hiinz^ fcbii"-muts" w^-»?^-fsf '^T^- 

?I3 ), the brought in one (of a bondwoman), i.e. the child 
of some servant, who has been introduced into a house, 
but who has no authority comparable with that of the 
children of the house ; hence, met., one unworthy of 
authority, unfit for exercising authority. 

anand '^l'^ I -^iii*^: m. happiness, joy, pleasure, 
delight ; ecstatic bliss, rapture (Siv. 15, 21, 182, 195, 
etc.); rest, leisure (cf. K.Pr. 187). ananda-gan 
'?IT»1«^-l(^)«t ^^i- e.g. consisting of pure joy,- all 
rajiture through and through (of saints) (Siv. 102). 
-san -W[^, quietly (El.). 

on^nam '^J^Ji; he was brought by him for me (YZ. 
350), see anun 2. 

ananth '^•i^ adj. e.g. endless, as subst. (voc. ananta 
^^^), N. of Siva (Siv. 931). 

ananawun ^RTTJ^ I ^^nf^iJi^conj. 1 (1 p.p. ananow"* 

T5f»f^'^) (this verb is classed by native grammarians 
as the caus. of yun" ^5 , to come ; it is really the 
cans, of anun 2, to bring, see Gr.Gr. 171), to cause 
to bring, to cause another to convey, to get brought. 

an-6p" ^^g I ■^^TT: adj. (f. an8p*' ^ifq^), not sliining, 
not bright (of jewels, metal vessels, and the like). 

an-par "^•I.-xtt I '^jqfStlf^?!: adj. e.g. unread, not learned, 
ignorant (Siv. 1519). 

anapur" '^•IT^ I ■*)t4MU|l f- the name of a certain 
goddess ; a certain image made of boiled rice, and 
after consecration worshipped at the sraddha ceremony. 

anbr' wr^ 1 '^Nfi: adj. e.g., i.q. anbd^ ■^srt^ q.v. 

aniirad ■'SSI'T'^T^ I TW^ff^^; f- the name of the seven- 
teenth out of the twenty-eight naksatras, or lunar 
mansions, Anuradha. 

anirase-banirase ^if^TTl-'^rTfiTT're I f^^n^ir^- 
I^TWf'T^ adv. Hke the noise of lamenting and beating 
breasts, lamentably. 

anarey ^!R^^ I ftr^?5tzf^^: f. a certain kind of boil, 
described as having a small white opening, and as 
being hard, not small, round, and very painful. 

ans (L. 128), see unz". 

anas '^•i^, see an 4. 

anasu ^Rre m. AnagaUis cwrulea (EL). 





anis ■^firo;, see on°. 

onus '^5^, I am brought (YZ. 134), see anun 2. 

anashun '^'JT^pt, I ^lIpTH m. not eating, starvation, 

fasting, from famine, sickness, poverty, anxiety, or on 

account of a fast. 
anasir ■«|5!I^''^ 1 ^RWm f. freedom from flurry, 

composure, coolness, imperturbability. 
anit, see anot". 
anta '^•tT, the first member of the following compound. 

Cf. and and onth. -rost'' -■^ i f^^ri: adj. (f. 

-riifeh" -T;W)> endless, without end, never ending. 

Cf. bnta-rost", under bnth. 
anti ^fx^, see Iti, under Eth. 
ont" ^15, see 6t" 1 and 2. 
bnta wi«fl , see 8ta under 6t" and bnth. 
bnt*i '^\'^^, see ot". 

ontabawan ■^fT*r^'»: , see btabawan. 
bnth ^T'sr l ^"fT: m. (sg. dat. bntas ^T«f!^, and so on), 
the end of anything, cf. and and anta. 

bnta-gomot" ^T5fr-ifr?ig i ^^irit ifi: adj. (f. -^6- 
miife" TTfl^), gone beyond the end, being at the last 
extremity, absolutely poverty-stricken. — gafchun 
— iIWI^ I ^'*IHIM«!H ,^M^^3nfH: m.inf. to go (beyond) 
the end, to be at the last extremity, to be absolutely 
destitute ; to become subject to another, dependent, 
submissive, humble, -rost" -T;M I ^•tTX;t^f!: adj. (f. 
-riifeh^ '^W)' 6ii*i''5S^> limitless; very long, of which 
the end is not apparent, tedious (e.g. of a road, or 

a story) ; cf . anta-rost", under anta. -rafehar -T?f"^ I 

f'TT'dfll m. endlessness, limitlessness ; tediousness. 
bntha-rosf* ^STP^l-T^ I ^nrrff fi: adj. (f. -rufeh" 

-XM ) . iq- bnta-rost" ab. -rafehar -"'([WT i '^JinjxitffTm 

m., i.q. bnta-ra^har ab. 
anath '^sr^ i ■^fsa: m. (sg. dat. anatas ^^7!^), 

an ornament used as an amulet, made of string formed 

of Iiiisa-grass, and worn in the sacrificial thread after the 

sacrificial ceremony of the anta-feodah festival, q.v. ; 

an armlet of silver or gold worn by men on the right 

arm ; an ornament, usually of gold, worn by Brahman 

women on the left ear. 
anath ^TT^ m. one without a master, hence an orphan, 

a fatherless person (Siv. 987, 1751) ; a jwor man, one 

in evil phght (Gr.M.). 
anbthl ^SRT^ f • the condition of one who is without 

a master, poverty, distress (Gr.M.). 
andth" wf| I ^r*i «>»*<!):, ^^iitT:: adj. (f. anoth*' 

^•jf'J), not fruitless, fertile (of seeds and the Uke) ; 

not obstinate, not hard (of character). 
anathnag ^R^»ni m. the name of a pargana of Kashmir 

in the Division of Maritz. It is also called Islamabad, 

For words beginning with 6, i, 1, see under ye, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning with u, fl, see under wu, wa respectively. 

F 2 

antakaran ^n?T:^iTT!r 

36 — 

anzun ^Sfi; 

after the chief town of the division, and Isliimiibild itself 
is also called Anathniig. The word is said to mean 
endless springs, the ancient name being Anantaniiga 
(EL). Cf. RT.Tr. II, 466, and Siv. 1162. 

antakaran ^RnTI^iT'^, ni- t^® heart, soul (Siv. 1752). 

anaf^m ■^arfTci;'!; m. selflessness, ignorance of the nature 
of self (Siv. 1850). 

antarbahih. ^nl^l^: (borrowed from Sansk.), adv. within 
and without, through and through, entirely (Siv. 761). 

6ntur°-kh6ntur" ^t^-j^x!^^, see dtur^-khdtur*'. 

anetis, soo anot". 

antafeodah ^^ir^^f I '^I'fl^g^ll^ f • the festival of the 
Ananta-caturd(di, held on the fourteenth day of the 
light half of the month of Bhiidrai^ada, on which Scsa 
or Ananta, the Serpent of Eternity, is worshipped. 

anta-wanth '^TT^-^Ti!ir, see Sta-w&th. 

anfefe'' '^^ . see anyot". 

anfcur'* ^^3^ I ^'^rl'ittf : f. a virgin, an unblemished 

anfereth '^•1,^3 1 '^^#f5t^lRrr f. the last rites, the 
funeral sacrifice and ceremonies. 

anifafaha ^t^r^T f . want of wish, imwillingness ; sg. dat. 
used as adv., against one's will, unexpectedly 
(Siv. 19, 1215). 

anow" 1 ^^t^ I ^iftf^: adj. (f. anow" '?rt^), not 
cleaned, not polished (of any metal article, etc.). 

anow" 2 ^S'frf I I'Wf^'j: adj. (f. anow** ^»^T^), name- 
less, without a name. 

anwace ^WT^, sec anwiit'*. 

anawun"^ '^R^5 m. (f. anawiin" -^srif^"^), one who 

brings (K.Pr. 13); cf. anun 2. 
anwar '^•T^T^ I ^J^T- f- a time, round, bout, period, 
routine (Siv. 8, 1160), a turn (as when men move turn 
and turn about or in turn). — panwar — q«|qi^ | 
J1I«rt5 ^^T« f- a reduplication of the foregoing, but 
less definitely indicating fixed periods of alternation. 

— wanwar — ^^^Tf^ I irnftij^x;: f- id. 

anwut*' ^^ I *l^^ffT; f. (sg. dat. anwace ^^ig^), 
alarming news. anwace pene ^'t^^ TH'S{ I 
f^nftfir^T^TfR- f- pi- inf- tlio falling of alarming 
news ; hence, to be in terror or panic, to be utterly 
distraught and panic-stricken through fear, anwace 
fehunane ^;^:w^ ^1^ 1 f^jftftr^^^Tjpi^f. pi. inf. to 
give news calculated to make a person panic-stricken. 

anewoz" ^aqi^f I ^f^^fefi: adj. (f. anewoz** ^^^jsi ), 
not presented, not given (as an offering to a god, or 
to a lord, etc.). 

any-, uny-, etc. ; for most words beginning thus, see 
under an-, un-, etc. Many English writers (includiag 
El. & W.) represent n by ny. 

anay ■?l»l^ a prim. suff. giving the force of the past conj. 
part, negatived, as in kar-anay ^i«t<<, not having 
made. With roots ending in vowels, the initial a 
is dropped, as in ni-nay t'TI^^, not having taken 
(Gr.Gr. 111). 

anay ^UTT^ I ^^f%^^: f. a present of fruit, such as 
walnuts and other things, sent to a woman's father's 
house by her father-in-law, on the occasion of her 
giving birth to a child. 

anyot" ^jqg 1 ^i»t%fift?T^: adj. (f. angfc" ^"^ni^). 
not sheared, unshorn (of a slieep, etc.). 

unz" ^^ I i«: m. (f. anzin ■^%"3(^), a male swan ; 
a male goose, a gander (Siv. 1810; K.Pr. 220) ; the 
grey goose (L. 128, ans). -bor"^ -^-^ I ^'sMdiK^i^TZJi: 
m. or -baran -^T1 I ^Tfz«liT^X7^ f. a goose-door, 
a small door in the wall of a courtyard or of a vegetable 
garden, by which the larger quadrupeds cannot enter, 
but which men can enter by bending their bodies or 
' ducking ' as a goose ducks his head to go through 
a low hole, -bow*^ -^f^ I i^t^>ni: f. the upper 
leg of a goose, especially when boiled down to a broth. 
-gardan -1^ I fH^^ f. a swan's neck; met., 
a long thin neck of a man. -wUr^ -^^ I <*l5(«tf^^^: 
f. the name of a certain soup or sauce made of the 
pounded flesh of a goose boiled in water. 

anzal "^ff^ I '^^f^: f- the open hands placed side by 
side and sKghtly hollowed, a mark of supplication. 

anzol" ^a^r l ^<ll<4l«rt*rR: m. the border or hem of 
a cloak, veil, shawl, or mantle, usually woven with 
a special pattern. 

anzim" '^f^^ I fH^ f. the first of the four fingers, the 

anzim"-manzim" '^%^-'^f^, see anzyum"-manz- 

anz-manz ^sf-^TSf I ^nrf^VfJi; adj. e.g. within and in 
the middle, in the centre of anything, not nearer one 
side than the other. Cf. anzyum"-manzyum''. 

anza-manza "^l^-??^ 1 nvnr 1I^ adv. from in the 
centre, from in the middle, from not nearer one side 
than the other, anzas-manzas "^^-^^ I •^5rIfl^^I^l; 
adv., i.q. anz-manz. 

anzan ^p^r; f. or anzon" Wsig m. 1 VT^^w;^: a species 
of rice, producing a white grain, soft and sweet- 
smelling when cooked. Cf. anzun, and L. 333. 

anzan ^•^STT'T; I ^'^<t: adj. e.g. unknowing, unpractised 
(in an action or profession) (Siv. 1733) ; imknowu, 
unrecognized, a stranger (of a person). 

anzon" ^^^ 1 ^T5«t5|^: m., i.q. anzan, q.v. 1 

anzun Wi: I ^f^H^: m. a kind of white rice, \ 

cf. anzan. 

For words beginning with 8, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with n, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 

anzin w^^ 

57 — 



anzin ^r^'^I l %bY f- a hen-swan ; a hen-goose 



anz^ran '^p^'t. i t%^«af^r?n' f- finishing, completion ; 

decision (of a dispute, etc.). 

anz»run ^^^1.1 ^Jn^^m; conj. 1 (1 p.p. anz'r" '^sa^), 

to finish or conclude (a dispute, story, etc.) ; to decide, 
conclude (a dispute or law-case). 

anz^ron" ^j^ I 'ammi'^: fut. p.p. (f. anz^riin" 

^^TST), fit to be finished ; fit to be decided. 

anz^rawun ^sfTT^I I ^^T^Tfi; conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
anz^row" ^a^rtj), iq. anz^run, q.v. anz^rawon" 
^^-^f^ ' ^TR^Y?i: fut. p.p. (f. anz^rawuii'* 
^^jCT^^), i.q. anz^ron^ q.v. 

anzas-manzas ^^-flira;, see anz-manz. 

anzawol" '^l^^^ l ^'RfW^^: m. a village in the 
Anatnag (q.v.) Pargana of Kashmir, below the temple 
of Miirtanda, on the bank of the Lambodarl River. 

anzyum" - manzynm'' ^^agti - M'^H i ?T«m: adj. 
(f. anzim^ - manzim^ '^%^-T^'T), middling, 

mediocre, neither good nor bad ; cf. anz-manz. 
an ■^■^ I ^ , H^Il^ adv. yes, a particle of assent ; cf . Skar. 
ane ^=1, see on" and also anun 2. 
ani "^rfsf, see on", 
in" ?;'5l , "n" ^al f . two primary suffixes forming abstract 

nouns. See Gr.Gr. 118 ff. 
un" 1 '?l'5T , etc. See on" and also anun 2. 
iin" 2 "^sr^ , a feminine suffix forming abstract nouns. 

It is the~fem. form of on" 3, etc. See Gr.Gr. 118. 

anece ^"sr^, see anot". 

anech ^SJaRf l '^Tt^^^- f- the name of a small district 
in Kashmir which formerly comprised the town of 
Anatnag (Islamiibiid) (q.v.) and the tract immediately 
to its south and west. See RT.Tr. II, 467. -WOT^ 
pulahor" -W(^ ^^W% i ^wi^nn^^Tfww^: t^- » kind 

of grass-sandals manufactured in the Aficch District. 

anegot" ^^nf?, see on". 

auema '^'SlJl l Wf^X' m- rice-water, rice-gruel ; gruel 
of any other similar grain (cf. K.Pr. 23). -dal 
-^^ I ^rreT^fTT ^^ f- a dish of rice-gruel and 

cooked pulse, -dam -^tr; I TreT^nTt^irirr m. as 

much rice-gruel as is taken into the mouth at one 
time ; hence, fig., a very small amount of it. -dara 
-^TT I TreT^nTT °i- ^ tl^i'i stream of rice ; hence, 
fio-., a very small amount of it. -gol" -1^ | 
'TTHTT^^'f i m. as much gruel as will fill the mouth, 

a mouthful of it. -hana -^^ I "vwm^ jtrit: f- 
a little rice-gruol. -khor" -4^ I JTr^TTTTt^lfi: adj. 
(f. -khUr^ -^'S^), brought up on gruel, fed on gruel 
(of a child, etc.). -khav -^^ I ?n«T»l^iBnf^^: 
adj. e.g. accustomed to eat or making a practice 





of eating nothing but rice-gruel (e.g. from religious 
motives), -moya -wm I '^(SJ'sHflTOT* f- a small 
amount of gruel, a tiny dish of gruel, such as would 
be given to an invalid, -nor" -'it^ I 'iT^TIHIIT^ 
m. the drain in a cook-room down which waste rice- 
water is poured, -nbr*^ -TT^ I ^nHTTTt^^TafHY 
f. the sink or receiving-bowl of such a drain, -nyur" 
-•^ I 'i'^^ftZt^^^: m. a stye in the eye. -phyor" 

-tm I m^Tf^'f: ra. (sg. dat. -pheris -■q^fc'S:). 

a splash of gruel ; met., a very little gruel, -phyur" 

-tpni I ^ai^Hra?;: m. (sg. dat. -phMs -tr^^ ), 

c^ ^ . . r 

a very small portion of rice-gruel, -pobh" -xj^ I 
TT^T^''' ™- t^6 foam or froth of rice-water, used as 
a medicine for fever, etc. -thaph -^15 I ^'ftjJjcT- 
JITHT' f- coagulated or congealed rice-gruel. -tekh 
-■SI'S I '?T^Tt^'?'f^^^: f- * small circular drop of 
rice-gruel, -tbr^ -ZT^ I »TT^TWfr¥W%Tl'^T^'f 
gruel-eyelids, eyes running with mucus, -tor" -Z^^ I 
tlfs^'^HZW: adj. (f. -tor" -ZT^), afflicted with the 
above eye-disease. 

ane-mafea •^^-??w and iin"-miife" -^-tts , see on"- 
mot" under anun 2. 

aiier ^^r^ I ^"^JtflT m. blindness, want of sight (Siv. 
1756) ; met., unjust rule, injustice, tyranny. 

anur" 1 ^'»r^ 1 'ft'ff^^^: m. the name of small black 
fish with a large head. See L. 158, where it is called 

anur" 2 ^r^ i ■^T^fTi'^Rsr^ITft adj. (f. anur" 

^"5f^), one with sight who acts as if he were blind ; 
not careful, not provident. 

anot" ^H^ I ^^^>ini?i:m. (sg. dat. anetis ^^fzH), 

a cooking-pot cover, a saucej)an-lid. Cf. K.Pr. 14, 
where it is spelt anit, and 13, where the sg. dat. is 

spelt anetis. 

anet" ^si^ i ^i^^Tfx?^rrf^^ f- (pi. nom. anece 

^"31^), a small disli-cover, dim. of the preceding. 

anece-han ^^r^-f 1. 1 ^^^Ttwrf^^ f- a small 

dish-cover or saucepan-lid. 

anuv" ^af^ I %'^TtTf^^^i in- blindness, whether caused 

by disease or existing from birth, or, temporary, caused 

by weejiing, separation from one's beloved, or the like. 

aniv'lad '^rf^rt?^ i ^■p^TT^Ifi^: adj. e.g. 
afflicted with such blindness. 

Spa ■#XT (Siv. 1051), see ampa. 

op" ^g I ^^H'^: , ■^SJ^q'R: adj. (m. sg. dat. apis ^rfij^c,; 
f. nom. iip" "^Xf^, dat. ape W^), ignoble, mean, of low 
degree, of small consideration (K.Pr. 33) ; ignorantly 
satisfied with a small return for one's labour. 

apoc" WTV^ , see apok". 

apuc" '^^5, see apok". 

For words beginning with e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with o, u, see under wu, wii respectively. 

apachonuy ^q^^^ 


apaiman '^^ttti; 

apachonuy ^wtj^ I '3'?^^'5[ f^^^ ^kIv. without 

recognizing, without heeding, without discrimination, 

u.w. vbs. of taking, etc. 
apada ^JT?^ I WTTft. f- a cahamity, misfortune, esp. 

a public calamity, such as a flood, a drought, a plague, 

or the like ; misfortune, ill-fortune (Gr.M.). 
oph ^^ I win f- hope (rare). — thawun" — ''I^^ 

f .inf . to hope (for) ; as in oph thu-W%as ^f"* ^^^^ 

he hoped for it. 
aphoi <^V^' '""^roi'ted, rumoured, a report, a rumour 


aphace ■^ps^, see aphot". 
aphuce 's^^ , see aphuk", aphut". 
aphuc" ^ijf^, see aphuk". 

aphacer ^W^j i -^fiTW^I m. the condition of being 
unsjjlit or unbroken (of any article of wood, metal, or 
the like). 

aphoj" ^5f^. see aphol". 

aphiij" ^^, see aphol". 

aphuk" ^^5 1 '^m^fqmfn:: adj. (m. sg. dat. aphukis 
^f^^; f. sg. nom. aphuc" "^i^^, dat. aphuce 
^tR^), of a stove or the like, not having the fire lit 
up (whether supplied with fuel or not) by blowing Avith 
the mouth used as a bellows ; not sot alight, ' cold.' 

aphol" ^^ I ■^f^^f^ri: adj. (m. sg. dat. apholis 
■^1%^; f- sg- nom. aphoj" '^31^, dat. aphoje 

^gi^), not expanded, not blossomed (of a bud or 

flowering tree) ; not blossoming (of a plant which does 

not bear blossoms). 
aphol" ■^qi^ I ^^i^:, "sRjq^H: adj. (m. sg. dat. 

aphalis ^xjif^l^; f. sg. nom. aphiij" W«^, dat. 

aphaje ^xr^^T), (of clothes, etc.) not worn out; 

unworn, new. 
aphln ■iJiT'iti;, see afin. 
aphon" wi\^ I ^tM:^q^iifT: adj. (m. sg. dat. aphbnis 

^qrrf'i^, abl. aphani ^qtifir ; f. sg. nom. aphon*^ 

^qiT'^, dat. aphane ^qfr^r), not made entirely void; 

(of a person) not utterly deprived of wealth ; (of a 

vessel, etc.) not entirely emptied. 
aphar* ^'B^ I ^5Tl^<infT^'l a hasty disposition, 

the disposition of doing things at once without 

reflection, precipitancy, impetuosity, aphari-thaphari 

^qi1x;-'«nirfT 1 'El^fl'^ adv. hastily, precipitately, 

impetuously, headlong, slapdash. 
apharl-bad 'Wqi'^-'WTf Jb ^y^ inter j. may there be 

applause ! be thou praised (Siv. 655). 
aphrari-tiphrari ^(^prfT-fi^^iTf^ I T7!^m: ti^xit»1 adv. 

destroyed and then scattered abroad, flung to the 
apahos ^q?t^ I '^^TIT^^^q^T^: m. ridicule, derision. 


esp. with regard to an unfounded report, as when 

a report spreads abroad that a woman is pregnant, and 

nothing happens. 
aphshan ^;LiJt f. tiny pieces of gold-leaf scattered over 

paper, etc., as an ornament (Gr.M.). 
aphsos ^^^, aphsus ^f]5., see afsos. 
aphot" 'saqiz i Hi^rtlfi: adj. (m. sg. dat. aphatis 

•^qrfz^; f. sg. nom. aphiit*^ '^^J.' '^''*- aphace 

■^qr^), not split, not broken (of anything made of 
wood, metal, etc.). 

aphut" -^gi^ I "^w^: adj. (m. sg. dat. aphutis ^fz^; 
f. sg. nom. aphut** '^Ji^. <lat. aphuce ^giw), (of 
a vessel, etc., made of earthenware, metal, etc.) not 
broken ; not breakable, not fragile. 

aphath ^xji^ c:-.>sT i ^fxim^ f. (sg. dat. aphUfe^ ^^)' 

a disaster, misfortune, calamity (Gr.M. 1165). Cf. 

aphyor" '^Rjft^ I ^rf^T^lftldi^: adj. (m. sg. dat. 

aphybris ^qafTftB;, abl. aphyari ^^pnfT; f- sg. 

nom. aphybr'^ -^mii'l^, dat. aphyare "^Rm^), not 

strained, not passed through a sieve. 
apoj" '^^4^. see apoP. 
apaj°r" '^itrwf i ^^fT^f?T: adj. (f. apaj"r" '^qxi^^), 

(of clothes in the making) half-sewn, not permanently 
sewn, tacked together. 
apojer ^^n^W^ ' ^^t^J^*^ m. absence of weakness, 

apok"^ ^4^ I ^Tja?: adj. (m. dat. apakis '?mf^; 
f. sg. nom. apiic" ^xi^, dat. apache ^P'^), (of food) 
not cooked, not fully cooked ; (of food already eaten) 
not digested, not fully digested. 

apok" ■^'ft^ I qi^Tff <t: adj. (m. sg. dat. apbkis 
^qrfqii:, abl. apaki "^qif^ ; f . sg. nom. apbc" ^qj^, 
dat. apace ^m-^il), uncooked (of food, etc.) ; badly 

apakar ■^q^T|' l ■^qsirrT;: 'n. causing injury, causing 
wrong, oj)pression ; doing ill to one to whom gratitude 
is due, ill-requital. 

apil ^nf^^ f. an appeal in the law-courts (the English 
word) (Gr.M.). 

apol" ^^g I '^iftrf^^: adj. (m. sg. dat. apolis 
^5!n^t%^; f. sg. nom. apoj" ■^^4^, dat. apoje ^^3il), 
not slack, firm, strong ; strong, accustomed to carry 
burdens ; strong in an argument, strong in a war 
of words. 

apaman ^miT'T. I ^^fTTIH; m. disrespect, contempt 
(shown to some one worthy of respect). 

apaiman ^q^TT^ m. a certain kind of grape, con- 
sidered to be the best of aU (K.Pr. 43, W. 144, and 
El. s.v. dach). 

For words beginning with e, 1, i, see under ye, yi, yi resiiectively, and for words beginning with u, fi, see under wu, wu respectively. 

apanbyeth ^W^?t 


apas "^vnM. 

apanbyeth. ^tt^t?iw I ^l?im f. (sg. dat. apanbyiib" 

'SI^'ITI^ , and so on), treating as one's own, showing 

affection for any person or thing as if he or it were 

closely connected with oneself. 
apop° ^tig I "WiW- adj. (m. sg. dat. apapis ^t^fq^; 

f. sg. nom. apiip^ ^tjTT , dat. apape ^t^tg), unripe 

(of fruits, crops, etc.). 
apaper tR^W^ I '^micTT m. unripeness, immaturity. 
apar "^Vi^ adj. e.g. transcending, infinite, a N. of the 

Deity (Siv. 1659). 
aper ^r^I^ I ^^qTn-4«?f*(^ m. ignorance, want of skill ; 

ignobiHty, lowness of degree, smallness of consideration ; 

being ignorantly satisfied with too small a result from 

or reward for one's labour. 

apor'i ^ti^ I ^mTdd: adj. (m. sg. dat. aparis ^^f^^; 

f. sg. nom. apiir** ^4^, dat. apare "^rR^), illiterate, 
uneducated. apar'-achar ■^tj^-'^^f'^ I ^^RVjIfTT- 
^TT'Rl unread letters, hence the acquirement of 
knowledge \vithout literary study ; knowledge not 
acquired from book-learning. 

apor" ^^Ir^ I 'ITT'I m. (sg. dat. apbris ^qitr^, ag. 

apbr' ■^RT^, abl. apari •^?nrrfT), the opposite or far 
side of anything (e.g. of a river, a mountain, or the 
like) ; that direction as opposed to this direction. 
— tamn — tr^l. m.inf. to cross over to the far side, 
to cross, -yepor" -^nft^ I mTT^TT'l m. the far 
side and the near side, the far shore and the near 
shore. Cf. K.Pr. 14, 240. 

apare "^vnv, iq. apari, q.v (Siv. 968). 

apari ^nrrfT l ''TT adv. on the otiier side, -kani 
-^it'I I ■'nTiTI't adv. to on the other side, on the other 
side (with verbs of placing, etc.). -kanyuk" -'B'fl^ I 
xnT*r^: adj. (m. sg. dat. -kanikis -^fifsif^^; fem. 
sg. nom. -kanic" -^rf'l'^), of or belonging to the far 
or opposite side, -yepari -'?It?Tf^ I TTTT^T^ adv. on 
the far side and on this side, on the far shore and 
on the near shore, -yepor" -^ift^ I PTTT^TrT;^^«fT»t; 
adv. from the far side to the near side, from the far 
shore to the near shore. 

apbr' ^■PT^ I ^HTTc^ adv. from the far side (Siv. 
1460) ; from that direction as opposed to this direction. 
-kin' -f^'^ I tnTH^lJTf^^ adv. from the direction of the 
far side. — tarun — rlT^«t. m-inf. to bring over from 
the other side (K.Pr. 14). -yepori -'^nrr^ I xjtt;!^!- 
TT<t,, TT^ti"*!: adv. from that side and from tliis 
side, from all sides, -yepbr'-kin' -^T?T^-tiR^ I 
^TTT^TH^^nf^ adv. from the direction of the far side 
and of this side (with verbs of inquiry and the like). 

oprubod" ^^^ I ^nr^w: adj. (m. sg. dat. oprubodis 
^j^f^^ ; f. sg. nom. opruboz" ^ffsfai ,dat. opruboze 




^M<s|3tl), unenlightened, uneducated, without under- 

aparad '^ti'^^T^ I ^^: m. a faidt, ofEence, transgression 
(Siv. 1726) ; sin, vice. 

aprakh^cer ■^SITPI'^ I ■^TT^RZ^JI; m. non-manifestness, 
the non-display or non-declaration of some glory, 
fame, quality, or condition. 

aprakh»t'' '^'f'^S^ i '^il^^: adj. (m. sg. dat. aprakh^tis 
^i^f^sa: ; f. sg. nom. aprakh"t" ^if^aj, dat. 
aprakh^ce ^5[^j^), not manifest, not famous ; 
hidden, concealed. 

aparan "m^V^ I J^i^^i: f- (sg. dat. apariin" ^T^T'? . 

and so on), the putting a morsel or gobbet of food 
into another person's mouth ; hence, insistence upon 
giving an unmlling person some work. 

aparun '?nq^i I ^%i^nr»i: conj. 1 (I p.p. apor^^W^), 
to feed another person with one's own hand as a token 
of hospitality (Siv. 45, 1151); to put food into the 
mouth of another person (e.g. a helpless invalid, or 
a cliild). 

aprinz^ "^'f^l,' ^^^ apryunz". 

aprasan ■^ira'i;! "^cr^^: adj. e.g. not pleased, displeased, 
dissatisfied : chhus tihandis sangas aprasan, 

I dislike their company (Gr.M.). 

aprot" ^ift^ I "ssj^af^fi: adj. (m. sg. dat. aprbtis 
^infz^, abl. aprati "^mfz; f. sg. nom. aprbt" 

■^HTZ , dat. aprace ^TIT^), not dug, not dug up, 

not mined. 
apurv ^T?"^ adj. e.g. unprecedented, incomparable 

(Siv. 165^). 
aparawun '^fmTTJI I ^^iQuiH conj- 1 (1 P 1^- aparow" 

■^T^tI^^), to feed another person, to put food into the 
mouth of another person (e.g. an invalid or a child). 

apray "^TC^ I ^iJ^tTi; f • want of affection, disaffection. 

aproy" ■^ir^r I '^^(^'sr: adj. (m. sg. dat. aprayis 
^TTf^^; f. sg. nom. aprtiy" '^Jr^ , dat. apraye ^B^), 

(of a living being) not loved (even though deserving 
love), unloved ; (of an inan. object) not jileasing, 

apbryum" "^^T^jr I ^TTH^: adj. (m. sg. dat. apbrimis 
wfrf*!^. f- sg- nom. apbrim" -^RTfr^). of or 
belonging to the far side or shore of anything (e.g. of 
a river, mountain, or the like), of or belonging to that 
direction as opposed to this direction. Cf. K.Pr. 15. 

apryunz" ■^Wsf I ^^1t<t; adj. (m. sg. dat. aprinzis 
■^flT^^, f- sg. nom. aprinz* ^fw^), not sent, not 
dispatched, not deputed for any work. 

apryufeb" "^l-^W ' ^MH*1 adv. unasked, spontaneously. 

apas ■^tn^ l ^'^inf^KtTf^^: m. the name of a certain 
disease, ? bleeding piles. Cf. apalsuk". 

For words beginning with e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 

apashebd '^'iir^ 

— 40 — 

ar ^T 

apashebd ^mr^ I tlf^m^XSR m. reviling, abuse. 

apath ^q^ I ^mn; f- (sg- dat. apiife^ ^^1,' ^^^ ^° 

on), a calamity, misfortune (Gr.M. 263). Cf. aphath. 

apoth^r 'in^^ l ^13^: adj. e.g. (as subst., m. sg. dat. 
apotras V^^^), sonless. 

apatrok" "^VW^ 1 ^R^ TT^jW: m. a nonsensical, 
absurd, or preposterous speech, gibberish, -mapa- 
trok° -^i1^5f I rnV- ^Rl^T^*l m. gibberish and that 
kind of thing (a rhyming repetition of the preceding). 

apafeuk" ^mff I "^^'V'^ft^W^t ^fV^T^W^: m. 

(sg. dat. apateakis ■^xrraf^^, but ag. and pi. nom. 

apafe^k^ '^^'Hrt^), the bloody stools of dysentery ; 

hence, dysentery. Cf. apas. 
apufeon'' ^J35 I ■^ft^mr: Wti: adj. (m. sg. dat. 

apufeanis '^g^f'l^ ; fem. sg. nom. apufeun" ^3^"^, 

dat. apufeane '?m^'3f), not picked to pieces (leaf by 

leaf) (of flowers). 
op"-fe6p° ^J-'Stj I ^wm^'i'l m. (sg. dat. opis-febpis 

"^rifT^^-^it^, abl. api-feapi '?nfq-^Tftf), putting rice- 
milk for the first time into a child's mouth, the 
annaprdsana ceremony, performed six months after 
birth in the case of a boy and seven months after 
birth in the case of a girl. 

apya ■^tztT I '^Tg^jiifj^ f. any oblation offered for the 
satisfaction of the gods or deceased ancestors (Siv. 1430). 

apoy'^ ^4g I ■^qanilTH: adj. (m. sg. dat. apayis 
■^qf^^; f- sg. nom. apuy" ^^\, dat. apaye ^^rtr^), 

not heated or rofisted (of metals), not baked (of bricks). 

apaye-kal ■^T^'^i-wr^^ I fl^T^H^^: m. the time 
between the complete consumption of the old crop and 
the ripening of the new, the early autumn. 

apayesh. '^q^^ l ^^fa: m. loss of reputation, disgrace, 

apoz" ^f I ^^^im;m. (sg. dat. apazis ^q^^), a lie, 
a false statement, a falsehood (Siv. 765). Also adj. 
(f. apuz" '^qi, dat. apaze ■^qsn), false, imtrue; 
incorrect, erroneous (for m. sg. dat. cf. K.Pr. 15) 
(Gr.M.). -bapar -^TRK I '^^SI^fTT: m. a course of 
conduct, business or trade conducted dishonestly. 
— dapun — ^^•T^ m.inf. to speak falsely, to lie, to tell 
lies (EL), -mapoz" -?iq^ | ^w^re^w; m. a thoroughly 
and totally false course of conduct, practice, or action. 
-poz^ -q? I 'BSn'JtT*^, ni. a mixture of falsehood and 
truth, a romance founded on fact. — wanun — '^f»T 
m.inf. to tell lies, to lie (EL). — wananwol^ 
— -^51^^^ m. a speaker of lies, a liar (EL). 

apaz^-bapar ^q^-^qir i ^^^^ ^c|^ i^: m. 

the conduct or practice of untruthful jiersons, the kind 
of conduct you would expect from liars. 

apozwah-mapozwah ^q^f -??q^Tf I icq^TWT- 


'^Wm^ m. (with the suff. ah indicating the indefinite 
article), a mixture of truth and falsehood, in most 
parts true, but with some falsity. 

apuz^driy ^q^l f^^ f. a false oath, perjury (EL). 
apazar ^q5l^ 1 ■^^(UrlT m. untruthfulness, untrust- 
wortliiness, disloyalty to a promise. 

apaz'yor" ^s^qtar^it^ I ^^rar^T^ m. (sg. dat. apaz'ybris 
^qfarqifr:^, abl. apaz^yari ^^tHc ; f. sg. nom. 
apaz^yareii -^q-gr^i^-si , dat. apaz'yarene ■^q^- 
^T^'^l), a liar, either habitually or on an occasion. 
Cf. K.Pr. 103. 

apaz^yar^^z^ ^qt5fm"tf^ I ^^('^^if^fn f- (dat. apaz'- 

yar^ze '^qt^^l'^^), untruthfulness, lying. 
ar 1 "^X I "^fi: adj. e.g. helpless, without resource 
(owing to iioverty, sickness, or the like), -dache 
-^W I ^rtl^M^I Wll^ll'l f-pl- the persistent and 
constant troubling of somebody in order to procure the 
achievement of some purpose ; selfish worrying. 

ara anun ^t; "^^^ I '^fff=RX:Wl m.inf. to cause 
distress to anyone directly or indirectly, mentally or 

ar 2 ^n; in ar karun ^x ^s^^ i 'R^^-^W'it m.inf. 

to root uji, pull up by the roots, pull up from the 

ground. Cf. arra. 

ar 3 ^ m. a saw (Siv. 1776). -kash -^1J I ^^^"i!^- 
iftj^ m. (f. -kash bay -^ilTTr^, his wfe), a sawyer 
whose profession it is to cut logs into planks. L. 463 
{arikash). Cf. ara 1 and iir'^ 3. 

ar 4 "^X m. a secondary suffix which, added to adjectives, 
forms abstract nouns. It is added to the m. sg. abl. 
of the adjective, the final i of which becomes y. 
This y, with the initial a of the suffix, usually 
becomes e. The presence of the y also causes certain 
changes in the final consonant of the base. Thus, pop'' 
qq, ripe, m. sg. abl. papi qfq, hence paper qWT> 
ripeness; but nyuk" sqgi, little, m. sg. abl. niki 
t'lf^, hence nicer fsT^sn^, littleness. 

Some adjectives of three or more syllables take ar 
WT instead of ar ^IT- Thus WOZul" f^^T, red, 
WOzajyar ^aisirrT, redness. 

For further particulars see Gr.Gr. 138 ff. 

ar ^■^ .Ic I ^?n m. compassion, mercy, pity (K.Pr. 95 ; 
Siv.\ 129, 168, 192, 948; YZ. 486, 668) ; meanness, 
a mean action, a shameful act (K.Pr. 247; cf. W. 135). 

ara-barut" '^iiT-^^g i ^iTqw: adj. (f. -bar^fe" 

-^■^g[^), compassionate, merciful, whether by nature or 
owing to some special accidental cause. — gomot" 
— aftflj adj. (f. -gomiib^ -3ft JT^), gone to pity, 
a subject of pity (YZ. 39). -hot" -f g^ I ^^^i^: adj. (f. 
-hufe" ■?§)> smitten with compassion, pitiful, -krot" 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for worda begiuuiug with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 

ara 1 -^x 

— 41 — 

or 2 ^>^ 

-?Ffg I (^«<l*lfi: adj. (f. -krofe" -1>t\)> smitten 
by compassion ; smitten by some pain, etc., which 
excites compassion ; worthy of compassion, in a con- 
dition which excites a feeHng of tenderness (e.g. a 
sleeping infant). -k.°t^ -^g I ^T^^: adj. (f. -k^b" 
-^■t^ ), of a compassionate nature ; deserving of com- 
passion (Siv. 113, 1473). -rost" -•'C^ I (^<JK fffT: 
adj. (f. -riifeh*^ -T^), void of compassion, merciless 
(Siv. 334, 943), either by nature or for some special 
ara 1 ^sr^ l ^t^TTT^^ST m. the action of moving up 
and down of a saw, when cutting logs into planks ; 
the act of such sawing, sawing (Siv. 167). Cf. ar 3 

and iir" 3. -adav -^^tw I ^^#^TVR:''TS^'«f: 

m. the wooden fraipework for supporting a log of 
wood when being sawn, -cir -^V^ I ^^'q'^^T^'ilf't 
ni. the pulling of a saw up or down, -kosh"^ -^'T I 
^fTJ^fT^T^^J^ m. sawdust. -lit%*i -f^fT^ I ^f 
rsfftfi'gf: f. a large saw (for cutting logs into planks) 

— "walane — m^r^ i it^ij: ^tir inf- f- pi- to saw 

in pieces or into planks. 

ara 2 ^KT. I ^^T^WTmih m- the raising of any heavy 
object, such as a rock or a log of wood, with the aid 
of temporary supports, levers, or the like. 

ara 3 ^T; I fln::^irT»I»nT: the hair of the border 
of tlie scalp, the border hair of tlie forehead, -kasaiie 
-^l^r^I I ^minl^Jn^TTIT, ^^TTTRT ^^^^ inf. f. pi. to 
shave the hair of the forehead, a ceremony performed 
upon brahman youths on the final return home of 
a student from his preceptor. 

ara 1 ^nr l ^^nftsSTWl m. the act of encircling, sur- 
rounding, enclosing ; standing in a circle (of a number) 
of people (Siv. 947) ; a necklace (K.Pr. 143). Cf. aru 
and br° 3. 

ara 2 ^TT I ^^^ f^ m. a rocky river, a hill-stream, 
or the like (Siv. 948, 1638) ; the head-stream of a large 
river (Siv. 1075). -bal -^'a i ^iWT^^TI'i; m. 
the ground near a hill - stream. -god" -li^ I 
"^rz^^f: f ■ a certain fish found in rapid hill-streams. 
-g^azun -7^1, I ^Z^'l4»l*i; m. the noise made by 
the water of a rocky, rapid hill-stream ; met. any 
such noise, -hiy -f?^ I ^zq\ * <1^f ft f- a kind of 
jasmine which grows by such hill-streams, -kiin*' 
-efi^ I '^3^tlI^T f. the round stones or rocks found 
in the bed of a hill-stream, -pal -xi^ | ^T?5I1^m- 
xrnn: m., id. -path -tt^ i ^z^jturt: f- land or 

fields situated, like an island, in the bed of a mountain 
stream. -path"r" -TO^ I ^Z^JTUf^?!: f. a village 
or collection of hamlets in such an island. -wal 
-■^^ I ^rqif^: f. a kind of wild rose with a yellow 


blossom (cf. El.) (Siv. 55, 469, 948, 1611). -won" 
-^■51 m. the water of a mountain stream, -wara 
-WT; I ^^Sfl^^JT: adj. e.g. like a hill-stream, i.e., 
impetuous, twisted, and washing away what lies in 
its course ; hence, of character, impetuous, crooked, 
and destructive of all that comes in the way. 

aru iJIT^ I flX^^^TTST'l m. the standing of a number 
of peojjle in a circle ; a circle of people. Cf . ara 1 
and or** 3. 

or 1 ^T; 1 mTI adv. on the far side of anytliing, over 
there, beyond. Cf. ara-por", bryum"-pbryiiin°, 
br^atin-tbr'kat', ar-war, ara-war, and wury. 
-kun -cfisi^ I TTT'?T^ adv. on the far side, opposite, in 
that (opp. to this) direction (Grr.Gr. 160). — na 
yor — 1 ^iV?; I ^^T^3 T^ adv. neither there nor here, 
undecidedly, hesitatingly, -yor -''Elt^ I ^TTTt'BIl^ adv. 
there and here, incoiisistently, (of a place) uncertainly, 
indefinitely. -yor pakun -''qYT ^^1 m.inf. to 
wander (El.). 

ora ^'^ I V1T.W. adv. from the far side, from over 
there, -kani -cfit% I ■qTT'n^ adv., (with vbs. of 
placing) on the far side, (with vbs. of coming) from 
the far side, thence (Gr.Gr. 159, Siv. 1674). -kanen 

-ejjijjs^^ I q-nT?T%'^ adv. id. -kanyuk" -^'g^ I trrTTrr- 

^PT^: adj. (f. -kanic** -^rf%^), of, belonging to, or 
produced in the far side, or in some place other than 
here, -yora -''sftT I '^T<N4(Trr adv. from that side 
and this, thoroughly; (knowing) from both sides, or 
the whole, of a subject ; mutually. 

oruk" ^'^f I iJTT^T^H^:, ^t: adj. (f. oriic" 
^T^ ) , of or produced on the far side, hence foreign, 
not belonging to this country, -yor" -'?ft^ I 1%^''fVcT'i; 
adv. of there, here ; in reversed order, the preceding 
being put after the succeeding, -yomk" -'ift'^^ I 

trCT^l"^: adj. (f. oriic^-yoruc" '9B^x:'g--?ftT'g), of, 

belonging to, or produced in, there and here, of un- 
certain origin. 

5r 2 '«Y'^ in ora-bene ^t:-^^ i %»n%^T*rfiH^ f. the 

daughter of one's stepmother, a stepsister, -bapar 
-^tjTT I f^TTW^Tmr- i^- the conduct of a stepmother 
to her stepchildren, -boy" -^^ I tRT^^I na. a step- 
brother, by the same father but a different mother. 
-dryuy" -^^ l ■^SJ'ft'^^r^T;: m. a husband's younger 
brother by a different mother, a stepbrother-in-law. 
-hash -^ I ^^ftr^^ra^ : f. a stepmother-iu-law, the 
stepmother of a wife's husband or of a liusband's wife. 
-mbj" -ITW I t^TT<1T f- a- stepmother, the co-wife of 
one's own mother, -mol" -'f^^ I I^I^HT m. a step- 
father, the second husband of one's mother, one's own 
father being dead. This can, of course, only occur 

For words beginning with e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, ii, see under wu, wfl respectively. 

or 3 '^T 




amongst Musalmans, not amongst Kashmiri Hindus. 
-non^ -«?i^ I ft1?rm»Tf^, fWHTflT*??^ f. a stepgiand- 
mother, the stepmother of one'sfather or of one's mother. 
-pokh'' -li^, -paksh -^^ l ^'^T^'?'^: m. step- 
relatives, a general term for the near relations of one's 
stepmother. -r*sh -^^ I ^JH^^'STT f- the mutual 
jealousy between co-wives and between their resi^ective 
children, -zam -3rrf( I ^'flT^T'^T^T f- (sg. dat. ag. 
and abl., and pi. nom. -z6m -^ii:, pi. dat. -z6m*n 
-^IT^. ag- and abl. -ZOm^'W -^J?;^), a husband's 
stepsister, a stepsister-in-law. 

or 3 '^^■^ a secondary suffix forming adverbs of place, as 
in tor fftT. there. Its abl., ora ^T> forms adverbs 
of motion from, as tora tftT, from there. With 
emphatic y, or "^^^^ becomes ury 'ST^' ^^ in tury 
<T^, even there (Gr.Gr. 155, 156). 

or'' ^^ I ^f^: adj. (m. .«g. dat.- aris -^fr^, K.Pr. 15; 
f. sg. nom. iir*' ^^), (of an an. obj.) sound, well, 
healthy ; (of an inan. obj.) firm, hard, not easily 
broken (El. ur, and so K.Pr. 263 ; cf. K.Pr. 15, where 
ar^, the m. pi. nom., is written ari). -wur" -^^ I 
■^rfHf^: adj. (f. ur"-wur^ ^•^-■^), extremely or 
entirely sound, etc. ; extremely or entirely firm, etc. 
-ZUV -?f^ I 'f\''^'nj^'?;^^JR[; m. good health, freedom 
from sickness, -zuv ta dor^-koth'^ -5I^ rT ^^-IfJ I 
^^11 Oi*?^ ^S-tiH^ ^ adv. (used in blessings or good 
wishes), with healthy body and firm knees (for 

ari-wuri ■^fr-gf^l ^^fRTTudv. (u.w.vbs.of giving, 
etc.), completely, entirely, in perfect condition (of the 
gift), or cheerfully, whole-heartedly (of the giver). 

or" 1 "^IT^ I '^^cB?^ m. a kind of plum, alu-e-Bul;ham 
{Prunus domestica) (El.), = K.Pr. 137, ar, and L. 73, 
348, Pniniis communis, -kuj' -gi^ | '^^efi^fn f. 
a plum- vine, a creeping tree on which a species of plum 
grows, -kul" -gs^ I ■^T'^SRIW: m- a plum-tree. 

or"2 ^srr^ l "VWI f. a shoemaker's awl (El. ar). 

or" 3 •^ri^ I ^STJ^ f. encircling ; a circle, band, fillet ; 
a ring (as of rope, or as formed by a snake lying 
curled up) ; a wisp of straw or grass, bound in a ring, 
for supporting round-bottomed vessels so as to prevent 
their overturning. Cf. ara 1 and aru. -pbr" -XJT^ | 
^TfTfl '^T^T'T'i; f- surrounding a person to prevent his 
departure, forming a circle of people round him, 
crowding round a j)erson. 

ur" ^■^l (f. ir** i;^), a secondary suffix only occurring in 

tlie word koshur" zRiin| (f. koshir" ^rttii^), of or 

belonging to Kashmir (see Gr.Grr. 150). 
ur" slf^ (f. ur" ^^), a secondary suffix as in nastur" 
W^, having an ugly nose (nast 1^) (Gr.Gr. 137). 

ur" 1 ^51^, --wTir" -Y^, see or". 

ur" 2 ^^ I ■gxiTfvi: f . a title, a nickname ; esp. an 
abusive title given in the course of a verbal altercation. 

iir" 3 ^^ I ^^i^f^^tf: f. tlie large saw used for cutting 
logs into planks and the like. Cf. ar 3 and ara- 
lit"r" under ara 1. 

araba ^%^T^^ 1 giljlf'^^: ni. throwing again and 
again, as stones to form an embankment ; a bombard- 
ment, a continuous volley of cannon or musketry. 

arab' "^T^ ^^ adj. e.g. Arabian, as in -gur" -J^ I 
'ST^^nft^^i^' ™- an Arab horse, a horse of Arab 

arabl ji^:. f. the Arabic language. 

arbab C_)li,l m. a chief or head, lord, possessor (El.). 

arbod '^^^ l '^Tf%^^: m. a certain disease, the symj^toms 
of which are tumours on the loins. It is described as 
difficult to cure. 

ar-c6b" ^l\-^t5 l <s(«<<*Mi^I«j: m. the name of an 
implement for digging, described as having a wooden 
handle and a wedge-shaped point, ? a spud or hoe. 

ariich" ^TW I ^^'HT'tIIT!^: f . the spare cloth remaining 
beyond the seam when, in making clothes, two pieces 
of cloth are sewn together, which is only fit to be 
pared ofE and thrown away. 

ar-c6k" ^t-^^ i ■^tt^^t:' adj. (f. -cbc" -^n ), stupid, 

ar-cakh ^r^-^^ l ^=rrf'lT^- >«• a neck-shacklo, a chain 

worn on the neck by a prisoner. 
ard ^f ord. half (Siv. 1428). 
arad j] m. flour, meal. Cf. K.Pr. 180. 
aradah '^T^f l "^IST^IJ card. e.g. eighteen (Siv. 671, 

aradbh.' '^T^T^ the form which aradah takes in 

multiplication, as in z^h aradoh' sheyetr^h ?if 

'^T'3[T'^ '^^'^, two eighteens (are) thirty-six. 

aradbhyum" ^T^T^? I ''fST^fl: ord. (f. aradbhim" 

■^T^^ff^), eighteenth. 
ardal ^ST^^ I ^^^T^ft f- the setting out of a fore- 

runnei-, i.e. of the attendant who runs in front of his 

master's conveyance (derived from the next). 
ardal' ^l^f^ l ^^?[T: m- a forerunner, an attendant 

who runs before his master's conveyance (a corruj)tion 

of the English ' orderly '). 
aradan ^TT^ l '^TTTVrr f- adoration, worship, 

homage. — kariin" — ^'^'sj f.inf. to worship (Gr.M.). 
aradun ^TT^i: I ^ttt^h^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. arod" 

^TT^, f- ariiz" "^TTT^; 2 p.p. arazov ^rrT^^). to 

worship, adore, paj' homage to (esp. in order to obtain 

something) , to conciliate ; to make happy, entreat 

hospitably (K.Pr. 126). 

For words beginning with e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning witli u, u, see under wu, wi respectively. 

ardanbrishor ^^(>5)TrfV^ 

— 43 — 

ar-mat "WK-f^fz 


ardanorishor ^^(>5)'TTft'^ ru- the lord who is half 

a woman, N. of Siva in his bisexual form (Si v. 974). 
ardoph '^?^ I If^lMoRTT^ adv., onomat., plump, 

crash, bang, with the noise caused by a heavy body 

falling from a height. 
arda-rath ■^^-7:t^ m. midnight (EL, who spells it 

ardasherir •^(v)^tVT! adj. e.g. possessing half a body, 
N. of ParvatI or Siva, as one-half of the conjoint 
bisexual form of Siva-ParvatI (Siv. 114). 

arfa, see arpha. 

ar^g ^Tt I '^'^' ni. (sg. dat. argas ^^n^, and so on, 
exc. pi. nom.), unhusked rice or barley offered to a 
god, etc., at the time of worship, etc. -posh -^5^^ I 
'^'^<I'R''ilT'fi!r ni. grains and flowers similarly offered. 

arga-phol" ■^ar-^^ I '^'^fT^'JIT: m. a small offering 
of such grains, a few of such grains ; also, a general 
term for the grains offered, whether few or great. 
-feal -yi<!f m. a handful of such grain in the act of 
being offered (Siv. 662). 

ara-gab '^T-T^ l rl«5%'^'0wi; m. a flaw or irregularity 
in the arrangement of the thi'eads as set for weaving. 

argaje ^JlJlail l ^^^^JT: m. a well -known perfume 
compounded of several scented ingredients, such as 
kakkola, aloes, musk, and camphor. Another formula 
gives saffron, aloes, musk, camphor, and sandal. The 
Sanskrit name is i/altsa-hirdcuna. 

argon "^'fTT. (?) m- a person whose father is a Kashmiri 
butwhose mother is not (EL, q.v. for further particulars). 

arogy ^srnft'^ m. (sg.dat. aroges '^nftJira, and so on), 

good health, freedom from disease, health (Gr.M.). 

ar^hakh mira, i ^■R^^'st^t: (dat. ar^hakan 
^?r^?l^«t), small, round bits of wood broken off timber 
floating down a river or the like. 

ar^hath ^"^Z^ i ^fTCfi; m. (sg. dat. ar^hatas 

"STfZ^), the 'Persian wheel', an endless string of 
earthen pots attached to a revolving wheel over a well, 
which go down empty and return full, and tilt the 
water into a trough. 

arahaith -^tI^ I ^H^ts: card. e.g. sixty-eight. 

arahaithyum" ^tI^ i ^s^t^rTT: ord. (f. ara- 
haithim" ■^srrtfsfl; ), sixty-eighth. 

arak i — m. sweat (EL). 

ar-khol" ^T-^ft^ l trffl^BHT: m- the name of a certain' 
tree, Rhus acuminata (Siv. 1062) ; it grows in the hills, 
and blisters the hand that holds it. The branches of this 
tree droop like the weeping ash (EL). Cf. ar-kh6r 
and L. 76, 79, and (for its poisonous properties) 82. 
In 79 L. calls it Rhus WalUchii. 

ar-khor ^bt-^T i ^»rref^^^: m. id. 


ar-khor ^T-^'^ l ^%2T m. misconduct, misbehaviour ; 

esp. of children, naughtiness. 
ar-khUr*' ^-'l^^ l ^^T^rf^^ f- the name of the 

vo^yel U, when non-initial, represented in the Saradii 

character by the sign J . Cf . ar-miinth^r. 
ar-khorlad •^-^^ l ^%BT^'0 adj. e.g. one who 

misconducts himself, one who is guilty of misbehaviour ; 

esp. of children, naughty. 

ar-kash ^-^tt, arikash, see ar 3. 
br^atin-tbr'kat' ^i^^fzi-TiT^^t? I ^Jir^g^iS 

ITIT 1T»lcJWnt?[ adv. talking hither and thither, 
speaking in such a way as to confuse a person, with 
the object of deceiving or swindling him. Cf. or 1. 
aralanz '^T^T^ I k^^ m. the pole or beam of a plough. 

aralath ^■?:^t^ i ^^j^Trfri: f. (sg. dat. aralbfe" ^T^ri^), 

a general term for a quantity of money, garments, 
rice, etc., collected together for distribution in charity 
or as free gifts. 

aram '^TJ^ I T5T f- a molar tootli, a double tooth. 

armi-chal ^tfl-^^ I ^5fI<^Ts: f. a broken frag- 
ment of a molar tooth, -mul -??«?f I ^^ITwl?^ m. the 
root or fang of a molar tooth. 

ar^m •^II'^J^ l WCTfirSR: m. a market gardener, a kitchen 
gardener, a man who keeps a garden for his livelihood. 
His wife is called aramen ^i;??r^. Cf. K.Pr. 13, where 
the sg. ag. ar^m' is written arimi. -gog^je -J^iISU 1 
^TTfflefiTWT'T f.pL a kind of red turnip cultivated by 
market gardeners, and sweeter than the ordinary kind. 

-hakh -fro I ^TTf*?^^^: ni. (sg. dat. -hakas 

-^l'<4i^), a superior kind of green vegetable or spinach 
grown b}' market gardeners, -hand -^•3" I lT«^TfW^W. 
f. a kind of Cichorium grown by market gardeners, 
and much esteemed as a vegetable, -wor" -^T^ I 
'^"^Tf'ToR'^fZ^T f- the garden of a market gardener 
(well cultivated as compared with ordinary gardens). 

aram '^nT'^ m- a place for repose, a home of rest 
(Siv. 1274). 

aram J J m. peace, rest, repose. Cf. Gr.M. and K.Pr. 80. 

aramb -4I|^J«I m. commencement, beginning, -karim 
-^f^l. m.iuf. to begin, commence (Gr.M.). 

arman '^JUTT, J^j\ I '^lifllfSI ffr m. longing, hankering, 
solicitude, eager desire for something not yet obtained 
(K.Pr. 13; Siv. 160, 430, 706, 1655); disappoint- 
ment, unsatisfied longing. 

ar-miinth^r '^-^^^ l l;=RTTf^^ f- the name of the 
vowel i, when non -initial, represented in the Siiradii 
character by the sign'\. Cf. ar-khUr^. 

aramen ^tt'T^, i "^TTf*?^ f-, see ar*m. 

ar-mS,t ^Snc-'TTZ l Z^T' ™- the name of the letter 
ta used in schools. 

For words beginning with 8, i, i, see under y§, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning with u, 4, see under wu, wil respectively. 

aram-tbjy ^x;»?:-»n5Q; 

— U — 

arseth ■^t^ 

aram-tbjy ^1T^-<TT5^ I ^fTlf^H^: m. greatness, whether 
owing to high rank or wealth. Cf. aratbjih 2. 

anuaye-darmaye ^jrhi-^'iT^ i vimwii: adv. for the 
sake of religion, as an act of piety (u.w. vbs. of giving 
and the like). 

arna 1 ■^^ l Wf^fVT: adj. e.g. presumptuous, ignorantly 
ready to undertake a task for which one has no 
qualifications or which one has not attempted to 

arna 2 W^ m. Clerodendron siphonanthus (EL). 

arun ■?i^t. i "^^W^* m. (dat. arunas '^r^*ra;), the 

dawn-god, the da\vn. 
ar-nab' ^"'[-'it5 l ^^'f^^^RT^^ adj. e.g. ignorantly 

presumptuous, rashly undertaking a task with bad 

arundati ^^'*T<ft f- the star Alcor, considered as the 

consort of the seven reshis or the Great Bear (Siv. 

638, 686) ; also N. of the wife of the saint Vasistha 

(Siv. 676). 
arong" -^t.-^ i TfTfffT: adj. (f. ariinj" '^T^), not 

coloured, not dyed (of cloth, etc.). 
ariinj" ^n(w, see arong". 

aranamath ■^■^•IJ!^ I ■^ST^f?!; card. e.g. ninety-eight. 

aranamatyum" '^TT^rw^ I '^ST^tTnTi: ord. (f. 

aranamatim" ^TITffl^)- ninety-eighth. 
arinen-kalan ■^fr-'il.-^^l I '^RW^ adv. at the wrong 

time, at an inauspicious time (u.w. vbs. of going, etc.). 

ar*naw-kar='naw 'V^«n^-^1T^ I ^^^ adv. every- 
where, universal (u.w. vbs. indicating fame, repute, etc.). 

arane "^sr^'ST in the following. — kath — ^re I ^Tftl- 
eJTf^j^ m. the piece of wood used for kincUiug fire 
by attrition for sacrificial purposes, -ruth. -'^^ I 
flis^freWTT- ni- a certain ceremony at the investing 
of a j'outh of a twice-born caste with the Brahmanical 
cord {tjaJHopavlta) . 

arin^ ^rf^ l '3^'n^ff^ f. a certain kind of yellow 
jasmine. arine-posh ■^fr^-Tftil (or -ifr^) I '^- 
»n^f<f^^'tq^ m. its flower (Siv. 54). -rang -'^ I 
Ti\a^Ǥ^H m. the colour of the yellow jasmine, 
yellow ; esp. when the colour is not natural but is 
acquired owing to ill-health, or to becoming decayed. 

arpha ^xj ij^ \ ^rtH<!( 11^5^^: m. a vigil or wake kept 
ou the night preceding the 'id festival of the Musalmans. 

arpan ^^i; m. a present, offering (Siv. 169, 192, 984, 
1620, 1640) ; -"as an offering to, hence out of love 
for (Siv. 1697). 

ara-por" ^i^-^ i wawTfrrffTfr^TRt ^^ti: adv. from 
one end to the other, completely, entirely, without 
a break. Cf. ax-war and or 1. 

ari-pari '^fV-tr^ i ■^f?l?n'f%fTT f. high estimation, high 

repute (on the score of wealth, learning, family, rank, 
or the like). 
arpaw '^^^'^ l ^fll'l m- throwing or pushing down 
from a height. 

arpawun ■^nri^ i m?JiH conj. l (1 p.p. arpow^ 
■^iff^), to throw down; to fell, esp. (of an iUness) to 
floor a person, to render him utterly incapacitated. 

arra ^T I ^Hift f'TS^^TIIJi; m. the act of pulling, lifting, or 
rooting up something heavy, such as a rock or a post 
fixed in the ground ; a lever or other implement for 
raising such. 

arer ^^T I 4<(|^H. ni. good condition, soundness (of 
things) ; good health, health, healthiness (of animate 
creatures). Cf. Gr.M. -darer -^^ I ^T^^sS^^ 
m. good condition and strength ; good health and 

arra-paiwand (?), a graft (L. 460). 

aros'' ^5 i T^rrffw: adj. (f. ariis" ^« ), juiceless, 
sapless ; (of a literary composition) dry, insipid. 

arsh iiirC m. the heaven, the sky. Its ablative and 
dative are used in the following phrases : arslie 
pyon"^ ■^^ TZrj l ^^^TrMia: m.inf. to fall from 
heaven, used of a sudden and unexpected downfall 
from a high position, power, or wealth. — wasun 
— ^^5^ I '^r^^^nfrr: m.inf. to descend from heaven, 
of some sudden and unexpected piece of fortune, 
whether good or bad. 

arshes-khasun ^r^-^'i; I '3^fi^»T^'m m.inf. 
to mount to heaven, to be filled with pride or conceit, 
owing to the attainment of some quality or of wealth, etc. 

arish ^f^lff I ^^TTtlt^^: f- a certain disease, piles, 

br'-shin" '^^-fil^ I ^V^qrlT f- poverty, adversity, 

arasMth '^T^^ I '^^TlftfH: card. e.g. eighty-eight. 

arashityum" '^^^^ I "^FTiftfJitTfl: ord. (f. ara- 

shitim" •^T^ftfTW ), eighty-eighth. 

arasara ^t:«t; i VH^^rfT, f^^^^^ftf:, pro- 

crastination, dilatoriness ; hesitation, inability to make 

up one's mind (Siv. 1750). 
arsreth ^I\%3 l '^stTTJB: adj. e.g. very stout, very fat ; 

hence, fooHsh. Cf. alsreth. -hyuh" -i^l i ■^srf?! 

^^ iffTi ^ adj. (f. -hish^ "^^)' ^^^ °^® ^^'^ '^^ 

very fat and eliunsy, a perfect fool. 
arsath ■^«t^ i ^f?i^^1^: m. (sg. dat. arsatas 

^IT^Tcl^), distress owing to poverty, the possession 

of only very narrow means ; met. incurring great 

trouble or difficulty. 

arseth ^^ i ^frjiizrra: f. (sg. dat. arsib" ^^^), 
great exertion, great efforts directed towards some 

For words beginning with S, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, a, see under wu, wu respectively. 

araseth •^x:%?T 

— 45 — 

oryum'^-pbrynm" ^t^t-ttt^ 

object either very difEcult to obtain or impossible of 
attainment. Cf. araseth. 

araseth ^t^ I f^ts^Tf^T^; f. (sg. dat. arasifc" 
^TT^^), bootless exertion, efforts great but in vain. 
Cf. arseth. 

arsife*'lad ^ht#^;^ I TSifJnraT^nn'^: adj. e.g. accustomed 

to use great exertions, esp. at some impossible task. 

arasib'^lad ^r:^^^ I fwNTTt^Ti: adj. e.g. wearied 
with long-continued exertions ; one accustomed or fond 
of attempting difficult or impossible tasks. 

arasatath •^r:^?!^ I ^'SWFrfTT: card. e.g. seventy-eight. 

arasatatyum" "^^h^^ I ^^^iFTf?lfi»T: ord. (f. ara- 
satatim" ^X^fTftlfl;^), seventy-eighth. 

arti ■^TTflT or ar^ti "^TT*?^ f • a special kind of address to 
a god in which praise is mingled with petitions for 
graciousness, a litany (Siv. 740, 1318). 

ar*t WKfi.' the same as arth, q.v. 

ar*ti -sT^fft , see arti ab. 

ar^t" ^5 I ^R^fWt: adj. (f. ar^^fe^ ^sr^), not good, 
bad (either in character or in appearance), no good 
Ijof a sentient being) ; useless, no good for any specific 
purpose (of an inan. obj.). 

or^t" ^K^ I '^n^: adj. (f. or^fe'* ^'r\f^), afflicted, dis- 
tressed, whether by sickness or by cruelty. 

arth ^V^ 1 TT^^rsw; m- (sg. dat. arthas •^^^), meaning, 
purport ; aim, object, purpose. 

arath ^^T^ i TTf^^^m m. (sg. dat. aratas ■^mifT^), 

nightfall, but not fuU night, evening. Cf. on^ 

aratan '^TTrll l ^^T"^ adv. by evening-time, at 
even, not till evening ; generally of something which 
should be commenced iu the daytime, but wliich is 
delayed till evening ; hence, after considerable delay. 
-bog' -^t5 I T^"^ x;Tf^^<^^% adv. by nearly 
evening, by about evening (u.w. vbs. signifying arrival 
or the like). 

arthat^^Tf^ adv. that is to say, videlicet (Gr.M.). 

aratbjih 1 ■^rCffrfsif l ^F^^lft^ card. e.g. forty- 

aratojih 2 ^TflTf^rf l ■^f<Tf^H^irTt%^»l m. greatness, 
whether owing to high rank or wealth. Cf . aram-tojy. 

aratbjihyiim" ^TriTfaiw^ I ^s^^ift^iTrJ?: ord. (f. 

aratbjihim" ■^TfTlf^fffl;), forty-eighth. 
artal ■^^^ I fl^wH^igfl^^nR; f- leaf or foil of gold, 

silver, or mixed metal. Eaten as a medicine, as well 

as used for ornamentation. 
aratr^h '^X'^ l ^^f^lTf^ card. e.g. thirty-eight. 

aratr^hyum" ^^'f^ I ^^"^tH?: ord. (f. aratr*- 

him" ^^rr^^). tliirty-eighth. 

arute" "^(^5 I ^t"^^^: adj. (sg. dat, arubis ^^f^^, 
but pi. dat. arofeen ^tV^R;, ag. pi. arolsyau 


^tV^; fern. sg. nom. arufe'' ^^^ , dat. arotsS 
■^jO"^' and so throughout), unpleasing, disagreeable 
(e.g. food, ornaments, expressions, etc.). 

ar^b'i WT^ , see ar°t". 

br"b" ■^STTT^ , see or^t". 

arufeh •^^^ I "W^f^'- f. (sg. dat. arubi '^^r^t^), disgust, 

want of appetite. 

bribh -^HTfrw i ^nf^JWl^t f. (sg. dat. brifei ^ifrt^, 
and so on), the daily or continual area, or worship 
and feeding a brahman which goes on for a year after 
a death in a family, brilsi-brohmilll ■?rrft;t^-Wt^ I 
Hfrf%WT^T^^*ft'3iT Wt^pir: m. the brahman who 
receives the offerings of food on these occasions. 
brifei-tur^ -^Tfrf^-^ I ^fifMMT^TTTWf^^^: f. a 
copper vessel, in which the food offered on these 
occasions is cooked. 

arfean '^^•t^ f. worship, adoration (of a deity) (Siv. 1162). 

arfeun ^f'l;, I ^^''1 conj. 1 (1 p.p. orfe'^ ^'g ; 2 p.p. 
arfeov ■4|-«f|^), to worship, adore. 

aritsar, [?], the name of the first khushaba or process 
of weeding and working the young rice-plant (L. 463, 
where it is spelt aree-fear ; cf. also 327). 

br^tsar ^ r <^Tl<^ l ■^^cIT m. affliction, distress (Siv. 1640, 

aruv" ^^f I ■^^^ftTfi: adj. (f. aruv" ^^|^), not 
transplanted, not planted out (of cultivated plants, 
such as rice, which are grown in seed-beds and then 
transplanted) ; self-sown (of wild plants, which have 
grown up without such planting out). 

arawan '^ttt^i; i ^r^iH'^TWi; f- (sg- dat. arawun'' 

^■^^of ), the act of roughening a grindstone or the 
Hke ; see arawun. 

arawun '^in;^ i '^fi^^^T^si'i: conj. l (l p.p. arow" 
•^T;^), to make rough, to roughen (u.w. ref. to grind- 
stones, millstones, etc., which have worn smooth). 

arawanzah ^T^^f I ^^giT^lIfi; card. e.g. fifty-eight. 

arawanzbhyum" ^T^ffT^^ i ^^tigr^TUr: ord. (f. 
arawanzbhim" ^T'^^if^), fifty-eighth. 

arwa-pata '^^-'qfT adv. at length (W. 95). 

ar-war ^-T^ I trn:T^lTTfi; adv. from that side and 

from this ; hence, of an indefinite area, of indefinite 

extent. Cf. ara-por" and or 1. 

ara-war '^X;-^ l ^ITT'fT^'R; adv. from the far 

side to this side, on the whole, entirely, (of something 

long) from one end to the other. 
bryum°-pbryuni" ^^?-^^^ i ■=*i«a*<r TT^msTJi; adv. 

scattered here and there in a grou}) without order ; 
esp. (in a children's game) of a handful of cowries 
scattered on the ground, and hence, generally, of any 
number of things accidentally fallen on the ground. 

For words beginninff with i, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with n, fl, see under wn, wfl respectively. 

bryuv" ^T^f 

46 — 

OS 2 '^•RC 

bryuv" ^JJ I T?Z5lT^^fH^Tf5|f : m. the space 
between the top of a wall and the roof, used as a kind 
of shelf. 

ar*Z ^IT^J |i_t I r<^ uff?: m. a representation, petition, 
request (Si v. 880). ^karun — 3R^«t; m.inf. to make 
a representation, represent, submit, state humbly ; to 
make a request, to make an application (Gr.M.). This 
word is masc. in Kashmiri, although fem. in Hindostilnl 
(W. 18). 

arzi ^j£- f . a respectful representation, a written petition 

orzoh ^3fff j;,T I ^ra^^T m. longing, craving; 
persistent begging, importunate supplication. 

arzan ^siT'T, m. Panicinn miliaceum (El.). Cf. Persian 

arzun 1 '^l^'^ l ^Tn^»R; conj. 1 (1 p.p. orz" ■^^), to earn, 

acquire, get, gain. 
arzun 2 ^^t, m. a proper N., Arjuna, one of the heroes 

of the Mahilbharata (Siv. 739, 17-34). 

arzbni-yelath '^^if^-^ra^ I ^jsnft^: adj. e.g. very 

useless, of no use for any particular purpose. Cf. 
Persian ^^\J' clieaimess. 

arzath ^^ i ^^^tj^ f- (sg- dat. arziife" -^^^ and so 
on), earnings, gain, profit. Cf. Gr.Gr. 128. 

as 1 ^^ pron. suff. of 1st pers. sing. nom. After 
a vowel the initial a is elided. Thus, karyon-as 
^nrfl^ I (as) was made by him ; poku-S 4g»H; 
I went (Gr.Gr. 183). 

as 2 '^reC, pron. suff. of 3rd pers. sing. dat. After 
a vowel the initial a is elided. Thus, karan chtlh- 
as ^TTI^ ^W^ thou makest for him (as) ; kara-S 
^■^^ I shall make for him. This suff. is also used 
for the aoc. when the verb is in the 3rd pers., as in 
karan chi-S ^Tllf^^ they make him (Gr.Gr. 185). 

as 1, the same as bs, q.v. This is the spelling of K.Pr., 
e.g. pp. 145, 171, 248. 

as 2 "^1^ be thou, impve. sg. 2 of asun, q.v. 

as 3 ^T^ I (m.) came, or he came for him ; see yun". 

as 4, as in K.Pr. 157=bs", she was; see asun. 

as •^f^adv. yes (EL, who spells the word ans). 

asa Lac m. a staff of office, a sceptre (EL, who spells 
it asa). 

asa 1 ^TH, see bs. 

asa 2 '^rre they (f.) were ; see asun. 

ase ■^^, as* 1 ■^^, see boh. 

as' 2 ^t^ ' s*5e under asun. 

bs or OS" 2 ^rra:, '^^ (for 1 see asun) l '^T^m; m. 
(sg. dat. bsas -^T^^^K.Pr. 15, 90, 157), abl. bsa 1 
TITO, and so on), the mouth, the face (Siv. 199, 1795) ; 
of. as 1. -bab -^ l g^ ^f TWI f. (putting) the 

3.i 1 

nipple into the mouth to quiet a suckling babe (to put, 
thawiin*) ; hence, met. giving great pleasure to 
a person, giving him something that he longs for. 
-beha -=!If l "^RTH^^HT^: m. temporary silence, 
as in the phrase bs-beha chuy na ? can't you 
hold j'our tongue for a little ? -nicer -r*|-«*J< I 
■^^TT^HTW- 111- the condition of having a small 
mouth ; a reticent habit, taciturnity, a habit of 
speaking little, -nyuk'' -WTJ I Tl^TT^: adj. (f. -nic" 
-f%^), having a small mouth, small-mouthed; one 
who speaks little, taciturn, not loquacious, reserved, 
reticent by nature. -nyur" -5«I^ I W^"^3rr^^^: 
m. a certain cattle disease, swelling of the mouth and 

feet (cf. L. 459, asnur). -phakh -^^ra I ^^^'fi'^i: 

m. (sg. dat. -phakas -t5^flg[^), the stink of an evil- 
smelling mouth, foul breath, -pav -tTf I '^IJ'JTf^- 
ptT^TTT m. greediness, gluttony, edacity. — surawun 
— TT'^^'I. I 'T'§lftVT*T m.inf. to clean the mouth ; 
hence, to mind one's words, speak carefully or resjaect- 
fully, to use proi:)er language, not to use foul talk, 
e.g. bs suraw, ' clean j'our mouth,' said to some one 
who is using indecent abuse, -thop" -"^M I '^T^f'TTY^i 
m. restraint of the mouth ; esp. shutting by one 
woman the mouth of another who is lamenting, thus 
inducing her to restrain her voice ; met. a gift or 
other inducement given to a gabbler or censorious 
person to make liim hold his tongue. — fehet^run 
— laZ^I, I ■^T^f^^^^irH m.inf. to render the 
mouth impure ; hence, putting food into one's mouth, 
eating; esp. taking food twice daily after the con- 
clusion of the funeral fast held by a brotherhood after 
the death of one of its members, -fehyon" -ipi I 
f^3T^: adj. (f. -fehen" -^I^)! having the mouth 
split or cleft, either from birtli, from disease, or injury. 
— tsatun — ^Z«i; l *1<^'^^<tH m.inf. to cut the mouth ; 
hence, to stop a jjerson speaking as soon as he 
commences ; to stop a person eating something he 
has just put into his mouth. — yun" — ^1 I 
T'^f^'fiTT' m.inf. to make a face indicating disgust 
at nasty food or at having the same food over and 
over again. 

bsa bab neriin" ^rra ^ %T^ I Trisnr^Pif«Tij1u!*i 

f.inf. the nipple to slip from the mouth (of a suckling 
child) ; met. a slip to occur betwixt cup and lip, 
a sudden disappointment to happen on the brink of 
success. -bod"-^?l-'^ I ^1^^: adj. (f. -bud" -'^\), 
big -mouthed ; hence, loud-voiced ; hectoring, lajang 
down the law ; impudent ; loquacious, given to much 
talking, -hath -f^ m. a hundred mouths (K.Pr. 25). 
— kadun — ^^^i; l «'aTrw:?ITT^!n^ m.inf. to drag 

For words begiuning with e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yl respectively, aud for words beginning with n, a, see under wu, wtl respectively. 



osh'* ^"g 

out from the moutli ; hence, to utter forcibly, esp. 
a command or abuse, -kath -^^ I JT'^^WT f. (sg. 
dat. -kathi -^f^), a word iu tlie mouth ; hence, any 
word or statement which is remembered and held 
ready for utterance on the tongue, even though 
previously heard only once ; gossip, hears.iy. -feot" 
-^5 I I^^T^: adj. (f. -feiit" -W2), having tlio lips, 
the tongue, or other parts of the mouth cut oft' ; met. 
ugly-mouthed, having an ugly mouth ; or, speaking 
badly or indistinctly, -zev -W^ I >R<s)f^il f • a tongue 
in the mouth, i.e. which fills the mouth and leaves 
room for nothing else, the tongue of a babbling, 
loquacious person. 

OS", OS" 1, see asun. 

us 1 '^^a sec. suff. forming adverbs of time, indicating 
the year in which a thing occurred, as in yih-US 
f^^^, this year; par-US ^^^ last year (Grr.Grr. 158). 

US 2 ''3^ m. a sec. suff. appearing in the words lUOnd-US 
?^^^, mdowhood, and dob-US 1[^^, a washerman's 
club (Gr.Gr. 144). 

asbab ■^^^r^ '-r''^^ ' ^<l^*l^i: implements, 
tools, instruments ; goods, chattels, effects, property 
(Siv. 430) ; articles, things ; furniture ; baggage, 

asbarg, m. the flowers of the Belphinium sanicidcefoKum 

ased "^^i^ 1 '?it%f^: f- (sg. dat. aslz" '^^^)> want of 

success,non-success ; incompletion,non-accomplishment. 

asod" 1 'v^^ I ^?rrt%itT:,^flT^: adj. (f. asbz" ^^i^), 

not effected, unaccomplished, imiieifect, incomplete; 
(of a disease, etc.) incurable, chronic, mortal, fatal. 
asod" 2 ^H^f I JlT^^^T^T^TtW<T: adj. (f. asoz" 
1. '^Rrf?' ), flavourless, without taste, not sweet (of food, 

of language, or of a sound). 

. asadul" ^«T?^ i •*i»ilMl<«tl1 ad j . (f . asad"j" ^ifif^) , 

i.q. asod" 2, q.v. 

asadi-veb" ^^rrf^-^ or asadi-vefe" ^Tmf^-^|[ I 

arflW^ f. (of a female, human or other) pregnant, 

with child. 
asog" ■^?Nl •^fir^: adj. (f. asuj" '^4^), not sprinkled 

with water, not watered (of a plant, etc.). 
ash, i.q. bsh, q.v., in K.Pr. 2. 
ash ^T^ I ^smiT f- hope, expectation (Siv. 28, 1021, 

1G93) ; wish, desire, longing ; chybn" ash, hope of 

(seeing) thee (YZ. 457), hope in thee (Siv. 1574). 

— bariin'^ — ^■^^i I '?rr^T*rT'!I'l finf- to hope, long 

for, hope for, earnestly desire. — dariin" — ^T^ I 
"•STUIVTTW^ f-inf. to f)lace hope on a person, to hope 
for something from some one. — rozun" — Tf^i^ I 
■^TTTT^tH; f.inf. to be hopeful, be in hope of anytliing, 

to look hopefully (to), to hope (for), expect (from). 
— thawiin" — ^(^'^ ^mn^T'JI't to entertain or 
cherish a hope (of) ; to look to (for), to repose trust 
(in), expect (from) (Siv. 945, 1166, 1558). (El. asha 


ashi-rost" ''sjTfii-y:^ i f^^jsi: adj. (f. -riibh" 

-'^^), witliout hope, liopeless (El. dHhal-riiHt) (Siv. 945). 
-ratehar -TWT l f^TTin^'l m- hopelessness. -w61" 
-Tt^ I '^T^n^T'i; adj. (f. -wajen -^sir^), possessing 
liope, liopeful. 
asha (El.), asha ^tut (Siv. 1480, 1736, 1745, 1755), f. 
ashai (EL), m., i.q. ash, q.v. 

aish (ji-^ m., i.q. bsh, q.v. (K.Pr. 173). 
bsh "^XVS \J^^^ I 'ftTI ni. pleasure, luxury, enjoyment 
of wealth, etc., spelt asli in K.Pr. 2 and ahh in 

K.Pr. 173. bshe-mot" '^rir^r-'T^ i "^tTTiftT^^jr: adj. 

(f. -miits" "A^ ), luxury-mad, addicted to luxury or 
Osh" ^g I ■9»"g m. a tear (weeping) (Siv. 1588, 1619, 
1892). — sethah pakan — '^TTf ^%^^ many tears 
flow (El. ; cf. YZ. 132, pi. ; 417, sg.). ash^ pey ^ 
xsr^j, tears fell (YZ. 262). — trawun — ^^^'%^, m.inf. 
to weep (Siv. 1250, 1741, 1910). — yun" — -^ I 
•qxfl t«li'^"re^«T't tears to come, to weep ; hence, to 
weep tears of envy, to be envious or jealous, kawa 
yiyem OShu-y ? why should a tear come to me ? why 
should I cry ? (K.Pr. 58, where the word is spelt 
ushye, and 76, where it is aushye). 

ash' ^lll or ashi 'Sfsr- AH the following com- 
pounds here commencing with ash' ^Sl^ may 
optionally commence with ashi ^fjj. ash'-buka 
^t^-^ofi I ^^"^T^: m.2)l. the weliing-up of tears in 
the eyes ; tears filling the eyes but not streaming 
forth, -dag -^ I ^^f^:^^^ f. the pain in the eyes 
caused by tears, tear-swoUen eyes, -digin -f^ft^I I 
■^^^TTfi; f. a sudden and copious torrent of tears, as 
it were a flow of water from a broken jar. -dara 
-^TT I •^■^^^TTT: f- a stream of tears. So ashic" dar 
(Siv. 1366). -gand -JT^JS I ^'^^rf^: a knot of 
tears ; an accumulation of tears in the ej-es, not 
flowing forth, but forming ' knots ' or ' beads ' in the 
eyelashes, -gata -tZ I ^Sl^ f- the flow of tears 
produced by smoke, etc ; the temporary darkness or 
blindness caused by such, -gatakar -TJ^T^ I '^^^- 
^^% running or watering of the eyes, from disease, 
from smoke, or from the application of drugs, -phyor" 
-TW^ I '^gf^^: m- (sg- dat. -pheris -""Wfr^), a tear- 
drop (Siv. 1210). -phyur" -''^ I '^^f^^: ni. (sg. 
dat. -phiris -xftfT^); ^ tear-drop, usually applied to 
a very small or minute drop, -tor' -zf^ I '^^^ihtj^ 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning witli u, a, see under wu, wfl respectively. 

osh" ^-^ 

— 48 — 

ashkal ^t^^ eyelids filled with tears, -bala -^TST I ^^Hf fn: 11 handful of tears, tears sufficient to fill the 
hollow of the hand, a great flood of tears. -Isor' 
-^'it^ I ■^gmUflT (of the eyes), fuUness with 
tears, tearfulness. 

ashi-pher' '?ifir--qgtT: i ^fn^^silT 'HT^ ^^ 

lu.jil. the name of a sacred place {tirtlta) in KasbmTr, 
where there are two springs, one hot and the other 
cold, which are said to be the goddess Parvati's 
tears of sorrow and joy respectively. It is situated 
in the hill-country of Lahara (Lar) Pargana, beyond 
the Hanisadvitra Mountain, about half-way along the 
Haramukutagangil pilgrim route. 

ashice-dara ^f?i'^-«[TT: i ^gwt vttt: streams 
of tears (poet.). Cf. ash'-dara ab. 

ashiiie-dara ^f3i^-^TT I ^^gxrt VR;t: f-ph, id. 

(poet.). So -feala -^T^, id. (poet.) (Siv. 255, 1688). 

6sh" ^■g I v^: m. (sg. dat. oshis ■^ilil^, abl. ashi 

^ifll), a woman's husband (used by tlie wife), only 
used in old language and poetry. The fern, is ashen 
■^TJJ^, a wife, which is still in use. 

bsh*-nav ^rf^-Tra; l %^^ m. a relation by 
marriage, a connexion, -nav-bay -ilTW-Tr^ I ^- 
^f'^T^I' f. the wife of a relation by mairiage. -novi 
-TT^ 1 q-^^^^^^: f. relationship by marriage. 

ashob '^■^'^ I ^*Tf ^flt ™. something unlucky, a piece 
of ill-luck. 

ashub" ■^■^w I •^ift*H: m. (m. sg. dat. ashubis 
■^irf^^, abl.ashobi ^^fl'f^; ashub"^iR , 
dat. ashobe ^^f^fr^JT) , wanting in beauty, ugly, bad (of 
appearance or quality) . 

ashebd '^IJSJ" adj. e.g. soundless, silent ; N. of im- 
personal deity of the Vedilnta philosophy (Siv. 1766). 

ashdd ^^ I ^'^^t adj. (f. ashoz*' '^r^lJ), impure 
(either naturally or owing to some accidental cause) ; 
not clear, not free from foulness ; (as subst.) an 
impurity ; an error in copying or writing ; incorrect 
or impure language ; (of words) impure, rude, abusive 
(Siv. 92). 

ashud ■^^ I -^^tr^jJi; m. (sg. dat. ashedas ^li^ ; 
pi. nom. ashed ^IJ^), a certain wild mountain herb 
used as medicine, esp. any medicine for the eyes, 
collyrium (K.Pr. 148). When a bear gets this grass 
it is said that he devours it greedily, and becomes 
unconscious for six months (K.Pr. 76). Cf. oshed. 
— lagun —^5^ I Tftwinft-qfvi^^mWTm.inf. to feel 
the influence of this herb, to become faint or dizzy 
from its smell when travelling in the mountains. 
—lagun — WR^ I %^^qt%li^5I»i: m.inf. to apply 
medicine to the eyes. 


ashed-goPkh" ^ii^-i^^^ I %^^^fv^3^T f. 

a small lump of tliis collyrium applied to the eyes. 

-gor" -^^ I ^^%^: m. (his wife is ashed-gar'-bay 

^I!?-'i^-^l^, while a female eye-doctor is ashed- 
giir" '^^irff-1'?^) , a maker of medicine for the 
eyes, an eye-doctor, -gar'-wan -it^-^TT; I 
%'^ff^flfi(^^^r'I' ro. an's consulting room or 
shop ; (fig.) a place where a number of crying children 
have collected, -put" -'qZ I '^I'^^qff^ f. the rag 
tied over a sore on which medicine lias been applied ; 
a rag smeared with medicament for application to 
a wound, a plaster. -tuj' -Ht% or -t"l" -<+^ I 
ijftqviflfsfqiT f. a needle or stick, usually made of 
silver, for applying collyrium to the eyes ; hence, the 
little particle of collyrium in the end of the needle. 
-wan -TTi; l ^^^Vr^^W: m. a medicine shop, an 
apothecary's shop, -won'^ -^'5 I '^^t^Vt%%fTT m. 
a seller of simijles, an apothecary. 
5slied ■^IT?" I ^^Wl, lu. a herb, esp. one used for 
medicine, a simple, inedicine (Siv. 49, 517, 632, 1838). 

Cf. ashud. 

oshid '^ifll^ I '^Tf^i: m. the name of a month, 

equivalent to September-October. Cf. K.Pr. 128, 

where it is spelt dshid. 
ashodl W^^ f. an error or mistake (in writing). 

— kadun" — =fi^'^^' to criticize (Gr.M.), 
ashgul, m. a tax levied u}ion Musalmans of the Vallej' 

of Kashmir for the support of Hindu priests (EL). 
ashehuj" "^Iliri^, see ashehoP. 
ashehoP ^nr"? ^r i •^ni^cT^: adj. (f. ashehuj" "^iri^). 

not cool (by nature or for any .special cause), hot, 
(of temper) violent. 
ashka ^T^ l Tr^TTlftr f ph the joints or articulations 
between the bones. 

ash^kh ^^r^ 

I ^?T^^T m. (sg. dat. ash^kas 

'^IT^^)! love, affection, passion, lustfulness (K.Pr. 36). 
ash*ka-nyay ^IJ^fi-'JlT'^T I ^Tfflf^TY>ii: m. jealousy 
or opposition between two suitors for the favours of 
one woman ; met. any sudden apparent mutual 
opposition, -pecan -q'^TI^ I ^^f^^^: m. a kind of 
ivy ; the American jasmine, (?) Iponma ccenilea (El. 
ishpecha) . -•wawuj" -^^^ I ^f^I^T^^ f • an amorous 
or erotically disposed woman ; one who gets herself up 
to entice men. 

ashekh 1 tJ-^\^ m. (sg. dat. ashekas), a lover (EL). 

ashekh 2, see asun. 

ashkhash •^^t§t^ i ^q^rrij: m. total destruction of 
one's life, wealth, or jiroperty — a word mainly employed 
in cursing, etc. 

ashkal ^T^^ i ^'iv^f^sRi'm^lTrfwrf^^: f. a 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning with u, ii, see under wu, wu respectively. 

ash%un" ^ir^'T 

— 4a — 

ashdzar ■^■'SWK 

reverence or ' saliim ' made to infants when teaching 

ash^un"^ ^^55 fidj. (f. ash^kiin^ ^^^), of or 

belonging to love (K.Pr. 8(5). 

ashekth ^ij^^ adj. e.g. (as subst. sg. dat. ashektas 

•^nr^RT,), without power, incompetent, utterly feeble 

(Siv. 993, 15.5;3). 
ash^Ush '^'^^^ I '^'^t: f- the name of a certain lunar 

mansion or luihatra, in Sanskrit uMem. 
ashem 1 ^ip^ l ?n?T: m. the name of a village situated 

on the bank of the River Veth (Jihlam), in the Lahara 

(Lar) Pargana of Kashmir. 
ashem 2 "^S^fi l wtlTT f. a woman's name, used 

amongst Musalmans. 
ash«muj* ^^5^ I ^flf^^: f. the name of a village 

in Lahara Pargana. 
ashnbi ly'^-'--'' ^- acquaintanceship, friendship, intimacy 

ashani, i.q. asheii, q.v. (K.Pr. 86). 
ashain, see ashen, 
ashen "^^i;, see asun. 
ashon '^''S\ I ^fg^ f. the name of the first of the 

t\\enty-seven nak'^afrm, or lunar mansions. 

asahun ■^«:f'1^ I ^^'t'^ m. (sg. dat. asahanas 

■^^f 1^), inability to endure (another's action, or the 

sight of Iris prosperity, etc.). 
ashenar '^TrsJIT l ^T- m- the name of a village in 

Kiitahiira Pargana. 
ashnav ( = li-i>l), m. a blood-relation, kinsman (El. and 

K.Pr. 16, 159). 
ashen ^ir^ i wrai (f- of 6sh" ^'J, q.v.), a wife. 

EI. .spells tliis word dn/u/iii and ushainiji. 

ashir" "?i^^, see ashyur". 


J I--) 

il m. a nobleman, grandee; a gentleman 

(K.Pr. 16). 



ti\ f. behaviour like a gentleman, gentle- 

manliness (K.Pr. 10) ; a gold coin, gold money 
(K.Pr. 16). 

bsh«ran ^smjTi: I '^rr^f^rwr f. (sg. dat. osh^riin*^ 
■^rnni'^). dependence on a person for livelihood, 
taking refuge with a person. 

bsh^run ■'^IT^^'I, I "^T^T^'BII; conj. l (poet. pres. part. 
osh^ran '^TiiTI (^iv- 1050) ; 1 p.p. osh^r" '^Tii^ 
or bshir" ■^Tftr^)> to go to for refuge or protection, 
to take refuge in (a place) or with (a person) (Siv. 
1050, 1867) ; to settle in (a country) for one's 
livelihood ; to live under (a person's) patronage. 

bshir'i-mot" ■^hi'f^-'TW I '^ITf^m: perf. part. (f. 
bshiru-mufe" '^Tflir^-T^)> one %vith whom refuge is 
taken ; a country in which one settles ; a patron. 

bshor^-pitur*^ ^W^-'H^ I 'ft'^^ T.^ adj. (f. bshbr"- 
pitaren '?rnr^-f^4'5), one who, like a near 
relation who is not bound by the ordinary rules of 
ceremonial politeness, finds fault with or impedes 
another, an interfering busybody. 

bsh^rawun •^t^?:tW'i; i ^i^RHiri conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
bsh^row" ^i^'^^), i.q. bsh^run, q.v. bsh^row"- 
mot" ^■NlTtf-'Tg I "^Tf^: perf. part. (f. bsh^rbw"- 
miife" ^TirTT^-'T^)> iq- bshir^-mot", q.v. 

ashta '^S. card. e.g. (borrowed from Sanskrit), eight. 
The eight siddhis (Siv. 115, 519) are the eight sujx'r- 
natural powers acquired by Yogins. The ashta-dala 
hreday (Siv. 519), or eight-leaved heart, is the name 
of a mystic diagram used in the worsliip of Shiva. 
The ashta-murti (Siv. 519), or eight forms of Shiva, 
are the five elements, the sun, the moon, and the 
sacrificing priest. Eight forms of Shiva are classed as 
Bhairavas (Siv. 986). Cf. bbrav. 

ashtadashe ■^Tg^lJ card, (borrowed from Sanskrit), 
eighteen (Siv. 1510). 

ashtami '^S'JI' f- the eighth day of a Hindu lunar 
fortnight ; cf. L. 263, 265, 266. 

ashoteh '^nftfl i ^^^^^i; m. (sg. dat. ashotsas 

■^ift^^). ceremonial impurity, esp. that caused by 
a death, by the birth of a child, or the like. 

ashfear ^T'^T; adj. e.g. wonderful, extraordinary, odd, 
unusual (Siv. 153, 622, 739) ; or, as subst. m., astonish- 
ment, surprise (Siv. 1162). — karun — "R^'i;, to be 
surprised (Gr.M.). 

ash^are ■^^ or ashteari '^T'^'O adj. e.g. wonderful, 
extraordinary (Gr.M., EL, Siv. 888, 1846). 

ashiv, see asun. 

ash^wal '^^^^ l ^^T f- an unchaste woman, esp. one 

who is so privately, and who is not a public prostitute. 
ashawan ^Uri^ll adj. e.g. hoping, having hope 

(Siv. 1G34). 
ashowar '^^^T^ I '^SI'^tI'?: adj. e.g. one accustomed 

to riding, a good rider, a rough rider, horse-breaker, 

aushye, ushye (K.Pr. 76, 58), see osh". 
ashyuk" "^^^ I f'lIir^H; adv. fearlessly, securely, 

confidently (with verbs of going and the like). 

ashyur'' ^^ i ^*i<*d: adj. (f. ashir" "^^^), not 

put together, not prejiared ; not put together, not 
repaired (after being torn, broken, or the like). 

ashoz^ ^rg?r , see ashod. 

ashdzar '^^^ I ^'g^I^^'i; m. impurity, uncleanness, 
dirtiness ; fig. distemper, an unhealthy condition of 
the body (owing to disease) or of the mind (owing to 
anger, etc.). 

For words beginning with e, i, S. see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with n, fi, see under wn, wfl respectively. 


asuj" •^war 

— 50 — 

asun ^mv^ 

asuj" ^re^, see asog". 

asakhor" ^^^^ l f^^ ll^'RJi: adv. without setting 
forth (u.w. vbs. of obtaining, etc., to indicate that the 
article has been got without having to go for it). 

as4 -^1^3 J^\ 1 ^Sif^H: adj. e.g. real, true, genuine; 
material, important, principal, chief, main ; of good 
stock or breed ; pure, unalloyed. as*l molikh ^^^ 
Tiff's . the chief owner of a business (Gr.M.). 

as4i |jL»l adj. e.g. real, original (not a copy) (Gr.M.). 

asil J--«l adj. e.g. of good stock, noble, well-bom (El.). 

asom° ^^ I ^fT^: adj. (f. asuin" ^^rT), uneven, 
unequal (in birth, appearance, quality, or number), 
as compared with something else of the same kind ; 
uneven, not level (of surface). 

asom' ■^HTI'I I T}^' f- a pile of grain, as that on 
a threslung-floor. 

asbmi (j^^-jI m- a cultivating tenant, an occupier of 
village land (L. 426 ff., 443). asbmi-war khewat, 
an assessment on Kashmir villages, made in the year 
1880 (L. 403). 

asambol" ^?ra^^ i ^^^rT-", ^^ J^Wf[: adj. (f. 

asambbj" '^^«rT^), not put together, not repaired 
(of something damaged) ; not looked after, not taken 
care of, not kept in good order. 
asamokh" ^^?t^ i f^ii ^R^H^in , ^^?i^'^*r^^ift^: 

adj. (f. asamiich" ■^«?t^), not easily visible, not 
easily found, difficult to get, rare ; adv. without seeing, 
without noticing (u.w. vbs. of getting and the like). 

asman ^i^Ti; or asman ^srr^'i: <J^ i ^iwr^: m. 

the sky, the firmament, the vaidt of heaven (Siv. 1146). 
asmana pyon" '^T^TR ill^, to fall from heaven, to 
be utterly ruined after great prosperity (K.Pr. 16). 

buzi buzi gada asmanas sUty ^^ ^'^ t(jt 

'W^TT'Ji;^, cooking fish by the sun's heat (K.Pr. 38). 
asmbn' "^mi^ ^J^^~^ I ^Ti^ir^l^: adj. e.g. of the 

colour of the sky, sky-blue ; azure, cajrulean. -rang 
-Tt I ^^TSJ^I ^'. m. the colour of the sky, sky- 
blue, -ranga -ti I "^^TSj^: adj. e.g., i.q. asmbn\ 

asamer ^^r«r^ l f^^^mr m. inequality (in birth, 
appearance, quality, or number) ; unevenness (of 

asamafear ^TO»?^T^ I ^%^?TW»1: m. difference of 
opinion, want of unanimity ; dissimilarity, unlikeness. 

asan 1 ^^^ l ^ftTrfUniSWR: m. the seat of a human 
being, buttocks, rump; the anus (El.). 

asan 2 ^T^I; ^ I ^T'BT'^; m. a seat, stool, mat for 
sitting upon (Siv. 1849) ; a seat, secure abode (Siv. 20). 
asana-dar ^rei-^Tj: adj. e.g. possessing a seat or 
throne ; met. a place worthy of housing or receiving 
a deity (&iv. 57). 


asan 3 ^rra«^ , they will be. See asun. 
asan 1 ^T^I: ^.'^--^ ' ^^T: adj. e.g. easy, facile, feasible, 
manageable. — pbth* — ^Tt^ I ■B^Pi;"H«BTTW adv. easily. 

asan 2 ^T^rri; pres. part, of asun, q.v. 
asun "^w^ I ^W^H conj. 1 (1 p.p. os° ^j; 2 p.p. asov 
'^^^), to laugh (K.Pr. 48). In the past tenses this 
verb is construed impersonally. Thus, osu-m "^SffJf^ , 
it was laughed by me, I laughed ; OSU-n '^^•t_ , he 
or she laughed ; OS" ^SW, we laughed, and so on. 

asun ^^ m. a laugh (K.Pr. 260, Siv. 788). Its 
abl. is asana '^'ETf, as in the following. 

asana-hana ^siH^-f •rr f- a small laugh, a smile. 
— kariin" — ^T'^ , to smile (Gr.M.). 

asan-asan '?i'RT1:-^^ti; i ^wt'I^t, ^frnf^"Em 

pres. part., laughing, laughing ; hence, as adv., 
cheerfully, happily, joyfully, and met., very quickly, 
speedily (Siv. 899, 917). 

as^-as' ^t?-^t? I lt%^T lftl«^T conj. part, 
laughing, laughing ; hence, as adv., joyfully, quickly, 
asun ■^^1. I v{^^^ conj. 2 (1 p.p. 6s" wt^, pi. bs' 
^^; f. OS" ^"re, pl- asa 2 ■^T^; 2 p.p. asyov 
"*ll*^'^ is not used), (lit.) to sit; hence, to remain, 
continue, abide (Siv. 1832) ; to be, to become (passim). 
The past tense is employed as the oi'dinary past tense 
of the verb substantive. Thus, OSUS ^rY^W, I was. 
Similarly, for all other tenses except the present, 
' I am ' being chhus ?E^ . The present of this verb 
indicates condition. Thus, suh chhuh yilshanwol" 
asan indicates that he is not only eager, but that he 
is in a general condition of eagerness (so Siv. 90, 1040). 

The verb is also employed as an auxiliary, like the 
IlindostanI t/icl or hund ; thus it forms an imperfect, 
as in suh 6s" karan, he was doing ; a pluperfect 
tarn' 6s" kor"-mot", he had done, and other tenses, 
such as suh asi karan (icoh jdnta hogd), he is 

probably doing, hargah boh karan asahb (ngar 

mm karta hot a), had I been doing, or yeduwai me 
asihe kor"-mot" {agcr mai-ne kiyd hotd), had I done. 
As a verb substantive it often governs a dative of 
possession, then meaning ' to have '. Thus, me asi or 
ase-m, there will be to me, I shall have ; me 6s" or 
6su-m, I had. Gr.M., K.Pr. 114, YZ. 245. 

This verb has a benedictive mood, which is thus 
conjugated : sg. 2, ashekh ^TO^, mayst thou be; 

pi. 2, ashiv ^Tf^i^, sg. and pi. 3, ashen ^msi; 
(Siv. 188, 940). 

In poetry the pres. part, is sometimes asan '^^•^ 
or asana ^TRR, instead of asan '^(T^'l, (e.g. Siv. 
1040, 1724). 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, 4, see under wu, wu respectively. 

asana ^^r^ 

51 — 

astan JcJ\ 

asun-basun ^^s^-^r^i: I ^^1^1%: m.inf. being 
and appearance, or possibly a jingling repetition of 
asun ; bence, a person's possessions, property. 

asan-w6l° -^^^i^-^^ I m^^: adj. (f. -wajen 

-qiayo^), wealthy, having great possessions. 
asana ■WHf, an adverbial su£f. implj'ing a question 

with doubt, as in khewan chw-asana? ^rti, wtoi, 
is he really eating ? bata kaity-asana asan chih ? 

WZ ^MTOT ^^i; t^f how many briibmans are 
there really? (Gr.Gr. 181). 

asond" '^^^ see ath 1. 

asandor"" ^^^^ l f^tT ^V^iiriT adv. without kindling, 
witliout setting alight (u.w. vbs. of burning, etc.). 

asondar ■*I*fl«^^ l ^nftni: adj. e.g. not beautiful, ugly. 

asnur (L. 459), see bs-nyur'^ under os. 

asan-villa ^^I'l^-ft^ i f^mfn smiles, of. asana- 
hana under asun. 

asanawun ^^'itj'^ i ^t^tr; conj. 1 (1 p.p. -now'' 

-•fl^), to cause to laugh, make a person laugh (K.Pr. 
asanawawtin" ^^^^^ i irfT^Risi: adj. (f. asanawa- 

-wiin" ^^l«n^q'^), one who causes another to laugh, 

amusing, comical. 
asiinz" ^??^ , .see ath 1. 
asen" W^\ , >^f(^ asyon". 
as-pas ^^-m^ I ^f^f!: adv. near, in proximity to ; 

near on all sides, round about and near (Siv. 1441). 
asar yl m. a sign, mark ; impression, influence (Gr.M.) ; 

result, consequence ; the effect of a medicine (Gr.M.). 

asara-vesar ^^iWT-^re'^ i Tt^TT^f'f^R; f . weariness 

of tlie limbs, slackness of the limbs from weariness. 
asar ^HT^ I ^TTff'T: adj. e.g. without kernel, hence 

worthless, unsubstantial, esp. as a religious term, with 

reference to this world, i.q. as6r° 1. 
asara '^[m^ l -^i^H'. m. asjdum, shelter (Siv. 152, 

626, 1173, 1435) ; support, protection, patronage. 
asir^--ol m. a prisoner, captive (YZ. 208). 
asor ^^TT i.q. asur, q.v. 
asor" ^'^^ I ^TW f^T stdv. without remembering, 

asor" "^^^ I ■^^Tfi: adj. (f. asur^ "^^r^), not remembered, 

not recognized, forgotten. 

asor" 1 ^rft^ i "vfrnK- adj. (f. asbr'^ '^i^i^), without 

fjermanence, impermanent, fleeting (Siv. 189). Cf. 


as6r° 2 "V^^ l ^WS- adj. (f. asbr** ^^n^), untouched. 

asor" 3 ^^ I ^%^r^Sf<T: adj. (f. asbr" ^'ai^), not 
collected in a heap, not gathered in (of a crop, etc.). 

asor° ^^^ I ^^tI' m. a certain kind of mustard plant, 
(?) Sinapis raniosa. It ripens about September (EL). 

asar^-byol" ^^^-^^H I Tif^<*l4>«*i m. 

mustard-seed, -mond" -Wt^ | TiTf^^TT^^r f. the 

root of the mustard plant, used as a medicine for 

cutaneous diseases. 
asur ^j-^ or as6r ^r^ i "VWK' m- (f- asdren ^^^^), 

an evil spirit, demon, Asura (Siv. 859, 932, 1179). 
asur" •^^r^ i ■^^r^ftjcr: adj. (m.dat. asuris '^^ff?;^, abl. 

asori ^^tic; f.nom. asxir"^^, dat. asore ^€t^), 

not entirely spent, not entirely used up, not exhausted 
(of a collection or store of anything, whether partially 
expended or not). 

asorun '^^^'i; i ^asR^^^fTT conj. 2 (1 p.p. asur" 
^fl^ ; 2 p.p. asoryov '^fl^^JH), not to be spent, not 
to be exhausted (of things) ; hence, to be broad, long, 

asoren ^^^=1 l ^^T^t f- a female demon, see asur. 

asorsh" ^^^ I ^HW?!^^: adj. (f. asorsh" "SR^iq), not 

washed, not cleansed, dirty (of the hands, or of 
a vessel, etc.). 

asorawun" ^^T^^ I ^ti^^; adj. (f. asorawiin" 

^^■^^■3)), inexhaustible, never coming to an end; 
hence, very long, endless. 

asta 1 ^RI I l^Tnrnp^ m. a certain measure of length ; 
a cubit (Gr.M.). 

asta 2 "^rer ( = ic^^), adv. slowly, gently. — asta 
— '^^ I IT^: 5J%: adv. slowly, gently ; gradually, by 
degrees (Siv. 191, emph. astay-astay) ; easily, 
leisurely ; gently, mildly. 

asth ^^ I "^^m^ m. (sg. dat. astas ^rera; and so on), the 
setting of a heavenly bodj' ; the obscuration of one 
heavenly body ovsdng to its conjunction with another, 
e.g. the obscuration of a planet by the sun ; met. 
a season of obscuration. — karun — ^^1^ I ^^iffi; 
m.inf. to set (of the sun, etc.), to be obscured (as 
a star by conjunction with the sun) ; met. to be 
eclipsed, rendered powerless, owing to the opposition of 
a powerful master. 

astas karun ^^r^ ^i^ i xTTTl^ml'SRTWl m.inf. 

to defeat, conquer (in a verbal dispute or in a battle). 

— galshun — 1W1 l ^^1T: m.inf. to be conquered, 

to acknowledge defeat (in a verbal dispute or in 

a battle) ; to be helpless, unable to do anything ; to be 

reduced to poverty. 
asath ^«^ I ^^W'l adj. and subst., m. (as subst., sg. 

dat. asatas '^9<^), imtrue, false (Siv. 765) ; untruth, 

falsehood (Siv. 1271). 
asthan WWT't. ni. a Hindu temple or shrine (L. 286). 
astan, astana JviJ\ , ijhJ\ m. a threshold (El.); 

door, entrance ; entrance to a shrine; abode of a/aqlr 

or holy man (K.Pr. 143). 

For words beginning with 8, i, I, see under ye, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning with u, a, see under wn, w4 respectively. 

H 2 

astar 1 ^^t 

— 52 

at^ ^^ 

astar 1 ^^ /-^^ I ^Wr^TW^^ari: m. the lining of 

a garment (Gr.M.). 
astar 2 ^RH^^a-^^ I WSmT - m. a mule. 
astarak, ? m. knuckle-bones and other hones which are 

left after a Hindu is burnt (L. 266, 461). 
astoth ^^5^^ f. (sg. dat. astbfe" ^^sff^), praise, eulogy 

(Siv. 708, ?90o). 
asta-vesth ^^-^re? i f^^"OfT: adj. e.g. (as subst., 

m. sg. dat. -vestas -9reT^ and so on), scattered hither 
and thither, confused, disordered. 

astay-astay '^^\-^^^, see asta 2. 

asiv" ^ftf, . see asyuv*^ 1 and 2. 

asuv" '^igj I ^ffrra^t^flT adj. (f. asuv" "^^f), not 

sewn, (of clothes) not sewn together ; not stitched up. 
asavidan wmf^^'l I "9R^»nff?r; adj. e.g. careless, 
heedless, inadvertent. 

asawun" "^^^ i l^Rift^: adj. (f. asawuii" ^^^■^), 

laughing, one who laughs, either for some special 
reason, or who is of a laughing, sunny disposition 
(YZ. 72, 145 ; Siv. 736, 817, 1560, 1324). 
asawun" "^^^ adj. (f. asawuii" ^Tfl^t^), one who 
remains, or is continually in a certain condition (Siv. 
196) ; one who is (Siv. 201) ; one who is, one who is 
really existent (Siv. 50, 91). 

asiy "^f^v , see b6h. 

asyod*^ ^^f I '^^w: adj. (m. sg. dat. asedis ^^rf^^; 

f. sg. nom. asez"^^5t ), not straight, crooked (in shape 
or in disposition). 

asyon" ^^5 1 ^^rr^^jj!: adj. (f. aseii" 'SJ^^), 
not softened, either lit., as by cooking, etc., or fig., as 
by conciliatory language. 

asyuv^ 1 ^^^ I ^afriTn^f^^^: adj. (f. asiv** ^f%|r), 

not boiled in water, not stewed. 

asyuv" 2^5©^ I ^Tra^^ffi: adj. (f. asiv" ^f%^), not 

tamed, not made obedient, wild (of an animal or bird). 

asez" ^^^, see asyod'^. 

asbz" ■^HT5J , see asod" 1 and 2. 

asuz'^ ■^^ai I ^i!t f^TT adv. unsent, without sending, 
(arriving) of one's own accord. 

at '^RT, see ath 4. 

ata 1 ^Z I Wtft, ■^'^^'^IT;^: f- the shoulder (in old 
language) ; the rope for tying a burden on the 
shoulders ; plaited hair hanging over the shoulders. 
-bor'^ -^^ I ^f^HITI m. a burden carried on the 
shoulder or baek ; a shoulder on which a burden is 
cari-ied (K.Pr. 147). -bari brohmun -mfj, WtW^ ' 
^^■ffffit^: m. a brahman or other beggar, unable to 
walk, whom some one out of charity carries home 
on his back from his begging station, and who, on 
arrival, declines to get down ; a person one cannot 


get rid of, an old man of the sea. -bari hyon^ 
-^Tfr W^ I ^^ VJTT'II'^ m.inf. to carry on the 
shoulders or on the back (ef. K.Pr. 147) ; met. to 
give protection to one who is defenceless, -bari 

khasun -^^Tx ^^^ 1 ^r^HTTTTtfiipi; m.inf. to 

mount as a burden on somebody's shoulder, to ride 
on somebody's back ; met. (of some mean person 
suddenly elevated) to act insolently. — kariin" 
— ^T'^ I <sh«M iftHTT^'^l'Ii; f.inf. to fasten a bundle 
tightly on the shoulder or back, -pur" -if^ I 
ftl^lf^^Pf- m. a children's game, in which they 
mount on each other's slioulders. -put" -tlH I 
^ftl^<^ra^:, fIig=B^^Tf^^'5i m. 'a son on the 
shoulders ', a game played mth children. The child 
is taken on the shoulder, and then caused to hang 
down, a cry being uttered at the same time, -raz 
-7;5f I »TTTT=R^IW^^> f- the sling or cord with which 
a burden is tied upon the shoulders. 

atas khasun ^z^^ ^v^ 1 ^tnxtfmn: m.inf., 
i.q. ata-bari khasun, ab. 

ata 2, 3, anil 4 'STZ, see ath 1, 2, and 3 and ata-nyur". 
ati ^f?I I ^"^ adv. there (within sight or pointed to), 
u.w. vbs. of existing, placing, etc. (Siv. 747) ; from 
there, thence (Gr.Gr. 155). wuthane ches ati, 
the twists are there (still remaining) (K.Pr. 178, 
cf. Ill and 239). -barabad -^tt^ I ^"^ Tt^^, adv. 
there, in that place (in siglit), e.g. of a place pointed 
to on the groimd or in a book, u.w. vbs. of seeing, 
etc. -kin^ -f^t^ I ^JTSTTrqi^fT: adv. from there 
(within sight or pointed to), thence (within sight or 
pointed to), u.w. vbs. of bringing, etc. 

atic" ^f^\ > see atyuk" below. 

atinuk" ^fJT^^ I ^"^w: adj. (f. atiniic" ^fn^), 
of or belonging to that place (within sight or pointed to) . 

atith* ^fJT^ I ^^ adv. there, in that place (within 
sight or 2»ointed to), u.w. vbs. of placing, etc. 

atiy 1 "^fTT^ I ^^1^^ adv. (for atiy 2, see 
S.V.), from that very place (within sight or pointed to). 
-kin' -t^^ I '^RTT^^ tirgtr: adv. from that very 
place, even thence, u.w. vbs. of motion. 

atyuk" -^m^ \ -^^w adj. (f. atic" ^fT'g), of or 

belonging to that place (within sight or pointed to). 

atyukuy ^(5^^ I ^^^w U^ adj. (f. atic^'y ^t^^^), 

of or belonging to that very place (mthin sight or 

pointed to). 
ati -^sfz, see ath 2. 
at^ ^fn I '^%^ adv. there (within sight) ; here (of 

a place pointed to) (Gr.Gr. 154). 

at'nas ■^fnf^ I '^n( adv. there (within sight or 

pointed to), u.w. verbs of placing, etc. at'n"y 

For words beginning with 3, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning ^vith n, ii, see under wn, wu respectively. 

ati ^^ 

— 53 


^^T^^ I '^^g adv. there indeed (within sight or pointed 
to), in that very place (within siglit or pointed to). 

at^thV '^Jtff^^ 1 ^^ adv. id. atiy ^fTT^ I 
■i5J%W adv. id. 

at' "^Rfs, see at^-at'. 

ati ■^ifz, see 6t". 

Iti -^{fz, see Ith. 

it t;z, see ith. 

ota 1 ^H, i.q. bnta, q.v. under onth, 
Bta 2^TfT, see ot'^ 1. 

bt' ^^, see 6t", bt'-darshun, and bt^-pan. 

Ot" ^<T I ^^ adv. thitlier, t > that pLace (within sight 
or pointed to). Cf. Gr.Gr. 156. -kun -?p'i; I '^j 
^7^ "Htn adv. towards that direction (within sight or 
pointed out). Cf. Gr.Gr. 160. -kun"y -^^ I 
■^^t ^l«l "R^^ adv. towards that very direction 
(within sight or pointed out). 

Otuth ^rm 1 ^^ adv., i.q. ot". Cf. Gr.Gr. 
156. ofth'^y ^g'l^ I '^%W adv. to tliat very place 
(Gr.Gr. 156). otuy ■^(H^ I '^^^ adv. id. Cf. id. 

6-tu ^-g, see 2. 

6t" "^"tf I ^W^:, ^WfTT^fiTT^ adj. (f. bfe° Wr^J, alone, 
only (>Siv. 1658), often used adverhially at end of a 
compound to signify merely so and so ; tall, prominent 
in shape. Cf. El. ot, only, and yot". 

6t° ^1 I fx^K m. (sg. dat. btis ^ifz^, abl. ati ^Tfz), 
flour, of wheat or other grain (Siv. 1828, cf. K.Pr. 
77, 85, where it is spelt aiit; cf. dthih in K.Pr. 158, 
which is a misprint for atih, i.e. ati, voc. sg.V 

bt^-basta ^it?-^^ I "^T^ ft^m^Jl f. a leather 
hag for holding flour, -moth -^"S I ^feJTT'^'iniTft^'l 
f. (sg. dat. -mothi -J^fs), as much flour as can be 
grasped in the hand, a fistfid of flour; hence any 
small quantity of flour. -phol" -iCB^ I "^^ftH^Hf : 
ni. a small quantity of flour, a little flour, -raz -'^31 | 
rPBtl«5: f- flour worked up with butter, etc., into 
a rope-like form for making into cakes, -thaph 
-^ I fts^^lH*. ni. (sg. dat. -thapi -^?fq),lit. a handful 
of flour ; hence, a lump of dough. 

6t" 1 %t(f I ^TflH m. nectar; met. anything liquid 
delicious like nectar, a pleasant drink. 

ota-dara ■^TfT-^TT l ^^mVlTT f- a stream of 
nectar, a flow of plea^sant drink. -lawa -^T^ 1 ^TfT- 
^^TTH^^' f- a few drops of nectar, etc. ; a sprinkling 
with drops of nectar, etc. 

6t" 2 '51'fT I ■^IIVTIT'tT: m. the limit of bottomlessness, 
the depth or deepness of anything ; the shallowness of 
anything. -WOt" -Wfg I "^*lTV;(?TT^fV: m. the depth or 
shallowness of anything (water, etc.), more indefinite 
than 6t°. Cf. Gr.Gr. 95. 

bt^ ^T^ I TB^m^ljfz^, ^ft f- (sg. dat. ace ^T^), tho 
stone of a fruit. — kumalufi" — ^tW^^^T I cMijlMiTt- 
JJI'^JTrff^T; f.inf. to become soft-stoned ; met. of a 
limb, to become pUant or supple by practice, used 
in reproaches or abuse, or in bt" kumalyeyes na? 
■^Z ^JT#?l^ •TT h;isn't his kernel softened yet? 
— mariin" — ^X^ l ^^^i^f^nfj^; f.iuf. < to bo dead- 
stoned ', to be thoroughly satisfied, with no possibility 
of the desire being felt again. 

See '^^ I ^H^: fruit-stones, a group of 
stones inside a fruit. -mar -^TR; I fl^rra; m. 
killing fruit - stones ; met. killing something so in- 
significant as not to be worth killing, even though 
it deserves it = using a steam-roUer to crack a nut, 
wasting powder and shot, or breaking a butterfly 
on tho wlioel. -til -'?!\^ I '^fgfT^'l ni. oil expressed 
from fruit-stones. 

ut "^ci;, see uth. 

lit ^SZ, see uth. 

iit*^ ^^ I ^W^gn^?: f. (sg. dat. ace W^), a bundle, 
hank, or skein of thread, arranged for twisting 
into string or rope. Usually the second member 
of a compound, as in SUtra-iit" ^'^-'^Z a skein of 

thread, yera-iit*^ ^^-'^g a skein of worsted, kesha-iit** 
%ir-'^z a wisp of hair. Cf. ath 2. — kariin" 

— ^r^^ I ^^TSIT f.inf. to form a skein; to become 

of one mind, to conspire. 
btabawan ^rj^^si or ^TfT»i^«i: I ^"^f^^: m. the 

name of a part of the northern quarter of the city of 

Srinagar, the ancient Avantibhavana. 
atic" ^ffl^. sfe atyuk" under ati. 
atiic" ■^^ , see atok'^. 
atache -^z^^ , see atoth". 
atoch" ^-k^ I 'SJflNri: adj. (f. atuch" ^<T^), not 

planed, not pared smootli (of wood, leather, etc.). 
atacher ^ZIW^ I ^flT^WfC m. want of affection (e.g. 

of a parent to his or her children). 

atod" ^^>f I ^mf^a: adj. (f. atbd" ^riTf;, sg. dat. 

atace ^STTTT'^), not scolded, not taught by scolding, 
untaught, a boor. 

bt'-darshun •^itZ-^'^l l '^TW^^'^JI: m. (a eon-uption of 
the Sanskrit meaning, confounded by folk-etymology 
with 6t"), a ceremony in which a person for whose 
benefit a sacrifice is being jierformed, and the members 
of his familv, inspect the reflections of their faces in 
the clarified butter before it is offered as an oblation. 

atog" ^tlj I ■HUfTt f^TT adv. without being taught, 
ignorantly, unskilfully, without knowing how to do 
a thing. 

ait-gad (? spelling), f. a certain small white fish which 

For words beifiiining with e, i, i, see iiruler ye, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning witli u, u, see under wu, wfi respectively. 

otagiij"* ^srnii^ 

— 54 — 

ath 1 ^^ 

inhabits the smaller streams flowing into the Jehlam 
(L. 158) and is carried into that river when the waters 
are high. ? connected with ath 1. 

otagiij" '^»!^3I I ^"^ f- name of a jDlace on the 
eastern side of Srinagar and to the south of the 
tenqJe of Gopadltya. It is sacred to the sim, its 
ancient name bqing aditya-guha. Cf. ET.Tr. II, 
453 ff. 

ata-gath 1 ^fT-^i^ i ^€iF?rTTiu?: m. (sg. dat. -gatas 

-Ifl^), coming and going backwards and forwards ; 
the going and returning of being born and reborn 
again and again (Siv. 1364, 1808) ; trouble, worry, 
running hither and thither (K.Pr. 73). In Siv. 1364 
there is a pun on this word and on ata-gath 2. 

ata-gath 2 ^rr-'i^ i ^?if^^: m. (sg. dat. -gatas 

-IfT^). a present of money, salt, and cakes given by 
her parents to a bride when setting out for her 
husband's house (K.Pr. 73, Siv. 1364 ; cf. ata- 
gath 1). 
ath 1 ^^ I ^^: pron. dem. that (within sight or 
pointed to), this, both substantive and adjective. It is 
commonly referred to the pronoun huh ^^, q.v., and 
is defective. It has no nominative, the word ath 
■^SJ^ being the dative singular inanimate. It has three 
genders — (1) masculine animate, (2) feminine animate, 
and (3) inanimate (whether masc. or fem.). In most 
forms the masc. an. and the fem. an. are the same. 
When this is the ease the form will be indicated simply 
by 'an.' The following forms occur: dat. sg. an. 
amis ■^fira; (Siv. 809 m., 874 f.) ; inan. ath ^^ 
(Siv. 47, 929) ; gen. sg. an. am'-sond" ^t^T-^'J 
(Siv. 806), or asond" "VMT^ (Siv. 803, 813); inan. 
amyuk" "^W^ (Siv. 69) ; ag. masc. an. am^ '^^ 
(Siv. 45) ; fem. ami '^fJT (Siv. 91) ; inan. am' ^^ 
(Siv. 46) ; abl. an. and inan. ami '^ftT- No plural 
forms have been noted, nor any for the iiom. sing. 
For the missing forms the corresponding forms of 
huh ^f are employed. With empliatic y Tq', ath 
becomes ath' ^t^ (Siv. 1754), am' ^^ becomes 
amiy ^f?T^ (Siv. 803), and ami ^fir becomes amiy 
■^Btflr?! (Siv. 648). When this pronoun is used as an 
adjective there are some variations in the declension. 
When agreeing with an animate feminine noun the 
dative is ami ^f*T, not amis "^iffl^, which is the 
dative of the pronoun when referring as a substantive 
to any animate noun, whether masc. or fem. Thus, 
ami kore ^f?f ^^5 , to this girl. When agreeing with 
an inanimate noun, the only dative inanimate form used 
is ath ^^ , which agrees with any inanimate noun in 
the dative singular, whether masc. or fem. Thus, 

ath cizas '^^ "^^^j to this thing, ath kame 

'^^ «liH2r, for this work (so Siv. 164). In other cases 
the distinction between animate and inanimate dis- 
appears, and the adjectival pronoun agrees with the 
qualified noun in gender and case like any other 
adjective. Thus, to take the genitive, we have masc. 

an. amis sahiba-sond" ■^ffl^Ei; ^ilf^-^^, of this 

gentleman; inan. ami cizuk" '^tfl ^f^i, of this 

thing; fem. an. ami kore-hond" ^f?? ^■^-f^, 
of this girl; ami jyaye-hond" ^fn srni-?^, of 

this place (so Siv. 91). In composition awa "^l^ is 
frequently used instead of ami '^HfJT and away '^H^^ 
instead of amiy ■^flfiri- It sometimes also becomes 
a ^ in composition (see Gr.Gr. 151). 

ami ^t?T, see ab. — and^ra — "^^T I ^^'RTt^^ 

adv. from in that (within sight or pointed to). 
— and^^r' — '^i^t5^ ' ^^^ flVIviTITfi; adv. from inside 
that (within sight, etc.), u.w. vbs. of going, bringing, 
etc. — apari — ■^Plfr I ^^^ ^IT "'^\'- beyond there 

(within sight, etc.). — apari-kani — ^mfr-^if'i I 

'^TT'^ tiTx;MT'l adv. towards the direction of beyond 

there (within sight). — apari-kanyuk" — ■^iTfr- 
'''Sf ' ^^ m?;«T5r ^^•. adj. (f. — apari-kanic'' 

— '^qTf?;-^ffiT^ ), of or belonging to beyond there 
(within sight," etc.). — apor" — ^ift^ I ^fl^ ^T 
adv. beyond that place (within sight, e(c.), elsewhere 
tlian there (pointed to). — ap6r"-kun — ''liY^-fil. I 
^JT'^^TTfTTT^T'^ adv. in the direction of or towards 
beyond that place (within sight, etc.). — apbr'-kin' 
— ■^m^-f^^ I ^5^ TnTHT'nci; adv. from beyond 
there (within sight, etc.). — apbryum" — '^qT^'T I 

^jFnzi TJTT ^^'- adj. (f. — apbrim'* — ^qrfrfl^), of or 

belonging to beyond there (within sight, etc.). — bapath 
— mcf^ I ■^flfti^'C ^dv. for the sake of that (within 
sight, etc.), for that purpose. — khbt*ra — ^Tc^T I 
■^T^ '3f^ adv. for the sake of that (within sight, etc.). 
-kani -?Bf«f I ^'^ITt^H'JrTfi;, ^^^"ra Wl adv. for 
that reason, therefore; for the sake of that (Gr.Gr. 
159) ; in exchange for that, -kin' -f^^ I ^^n%fft: 
adv. for that reason, therefore. ■ — karana — '^x;*! I 
^%»l ^T^*?! '^ffl TT adv. on that account, for that 
cause, therefore. — mujiib — *i^^ I ^^f'ffJTTR^ 
adv. by reason of, on account of, that (within sight, 
etc.) ; in accordance with, in conformity to, that 
(within sight, etc.). — mokha — ?^T§ I ■^R^lcft: 
adv. on that account, for that cause. — pbr' — ^T'^ I 
^^Iin'^ft, adv. in or from that direction (within 
sight, etc.) (Gr.Gr. 160). — prakara — "Rsrtt I '^^: 
TT^^ir adv. in that manner. — prakbr' — 'JToliTtT I 
^^:il^^^ adv. in that manner. — paryuk" 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, ii, ee under wu, wa respectively 

ath 1 •^^ 

— 55 — 

ath 1 ^^ 

— TTF^f I ^^:m^H^: adj. (f. — paric" — xntr^), 

of or belonging to that direction (within sight, etc.). 
— pata — THT I ^T^HIfM^lf^^ adv. after that, there- 
upon. — path-kun — ^^-fil I ^^:^"gTri; adv. after 
that (within sight, etc.), thereupon. — patyum'' 
— T?^ I ^^:m^T3i: adj. (f. — patim^—qfrl^), coming 
into existence after that (action, witliin sight, etc.). 
-pufehy -g^ I ■^^:i»^ adv. for that (within sight, etc.), 
u.w. vhs. of giving, etc. — ranga — TT I ■^^ITl^TI 
adv. in that colour, in that manner, in that way 
(Gr.Gr. 134). —rife* — "'^^ ' ^^T^WT adv. in 
that manner, method, wa\'. -suty -fTSf I '^^•TT hy 
that (of an instrument). — tarpha — rix^ I 
■^^^JTTrTT'^Tri; adv. from that direction (within 

sight, etc.). — tarphuk" — fi^^ i ^^:x?T^»T^: 

adj. (f. — tarphiic" -TT^^), of or belonging to that 
direction (within sight, etc.). — WUShbt' — ^3TT^ I 
'^^f»lf'T%5I adv. owing to that reason, for that cause. 

am' "^^y sg. ag. an., see above, -sond" -^«^ | 
^e:^'^ adj. (f. -siinz" -^sT ), of or belonging to 
tliat animate (person or animal, male or female, within 
sight or pointed to). -sondu-y -^•^'^ I '5!f^:^^'«I^ 
adj. (f. -sunz"-y -^'?r), only of or belonging to that 
animate (person or animal, male or female, within 
sight, etc.). 

amis ^f?ra^ I "Vff^, sg. dat. to that (animate being, 
male or female, within sight, etc.), or in sense of ace. 
amis'^-y '^I^WI l '^?T^^ to that very animate being 
(male or female, within sight, etc.), or in sense of ace. 

ami-y 1 ^ftr^ l ^?T^T im by that very (woman) 
(ag. sg. f.) (within sight or pointed to), ami-y 2 
■^f^nSf I '4l^l^c| ^fft- adv. for that very reason (sg. 
abl.j. — bapath — ^T^I^ I '^^I^^ Vyt adv. for the 
sake of that alone, for that very purpose, -khbt^ra 
-<sirfl,T; I '^?T'5I^ U^ adv. for the sake of that very 
(person or thing within sight, etc.). — kani — ^f*f I 
"^l^T^^ ^TWIfl. atlv. for that very reason ; for the 
sake of that very person or thing (within sight, 
etc.) ; in exchange for that very person or thing 
(within sight, etc.). — kin' — 1%(5 I ^4^l^<4 
f fff: adv. for that very reason. — ^mujub — TW^ I 
^JTRt^ ^TT^^T adv. in accordance with that very 
person or thing (within sight, etc.) ; exactly in 
accordance \vith it, exactly agreeing with it (as an 
originid with its reflection). — mdkha — J^^ I ^J^W 
^»1T adv. for that very reason or cause. — pbr' 
— xrff^C I '^<^li=)TI^fT: adv. from that very direction 

(within sight, etc.). — prakara — ti^t; I '^'f^^ 

■R^TTir adv. in that very manner. — prakbr' 
— ■R«BT^ I '^'i'N TBf«liTTW a^dv. in that very manner. 


— paryuk" — tJi^^ I '^j^fisfTt^ MT^ vm: adj. (f. 
— paric'' — i?TfT^ ), of or belonging to that very 
direction (within sight, etc.). -pata -xifT I ^^T^^ 
'R'^Tf^ adv. after that very (action), u.w. vbs. of 
going, etc. — ranga — t.^ I ^5^ ll^TT^ adv. in 
that very colour, in that very manner, in that very 
way. —rife'* — T^^ I ■^JT^ rtWT adv. in that very 
manner, method, or way. -SUty -^<II I "^Jf^^ adv. 
by that very (instrument). — tarpha — 71^ I 
■^T^Tl^^ t^T^<T: adv. from that very direction 
(within sight, etc.). — tarphuk" — rf^^ I '3Bnf«RW^ 
^T% »T^: adj. (f. — tarphiic" — rfxi^ ), of or belonging 
to that very direction (within sight, etc.). 

ami-y "^SffifV 1 '^^•rr sg. ag. by that very person 
or tiling (within sight or pointed to). 

asond" ^«^ I ^^ adj. (f. asiinz" ^^sl),of 

or belonging to that (animate being, male or female, 
within sight or pointed to). 

ath-barabar ^^-^ttw^ I "^^t d^siiH adv. equal 

to this or that (within sight or pointed to), -kun 
-^i'l; I ^^:m^ adv. towards that direction (within 
sight or pointed to), there (Gr.Gr. IGO). -pata -^([ I 
Wf^'- ^^Tr^ adv. after it, this, or that (within sight or 
pointed to). 

atb' 1 '^'^, even this (sg. dat. inan.), see ab. 
For ath' 2 see under atha. -barabar -^-^twt; I 
1j%^ fT^; adj. e.g. equal to that very thing (within 
sight or pointed to). 

awa-apor" •^^-'saTft'^ 1 ^^l^'IsaTIt adv. beyond 
or after that (within sight or pointed to), beyond 
or after then, u.w. vbs. of being, etc. -ap6r''-kun 
-■^Tft^-^si I ^fT:HTf^^T% adv. in the diiection of 
beyond that (\vithin sight, etc.). -bapath -^m^ I 
^^:i>W adv. for the sake of that, for that purpose. 
-khbt^ra -'^Tc^T I ^^i^^i: adv. for the sake of that 
(within sight, etc.). -kani -qif«I I ^^f^lfiTTTJi: adv. 
for that reason, therefore, for the sake of that (Gr.Gr. 
159), in exchange for that (within sight, etc.). 
-kin' -fjfi'^ 1 •^r^f'^IT adv. for that reason, 
therefore. -karana -^TT"? 1 ^fi:«fiH»!!Ifi; adv. on 
that account, for that cause, therefore. -pata -XTfl I 
'^I'tlT'^ adv. after that, thereupon. -path-kun 
-p^-^5l_ I ^j\: TTgr?!^ adv. after that (in sight), there- 
upon, -pufehy -Plgl I ^^i^J^ adv. for that, on that 
account (u.w. vbs. of giving). 

awa-y '^^'^ 1 ^»! IIW adv. for that very reason, 
therefore. -bapath -Wm^ I ^^Tf^Si^ adv. id. 
-khbt^ra -'aici;!: I ^^:Tl^?f^ adv. for the sake of 
that veiy (j^erson or thing, within sight, etc.). -kani 
-^f*! I '^IfT U^ ^TT'IITf^. adv. for that very reason. 

For words beginning with e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yl respectively, and for vrords beginning with n, ii, see under wu, wii respectively. 

ath 2 ^^ 

56 — 

atha "^^ 

owing to that very cause, -kin^ -f^^ I ^rl HW ffft: 
adv. for that very reason, tlierefore. -karana -^Tf I 
^<T H^ «fiTTWF<t 'X^v. on that very account, for that 
very cause. 

ath 2 ^!l^ a pron. suff. of 2nd pcrs. sg. ace. as in karan 
chus-ath ^TTi; ^^\, T uKike thee. When, how- 
ever, it is added to the ;ird person it has the force of 
the ngent case, as in koru-th 4^, made by thee, 
thou niadest. As in the hist exanqjle, when added to 
a verbal form ending in a vowel, the initial a is elided 
(Gr.Gr. 184). 

ath 1 ■^^ I "H^f: ni. (sg. dat. atas ■^Z^, and so on), 
a flood, a rush of any liquid, generally used — », as in 

pl-ath tjf-'5B3 a flood of water, ruda-ath ^::^-'^^ 

a flood of rain, rata-ath TfT-"^^ a flood of blood. 
— dyun'' ~^3 ' ^Jl^'l 5RT^??TfH: ni.inf. to carry 
through any work (however diificult or seemingly 

ath 2 "^Z I ^'^f^^^: f- (sg. dat. ati ^rRt), a silk thread 
used for tying on (jrnaments or the like. Cf. lit". 

ata-hor" ^Z-?^ I flTZ^J^T^giJl m. the pair 
of silken strings by which a pair of ear-pendants are 
suspended from the ears so as to reiich to the shoulders. 
-kaiier -Wr^r^ I I'T^^rlWT m. unevonness in the 
twisting of threads or strings, -phol" -TJ'SI (? spelling), 
m. the neck-thread put on a woman at her marriage 
(L. 26'i, where the word is spelt atJiful). 

ath 3 ■^Z m. (sg. dat. atas "^2^, abl. ata ^Z), 
a market, used in the following compounds. 

ata-hav ^Z-^TT I flli: m- fi crowd or collection 
of men or women, e.g. at a wedding or festival, or in 
paying a visit of condolence, -manz -f{^ I '^du<V!(H > 
ft^f'!!'^ f- a place whore four ways meet, a cross- 
roads ; a bazaar, a wide stroat of shops, -waza -^^^ I 
f^xifTjf^^: f. a bazaar-cook, ont> not engaged in regular 
service, but hiring himself out by the day on special 
occasions ; a job-cook. 

atas behun -^z^ ^^ i ^^if^ift^wn; m.inf. 

to sit in the market-place ; to act iJke a harlot to 
take to playing the liaidot, 

ath 4 ^^ e.g. (as subst., m. sg. dat. atas ^^TZ^), an 
adjectival secondary suffix occurring in the words 
waisath WWZ or w8sath ^^Z, very old, and 
r^sheth ^^Z or -^IJ^, malicious (Gr.Gr. 137). 

ath WZ f- (abl. Iti ■^fz), examination, testing of 
a metal for its purity, used in the following phrases. 

Sti khasun ■^'ffz ^g^T: I ^1-7gwT^flTifl[ m. to 

satisfy oneself as to the fitness of any tiling by test^n"- 
or examination. — khof-mof^ — '^^-'TJ I tf-^^^j 
•!nrftrfi:''>dj. (f. _khub"-mufe« —135-??^), tested dnd 

found satisfactory. — yun" — ^^ I ^wTs: m.inf. to 
be satisfied after testing some one or some thing. 

atha -^^ I f^: m. (sg. dat. athas ^^!Ri;, ag. athan 

'^■^^ or (usually) ath' 2 '^t^' ''■^'l- ^■tlia "V^ or 
(usually) athi^t^), the hand ; the forearm, including 
the hand (Siv. 1462). For ath' 1 see ath 1. W. 
(e.g. 18, 114) spells the sg. nom. ath, but I can find 
no authority for this. 

In the following phrases and compounds atha may 
be either sg. nom. or (rare) sg. abl., or pi. nom. As an 
exam, of atha used independently as sg.. abl. we may 
quote nimaz atha, prayeis from the hand, i.e. out of 

hand, gone (K-Ti'. 89). — krehan' gafehan' — ^?t5 
1W^ I ^^m^^\^. ^f^inqfri:, fsf^qjsnnTT^: m. pi. inf. 
the hands to become black ; to woik hard foi- an 
object and tlie result to profit some one else ; to labour 
fruitlessly, as when one builds a house and it is 
destroyed when finished or comes into another's 
pos.session ; or as when one serves a master diligently, 
faithfully, and skilfully, and only reaps dislike and 

disgrace as the reward. — krehan' ta buthi saphed 
— a>ft5 fl f ^ ^^ I f'l'^^'^^^^Tf^^r^^Ti:: hands 
black (from handling money) and white (clean) in the 
face ; dirtying one's hand with money dealing, and 
making no profit out of it ; handling money, and none 
of it stickina: to the fingers. 

atha-and^ra "^^-^^t:, from in the hand, in the 
following phrases: atha-and^ra nerun '^^-■^•f^ 
^^'T, I f^Tf5['ft*i»1H m.inf. to issue from the hand, to 
pour forth in quantities from the hand (of writing, or 
any mechanical work). — pyon° — 'dj I ^^UT^JITf^TTT: 
m.inf. to fall from the hand, to be dropped ; to get 
out of hand, to become free or independent (of one 
who has hitherto been subject to a person's authoiity). 
— trawun — "^Tfi; I f^T^lft^^'ni; m.inf. to release 
from the hand, let go ; to set free, let go forth (as 
a child from his lessons or a slave from servitude). 
— fealun — ^^1 I ^*slIi^y*IT»!'^ m.inf. to escape from 
the liand, to fly as a bird from the hand, to be lost. 

atha-onguje -^^-^^^ i ?^i|^: the fingers. 

-bab^r -^f\'^ I f^«^?T: f. agitation of the hand, 
trembling or palsj' of the hand in attempting a task 
with anticipation of its difficulties. -budan' -^^5^ I 
^^^^5^*^^ old ago of the hands, stiffness or 
clumsiness of the hands produced hy old age, sickness, 
or the like, -bad^ran -4^Ti; I f^Tf % f. stretching 
out of the hand ; in a hand - to - hand combat, the 
mutual thrusting out of the hand, hitting out, 
boxing ; the joining of hands by a number of people 
in order to cure a sick man's disease. It is believed 

Kor words beginning mtli e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi re-spekively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu resiiectively. 

atha '^r«r 

— 57 — 

atha "v^ 

that if mutual enemies so join hands the good object 
puts an end to the enmity, -bog^ran -^■nrn;*^ | 
l%f ft»ni«*<U!*t f. dividing out (approximately) 
by liaiid (not accurately by scale and weights). 

-bagay -^ti^ i i#^ ftw^iJi: m- id. -beha -^f I 
W^T^r^it sitting of the hand, hence slackness of 
a skilled hand ; travelling on wooden supports held in 
the hand (of a cripple dcpi'ived of the use of his legs). 

-baha lagun -^it hji: i f^^^Tf^ii t%?STTmf%: 

m.inf. to experience hand-sweat ; hence, of a flower 
or a tender young bird to be injured by the sweat or 
the pressure of the hand, -bujer -^SinC I ?^^f^«^1 
m. old age of the hand, loss of skill, or inability 
to use one's former skill in manual work, -bbj^ran 

-^t3n;5i; I ^^^ t%*n^H5R: f., i.q. atha bbg^ran, q.v. 

-bal -'^«T I ?^T^5TJ^ m. strength of hand; jiower owing 
to wealth, great possessions, etc. • — band gatshun 
— W^ IWll I ^T^f^rRfTT, '^:^>n^: m.inf. to have 
the hands tied, to be so busy that one has no leisure ; 
to be reduced to poverty, to lose one's possessions. 
-bandan -^i!^»l^ I iK<y<*i-3S<H, m- mutual friendship. 

-brakh -9(^\ fwi^lTrr: m. (sg. dat. -brakas -w^sB^), 

hand-crushing, the crushing of the hand with a blow 
from a heavy weight, -brakawana yun" -^^i^'I 
^•l I ^^^IMI(!Hc(<IH '"• "^f- pass, the hand to be 
crushed with the blow of a heavy weight. 

atha-chakh ■^^-i^ti i ^^rf^^ij: f. (sg. dat. -chaki 

-Bjt^and soon), scattering by the hand, scattering (seed 
or the like in sowing grain). -chikh -flf^ I ^^%^: f. 
(sg. dat. -chiki -t^f^, and so on), sprinkling (water, 
etc.) by or from the hand. ■ — chalun — ^^T'^^ I 
f^r^T5R»l., n^ 4, l ift *<*>»<*(. m.inf. to wash the hands, 
either ceremonially (e.g. before eating) or to remove 
dirt ; to wash the hands after eating (K.Pr. 17) ; 
to wash one's hands (of hope), to be driven to 
despair, become hopeless, as when all one's property 
is destroyed, or when one loses his independence, 
or when one's efforts fail to produce their 
expected results ; to wash with the hand (YZ. 232), 

cf. dachyun" atha chuh ehalan khowaris, the 

right hand washes the left (K.Pr. 43). -chomba 
-^^ I ^^T^f*! ni. rubbing in the hands, esp. 
rubbing grain in the hands to remove the husks. 

-chon° -^g I ttwf^: adj. (f. -chon* 'lit)' leaving 

(the contents of) the hand reduced, empty-handed ; 
temporarily reduced to poverty, -chofi" -^T'l I 
^f^rM«1MTt f. sifting in or through the hands (and not 
through a sieve or by means of a winnowing basket). 
-choner -'^'^ l l^'S'^^HT^: m. empty-handedness, 
temporary poverty, -caukharun'^ -^'l^J I ^^^'^: 



m. contraction of the hand ; the shrivelling up or 
numbness of the hand from extreme cold, or the like. 
-car -^'^ 1 ^^nJt^lT, m. pressing or squeezing of or 
by the hand, -cir -^'^ I l^'f'I^^I?^ m. wringing 
or squeezing of or by the hand. 

atha-dob*re ^^-^^^ i f^l^^q^gfi??; adv. hiding 

or burj'ing secretly by (he hand (u.w. vbs. of 

placing, etc.). -dachyim" -^1^5 I ^d<^*d: adj. 

(f. -dachin" -l^f^'^r), nimble-handed, dexterous, 
quick of hand, usually in a bad sense, as in 
hitting some one, striking a child or a servant, or 
carrying off property ; ready with the fists ; nimble- 
fingered, -dach^ner -^t^'Sf^ l f ^^^c^H m. nimble- 
handedness, dexterity, quickness of hand, as in the 
preceding, -dod" -^T I ^KTf^: adj. (f. -duz" -^^), 
having the hand burnt, either lit. or met. -dag -^JI I 
^*dl^l(!^ ?*jl>i^>3T f- pounding by the hand, kneading, 
working up by hand into a mass ; pain, disease, or 
swelling of the hands, -dog" -§J I ^T^I^rTci: m. 
a blow with the fist, a thump, -dakha -'^^ I fT^^TR!: 
m. a support for the hand, a walking-stick ; supporting 
or steadying some globular body by the hand. 

— dakh^run _^if^ i ^^Ttrrr^-^WI m.inf. to 

support by the hand, to be used as a walking-stick or 
alpenstock. — dalun — ^S^T I fWtSTI^'nT m.inf. the 
hand to pass over, to have the hand make a mistake, 
to make a slip of the hand, i.e. when a skilful hand 
for some reason or other does a thing badly. — dalun 

W^qf^^ffn^ m.inf. to touch a person affectionately 
with the hand, to pat, stroke; to cure a disease by 
some holy person or a god touching the affected part 
(YZ. 431) ; to Ipad a person to perform a work badly 
or imperfectly by giving bad advice, to meddle, 
interfere, to spoil the execution of a work ; to smooths 
with the hand, to make beautiful (K.Pr. 93). -d*nan 
-^It I ^^f Tf^^lT^II'^ f. shaking out dust, water, 
etc. (from a garment) with the hand. — d*nun 
— '^11^ I ^^^"Tl^ m.inf. to shake out dust or water 
(from a garment) with the hands, -dunfeh -T*^ I 

^%^ f^^ij^^x;!!!*!: f. (sg. dat. -dunbhi -^f^), 

separation by hand ; taking out the contents of 
a package; pulling out wool or cotton so as to make 
it ready for spinning, -dun" -^^^ I ^f^l^T^TflJ^ 
f. pulling out or carding wool or cotton by hand 
(not by a carding machine), so as to make it ready for 
spinning, -dor" -^ I fSf^: adj. (f. -dUr" -^^), 
one having a firm or strong hand, or having a skdful 
hand, or having a hand strong in beating others. 
— damn — ^'S't, l fSf^?T*t m.inf. to have a skilful. 

For words beginning with e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi respectiyely, and for -.vords beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 

atha •^m 

58 — 

atha '^jn 

steady hand (in writing, etc.) ; to have a strong or 
violent hand ready to strike. — dar^run — ^'5^1 I 
^ <dn S( ' *<. *ll* l m.inf. to gain a steady hand by 
practice ; csp. to train the hand for theft or pick- 
pocketing. — darawun" — ^iTf3 I ^^^: adj. 
(f. -darawiin" -^TT^)> ^"^ ^^'^° i^ accustomed to 
stretch out the hand, "a beggar. — dyun" — ^ I 
fW«fT^^T^»^, '^RITWI m.inf. to give a hand, to 
lend a hand in lifting a load or the like (K.Pr. 17) ; 
to put forth the hand to steal, to steal, to misappropriate, 
esp. when done secretly. — duz^ — ^5! , see atha- 
dod"* ab. 

atha-gober ^'«T-J<i«y4. I l^'ftT^I ™- hand- 
heaviness, esp. of a hand heavy with gifts, liberality. 
-god" -12" I ^*dr€l?s(H ni. a hole in the hand, caused 
by disease or accident ; met. a hand like a sieve, 
extravagance, wasteful expenditure, -gumon" -IflT I 
f^f^W: adj. (f. -gumUn" -JJT^), grey in the hand ; 
hence, sweaty-handed; havingthe hands fouled by dirty 

work, -gumanar -J'T^T^ I f^f^g^»i, ?JTt^Rm; m. 

sweaty-handedness ; foul-handedness. -gomof^ -^JTH I 
ftdlsid: adj. (f. -gomiife" -^T?i^), gone from the 
hand ; gone into some one else's possession ; (of a slave) 
freed or insubordinate, out of hand. -gomiifc^ 
-Tbri^ I ^'jfjf fl1*l^ f- of the preceding ; used in the 
special sense of a pregnant female (human or other) 
miscarrying, suffering miscarriage ; cf. atha-kariin" 
below, -gand -IT!^ I l^^t^I m. a knot on the 
hand ; a knuckle ; a knotted rag tied round a sore 
hand ; inability to spend one's money owing to some 
one preventing it ; the holding together of a bundle 
by the hand alone, without a string, etc. -g^ata -"VZ I 
MMlin m- a hand grinding-mill (for grinding flour, 
etc.), as distinct from one worked by machinery. 
— galshun — l^i; I f^1^H^TT»i; m.inf. to go from 
the hand ; to go into some one else's possession ; (of 
a slave) to become freed, or to get out of hand, to be 
insubordinate, -gafehawun" -Jl^^jadj. (f. -gafeha- 
wiin" -'IftM'H), released (EL). 

atha-huj<i" ^^-f^, see atha-hoP bel. -hajer 

-t|3«l<, I ^«sl «!*<<) 5^ m. crooked-handedness, deformity 
of the hand ; cleverness in doing crooked (lit. or 
mot.) work. -hol" -^ I ^? B^<d : adj. (f. -huj" 
-^W ), crooked-handed, having a deformed hand ; 
one who is accustomed to or skilled in crooked 
(lit. or met.) handiwork. — hilan* — f^^^ I 
f^TR^H^'m m. pi. inf. the hands to become mighty 
by practice, to become high-handed, o^^e^bearing, 
violent ; to become by practice addicted to robbery, etc. 
-han din" -^ i^: f^ i 'g^^x:T!ni: f.inf. lit. to give 



a little hand ; hence to steal little by little, -handish 
-ffil^ir I '^Wr ^mN^T f- a kind of small pincers for 
handling heated gold, etc., used by goldsmiths. 
— harun — ^^'^^, I ^*jm<N*j: m.inf. the hand to be 
conquered ; to be defeated (in gambling or in a fight). 
-hisher -ff^ I W^^T^^^R; ni. similarity of hands 
(in appearance) ; similarity of hand-occupation of 
several people ; similarity of handiwork turned out by 
a number of people or by one person at different times. 
-hath -1^ I i^ranrf^^^: m. (sg. dat. -hatas -fz^), 

a bbster in the hand (from holding an oar or a 
punting pole or the like). -hetur" "H^^ I 
f^n^T'fT?^: adj. (f. -het"r" -Hr^^), lit. white- 
handed, hence afflicted with white leprosy. — hawun 
— fT^ I f^H<u|»l*l, m.inf. to show the hands 
(Siv. 830, in disgust) ; to show one's power to 
another, to threaten ; to show on'e's empty-handedness 
or poverty ; to beg ; to show one's hands (to a fortune- 
teller) ; or to a physician (that he may feel the pulse). 

— hawan gafehun — n^ii: i^i: i f^^ tj^^ awro; 

m.inf. to go showing the hands (so that everyone can 
see that they are empty or unable to work) ; hence, to 
be at the point of deatli (when a man goes to the other 
world without accomplishing his work). — hyon'^ 
— ?Jf I ^TU^?Wt m.inf. to take a helping hand, 
to get another to help one to do some heavy work. 

atha-jora •^^-WtT I ^^^JUi; m. the two hands. 
-jur' -^rf^ I ?^^^ f. the two hands, u.w. vbs. 
signifying ' tie together ' or the like, -jath -^Rf | 
f^%^«^: f. (sg. dat. -juts* -W^, and so on), 
a heavy growth of hair on the hands (considered 
a disfigurement), -jafe^l -3r^]^ | ^f7!^5l^^: adj. 
e.g. having very hairy hands. -juts"lad -3I5^T^ I 
l^%r^T1 adj. e.g., id. 

atha-kadun ^^-^^i; i f^^qrw: adj. (f. -kadiin" 

-^^'^), able to be accomplished by the hand (of 
a piece of art-work or writing) ; as vb. conj. 1, 
to pull the hand (Siv. 1462). -kh*h -TIf I l^Tl'^TilJ^ 
m. a scratch on, or tearing of, the skin of the hand. 

-khajer -xamT i f^twK:- ^^^t^»i m. open- 

handedness, generosity. -khol" -T||^ | f^^fTf^.', 
■g^T^: adj. (f. -khiij* -^^), havingthe hand .spread 
out or wide open ; open-handed, generous, -khan 
-Wl. I 1%^ f^^^iT'51 m. lit. digging with the hand; 
hence, thrusting the hand into a heap of grain to 
draw out a sample in order to test its freedom from 
foreign matter. -khand^Tan -^ixSTi; I '^^fTWC 
f. lit. dividing into portions by hand ; hence, stealing 
or misapprojjriatitig a portion of anj'thing. -khor 
-^T I f ^qi^Ji: hands and feet, -khor lagan^ 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 

atha ^^ 

59 — 

atha -^^ 

-■^X. ^1'^ I f%t^^^: m- pi. inf. to reach the result of 
one's handiwork, and of one's going to it, to succeed, 
esp. in regard to something forbidden, -khor -^tT I 

f^^^, i.q. atha-khor. -khor lagun -^^ 
^^ I ^^^T^^ftfl^: m.inf. to reach the result of 
one's handiwork and of one's going to it, to succeed 
in one's efforts, -khor maran^ -^T fTT^ I ■^WTTflT- 
f?(If?i: m. pi. inf. to beat the hands and feet, to make 
great efforts, -khor phalan* -TftT TU?}^ I f%^^- 
•HZrra: m. pi. inf. the hands and feet to become old 
and worn out ; hence, to work to no purpose, to find 
one's efforts vain, -khor waharan^ -^t: ^ITT^ I 
I'l'^W^Tf^^TllTfH: m. pi. inf. to spread out the 
hands and feet, to be at ease ; esp. to be in a position 
of undisturbed autliority after quelling all opposition. 
-khrav -^rW l W^m^fi;^ f. a sandal or shoe for the 
hand, used by cripples, who progress on their hands 
owing to being unable to use their legs ; usually made 
of leather or wood, -khav -^TW I fW»l^eB; adj. e.g. 
a hand-eater, one who makes a pi'actice of taking 
or steaHng food or other things from another's hand. 
— khyon" — ^g m.inf. to eat with the hand 
(Siv. 702), cf. athikhyon" and atha siitin khyon". 
— khyawnn — wr^ i ^^JT'^wf^^JTi^'m: m.inf. to 

make a practice of getting oneself fed from another's 
hand, to keej) on begging for more and more. 
-kmnajyar -^SirR; l f^^fil'l^^'^ni. softness, beauty 
of the hand ; gentle-handedness, tenderness ; generosity, 
readiness to give, -kumol" -^^ I "fitT^Tf^: adj. 
(f. -kumuj" -3i?nt), soft-handed, having beautiful 
hands ; gentle-handed, tender ; generous, ready to 
give to suppliants. -komph -^Ti^, see atha- 

kbph bel. -kon" -^g i f^wnir: adj. (f. -kbn*^ 

-qff3{), having the hand one-eyed, clumsy-handed; 
thievish-handed, having hands accustomed to thieve, 
light-fingered, -ken** -^N , see atha-kyon" bel. 
-kaner -^a??^ I l^^lXJIfTT m. clumsy-handedness ; 
clumsiness, the fingers all thumbs ; having the hands 
accustomed to theft, a habit of picking and stealing. 
-kener -"W^i, I ^^rMdt?^ ni. moist-handedness ; 
a state of having luinds which quickly sweat, 
esp. when the result of some dirty work. -kbph 

-«irf'^ I is«d<*«<: m. (sg. dat. -kopas -^t^, imd so 

on), trembling or palsy of the hand ; trembling at 
or fear of another's hand. -kor" -^f^ m. a large 
kind of bracelet, either of gold or of silver (EL). 

— karun — ^i^i; i f^rrWTT:, g^TT^: m.inf. to put 

out of one's hand, let go ; to set free, release from 
servitude ; to shove and push mutually with the hands 
in the beginning of a hand-to-hand fight. — kariin'' 


— '^X\ I 'n^TH^aiRr: f.inf. to cause by beating, 
etc., a female (of man or beast) to miscarry; 

cf. atha-gbmiife^ ab. -kis*^ -f^?r i ^^^t^g^ 

f. the little, or fifth, finger of each hand. 
— kbw^ran^ — ^t^t^ I l^^n»ft»n^: m. pi. inf. the 
hands to become black ; the becoming black of 
the hands from extreme thinness, or when a person 
is fainting or at the point of death from plague. 
■kbw^rer -^RT^^'^ I ^^^H^c^TII. ni. abs. noun of 
the foregoing, blackness of the liands as above. 

-kyon'^ -^ I f^9f^:, Jifsii^^lffi: adj. (f. -keh^ 

-^^), sweaty -handed, esp. of a person who is occupied 
in some foul business, -kayor^ -e()|4<'^ I ^reJT^f^t, 

^^^Wt '^ ''(Ij- (f- -kayiir" -grR^), one whose 

hands are j)owerIess or weak ; one who is lazy. 

atha-laga ■^n-^^ l qg«^f B^ri: m. showing the 
hand (with its five fingers) as a sign for the number 5. 

—lagun —^1^1. 1 f%^Tn:«1%VT'nf^, ^ii'^ m.inf. to 

put the hand to, to touch, feel (K.Pr. 73) ; to put 
the hand (to), to set about or begin any work ; to 
thrust the hand into, to meddle, to interfere, -lam 
-^H, I l^n^'^'IIt m. the act of dragging apart by 
the liands. -laiua 1 -^T?T I ^^T^^TIf^ m. tlie act of 
pulling another's hand or something held in another's 
hand, -lama 2 -^?I I f^f^^J9[: f. slowness of the 
hand, delay or laziness in the completion of some 
handiwork, -lamawun" -^»TW I ^'^'IT^^ft^fi: adj. 
(f. -wiin" -ol^r ), held suspended from the hand (in 
carrying, etc.). -Ion -^51; I ^%ST $^«nT f. reajiing 
crops by hand (without a sickle), plucking crops. 

-lonawan -^t'R^ i f^^Tg^rMTR;. ^awT^^n f- the 

gathering together and taking up of grain which has 
been purchased, ajter it has been weighed. — lewun 
— ^'^'l^ I ^cQIMI^^^T^. m.inf. to lick the hand 
after eating something nice, to enjoy delicious food. 
— layun — ^n^ l f^fTT^fm;, TI%q'g m. to strike 
with the hand, to thump ; to thrust forward the hand 
for something, to snatch. 

atha-meche ^^-^^, see atha-myuth" bel. 

-mecher -^SETT I l^n^l^m^: m. sweetness of 
the hand ; cleverness in preparing dainty food. 
-mbcer -'^^J I W^^'^^'l ™- stoutness, fatness, 
or plumpness of the hand ; (as a measure) a hand- 
thickness, -mid -J?ff I I^fJT^^TWi; f- mixing 
or kneading dough, etc., by the hand. — muhun 
— T¥'^ I IMT^q^X^mii; m.inf., lit. to swindle from 
the hand ; hence, to snatch or steal from the hand. 
— muhith nyun" — ^t?^ ^ I l^»it^1^?TW*l 
m.inf., id. — malun — 'I^'l, I l^W^f?^ m.inf. to 
rub the hands together, to wring the hands (in regret). 

B'or words beginniug witli e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, aud for words beginning with u, il, see under wu, wii respectively. 

I 2 

atha "V^ 

— 60 

atha ^^ 

to regret, repent. -melun -^^ I ^^^IT: 
m.inf. to have the hands joined, to shake hands ; 
to have . the hands joined for fighting, to start 

fighting, -mal'nar -?i^^T i f^W^^^WR: m- 
diitiness of the hands, -milawan -f^Tsi^ii; | f ^^^- 
IPIT f. joining of the hands, a hand-shake, a firm 
friendship ; joining of the hands for fighting, 
commencement of fighting. — milawun — fJT^^^, 
or — milanawun — fJT^^ij^ I f ^^^^rji;. *j^r<W 

m.inf. to join hands, to shake hands ; to join 
hands for fighting, to commence a wrestling-bout ; 
to join hands for dancing (Siv. 1010). -mal- 

yun" -»i^3 I Tf^fTf^: adj. (f. -malin" -JTf^^), 

dirtj-handed, either for some temporary reason or 
always. — mamalun — ♦<*1^»1, I f^f'rlfl'^Ji; m.inf. 
the hand to go asleep, to have ' jiins and needles ' 
in the hand, -men -^t, I f^ftt?!: f. measurement 
by the hand. -mond" -J^^ I ^Hs^d^^sJ: adj. (f. 

-mbnd" -"^"l. ^g. dat. -monje -i^w), one who 

has become dull-handed, weak-handed, or clumsy, 
even although previously expert. -mond" -fK'^ I 

fs^f^: adj. (f. -miinz" -m^ , sg. dat. -manze -fl|^), 

slow-handed, clumsy-handed, either from disease or 
laziness, -monjer -?^5Jn: I l^fifWrr^J?; m. dull- 
handedness, weak-handedness (of one who has become 
so, even although previously expert), -manzar -JT^T I 
^^IT'^W; m. slowness of the hand, clumsiness (from 
sickness or laziness), -menzar -'^Ta^ I l^*J«^fTT 
m. id. -mur -Tl'^ I f^iq^^lJ^^ f. squeezing, twisting, 
or pulling another's hand to take something from it 
by force, -mur^ -^ I l^'^T^^^HT^ f. a small 
twig carried in the hand when riding, a riding whip. 

— marun — JTRi: I ^^JlTWi;, ^jft^^^TTXTinT; m.inf. 

to strike with the hand, ; to embezzle, pilfer 
secretly ; to attack (sword in hand or hand to hand) 
unawares by night or from an ambush, -muran 1 
"^'^ I f%1 «^f^^^: m. the act of shelling 
beans, etc., by hand. -muran 2 -'T'Ci; I f^nJt^TH; 
f. the action of squeezing, twisting, or dragging 
the hand of another, in order to make him give 
up something he holds. — murun — ?T^«i; | f^TT- 
^•!«1H. f^lfHwiSm^ ■^^•1»!H m.inf. to strike 
the hands together in sorrow or regret, to wring the 
hands ; to snatch something from another's hand ; 
to rub hard or strike an itchy hand so as to 
relieve the itchiness, -mot" -J^J I ^^l'^: adj. (f. 
-mbt'' -?^, sg. dat. -moce -W^), having stout, fat, or 

plump hands, -mith" -jftz , see atha-myuth" bel. 
-myul" -ig^ I f^H^i: m. union of hands, firm 
friendship, -myuth" -»^ I W^T?[^^f^: adj. (m. sg. 


dat. -mithis -jfYf^^ , abl. -methi -^f^ ; f . -mith'^ 

-jf\3 , sg. dat. -meche -^W)> sweet-handed, one who 
is clever in preparing dainty food ; one who works 
daintily in any task (cf. K.Pr. 159). 

atha-nic*' ^^-1%^ , see atha-nyuk" bel. -nam 

-•T*T I ^'(jJ'Hii: the finger-nails. -nenda 
-Hji^ I f^T«Tt VT'^lffW^Tt^^^: fpl- a process of 
weeding rice-seedlings, in which the weeder goes on all 
fours in the flooded field and pulls out the weeds ^vith 
his hands. — nernn — ^^^i; l ^MTfW'f'TTJ^ m.inf. to 
issue from the hand, to be completed, finished, -nath. 
-■f^ I i^*di*«i: f- (sg. dat. -nati -ifz), palsy of 
the hand (owing to cold, to fear when engaged in 
theft or commencing a wicked action, or naturally). 

-neth -«i^ I f^^ pn^JTifia'm f. (sg. dat. -nefe" 

-ajg), the act of shearing a sheep, etc., by hand (not 
by shears, etc.) ; the pile of wool torn off by this 
process, -nyuk" -sq^i I g»^f^: adj. (f. -nic" -f«l^). 
thin, slender-handed ; one whose hands are small in 
comparison to his other limbs, -nyoth -"g^ I ^^Tl^: 
m. (sg. dat. -nyothas -"g^), the thumb. 

atha-pache •^?T-ti?6i, see atha-poth" bel. -pacher 

-Msej^ I ?^^2fIT m. thriving or success of the hand ; 
anything done by hand which is well and truly made. 
-paha -tf^ I ^^•ll're; adv. on loan for a short 
period {dad-yaydnn). -phahor" -''lif^ I WSl'Tf^: 
adj. (f. -phahur" -^f^), hard-handed ; hence, having 
a hand accustomed to stealing. -phaharer -T|i^^^ I 
l^BRTSR^W; m. hardness of hand ; the having a hand 
accustomed to stealing. — phalan* — x^^I'pT I ?W?W:, 
^T^»lcqi^T(; m. ^\. inf. the hand to be split, and hence 
to become old and withered ; to be unaccomplished 
(of some work done by hand-labour). — phalawan' 
— Mil<?|ej(i( I ^^^rTRT^f? m. pi. inf. to make hands 
split with hard work ; to fail in the accomj)Hshment 
of some handiwork. -phanda -tRT!^ | f^rlT-31'i; 
m. fighting hand to hand, coming to blows. — pharan* 
— tji^^ I i^«l ^it'T. m. pi. inf. the hands to be 
a cause of loss ; to be lost (of property), or trouble to 
be caused by one's own or some other's hand. 

— pheran' — %^^ i ^^irftitJ'ftHT^: m. pi. inf. 

the hands to be inverted ; to find an adversary in 
one's own friend ; the hands to be twisted or distorted 
in a faint or from the result of a blow. — phirun 
— fR»^»^ I TrftT'Er^f^yRH. ™- to change hands, to 
transfer a thing from one hand to the other ; to 
return a blow, to attack in revenge for a former 

beating, -pharish'^ -^f?:^. see atha-pharyush" bel. 

-phar'sher -i^t?:^ I f ^^T^^m: m. hardness of the 
hand ; niggardliness, miserliness ; pugnacity, readiness 

For words beginning witli e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, aud for words beginning witli u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 

atha •^?T 

— 61 — 

atha "^^ 

to beat. — phirith gafehan' — ^fT^ 1W^ I ^'^- 
W'l'^'Sm^'^fi ™- pi- inf. one's own people to become 
hostile (e.g. a king's advisers or army to turn 
traitors) ; of things deposited with a person in whom 
one has confidence, to be misappropriated. Cf. atha 

pheran' ab. -phrefehar -^W"^ I I^"imi^3l»i; m. 

praiseworthy-handedness ; the ability to cure a sick 
man by merely laying hands upon him; excellence or 
cleverness of a man's hands, such as to make every- 
thing that he undertakes succeed. — phirawun 
— fqr^^*^^ I TI'En«[f^^»n^ m.inf. to cause the hand to 
go round a person ; to stroke a person affectionately 
or consolingly, -pharyush" -^g^ I ^TtTl^: adj. 
(f. -pharish" -'qitTir ), hard-handed, niggardly, one 
who will not give even a cowrie in charity ; one who 
has a hand accustomed to beating others, pugnacious, 
a bully. -phryust" -'55^ I Tl5!*sl^<3: adj. (f. 
-phryufeh" -'^WW . sg- dat. -phrefehe -^W), praise - 
wortliy-handed ; one able to cure a sick person by 
merely laying hands on him ; one clever with his 
hands, so as always to complete successfully any 
handiwork undertaken by him. -phash -'Pil!' I ^^•t 
•!I5}«IH , ^^fHysJ*!*!,™- wiping out (a picture or writing) 
by the hand ; touching by the hand, -phesh -^IT I 
?%»n'R1T^«I5fT m. wiping out (a picture or writing, 25 
etc.) by the hand ; when the hand is sticky with 
honey or the like, licking it clean. — pheshan' 
— ^^I'^ I ^^T^^m ni. pi. inf. to wring or bite the hands 
in token of repentance or regret. — phas^rawuil 
— 4^TT^ I fT5r^Tt<*<UIH m- to tie the hand ; 
to be so engaged in anything as to be unable to 
turn to anything else. — ^phatan' — iJZt^ I W^t^^- 
m. pi. inf. the hands to split, e.g. when chapped by 
cold or having the skin of the back broken by cold 

or the like, -phyar -■^iTT'^ I f %^ T^rf^r^^:> f ^^^ 

m. the action of straining out juice or gravy by the 
hand ; obsc. masturbation, -phyur" -''^^ I ^^^fT^fT: 
m. in counting money, etc., a slip of the hand, a mistake 
in counting ; changing a thing from one hand to the 
other (e.g. to ease a burden). 

atha-pSj*^ ^^-t^^ ; see the following : -pol" 
-T^ I t^Ti^nrf^' ^^h (-POJ" -^31), weak-handed. 
— pal^tan' — M«^4^ I ?^T^^»1T^: m. pi. inf. 
the hands to melt; to be sweaty (of the hands). 
-pilawan -frr^Wl I ^^H^fa- f- the reach of the 
hand, the height to which the hand can reach. 

-pilawun" -fq^j^ 1 (^\5^:)f^TTm: adj. (f. -wvm.^ 

-?ra), (of a place or thing) within reach of the hand 
(upwards) ; able to be put in a high place within 
reach of the hands. — pal^zan' — li^ai^ | f^TTsft^i: 

m. pi. inf. the hands to be useful, to be helpful (of 
the hands). -panja -tra" I l^'^TW: m. a glove 
(cf. W. 114, athapauji) ; -panja-jora -tJ^-^X:> a pair 
of gloves (Gr.M.). -pir*^ -'ft^, see atha-pjrur". 
-pur° -xr^ I qi^f^: adj. (f. -pur*^ •^)' fall-handed; 
rich and generous, rich and extravagant, -pron" 
-"^ I g' ^ ^ ^ : adj. (f. -priin'* ''^'^' clean-handed, 
white-handed ; employed in a clean work, -purer 
-q^'s I ^^nrx^^J^ni. fuU-handedness; richness combined 
with generosity or extravagance, -pishejyar -ftni- 
'TTT I if^^^^lt^l. ™- softness of the hand, either 
naturally or by the use of unguents ; softness or 
daintiness of handiwork, -pishol" -f^ll^ I ^If^f ^: 
adj. (f. -pishiij" -fqipf), soft-handed, either naturally 
or by the use of unguents ; one who turns out soft 
or dainty handiwork. — peth thawun — XZIZ ^^'^ I 
^% ^^reiTM«IH ni.inf. to place the hand on the back ; 
hence, to give a person small charitable gifts from 
time to time, -peth* -'Rlt^ I l^^SfT-' adv. from on 
the hand, -poth" -4^ I JSf^: adj. (f. -puth" -X(Z , 
sg. dat. -pache -^1H), plump-handed ; one whose work 
is firm and strong, an expert craftsman. ■ — path- 
kun gafehun — iT^-^l 1W1 1 ^^t^mfrj: m.inf. the 
hand to go behind (one's back) ; the hand to become 
restricted (of one generous of nature, but owing to 
reduced circumstances compelled to restrict his gifts). 
— path-kun thawun — ^^-gi'i: ^1 1 ^^fi^^xpi; , 
'^««b1''^^W!I1 m.inf. to put the hand behind (one's 
back), to restrict one's generosity (as ab.) ; to put 
the hand behind one's back to take a bribe, to be 
a bribe-taker. — pathun — V^^ I ffl'ff^^H 
m.inf. the hand to be successful ; to be successful in 
one's work, to be a skilled craftsman. — path^run 
— P^'T; I ^^ls\aRTW*i: . ^M'^^^li: m.inf. to 
make a hand successful ; to thoroughly practise 
some work, to make oneself (or some one else) an 
expert craftsman ; to wash the hands, to make them 
clean or ceremonially pure, -pafeh -H^ I f^feT^TO^ 
f. (sg. dat. -palshi -^t^), trust in a person's hand, 
confidence in his honesty, -pav -XJ^ I ^^^iH'^l^flT 
ra. theft-handedness, the having hands accustomed to 
steal, -pav -Vim I f^f%: m. a measure of length, 
a span of twelve finger-widths. — pawun — Vim^ I 
l^TrfI«m, m.inf. to cause tlie hand to fall ; to meddle 
with another's affairs, to try to settle some business 
which is properly the work of some one else, e.g. to take 
the law into one's own hands, -pyod" -X!(5' | 'W^T^^^t 
adj. (f. -pez" -1^51 ), knowing-handed, one wlio is clever 
at stealing hidden property. — pyon'^ — tsf?! | ^4d|rM|(i; 
m.inf. to fall from the hand ; to be let go, be lost ; to 


For words beginning with S, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, fl, see under wn, wi respectively. 

atha ^ra 

62 — 

atha ^^ 

become free from (some one else's) control. — payun 
—^•51; I ^Tfnl^^Tf^WJ;, f^Hinn m.inf. the hand 
to endure being scorched by five, or being blistered by 
contact with ice, etc. ; hence, met. to show a patient, 
enduring disposition, -pyur" -i^^ I f^J^iTf^: adj- 
(f. -pir"* -''ift^)> smooth-handed ; doing smooth handi- 
work. -p6z" M^ , see atha-pyod^ ab. -pbz'^ -xjt^ I 

f^rf^II^fT^ f- taking out gradually by hand (e.g. 
liquid from a jar or water from a well), ladling out 
by hand. 

atha-roch* ^^-TT^ I ^"R: adv. as a companion 
(e.g. when a man is engaged ' as a companion ' or as 
a guard on a journey), -ramb -T'^ I l^lf^'TT f- 
beauty of the hand ; met. deftness of hands in turning 
out good handiwork, -ron" -"^ I ^^T^ adj. (f. -ruii" 
-^^^af), having a deformed hand. — rangan^ — Tl'^ I 
^^<3^<(H ™- pl- ijif- to colour the hands ; to have the 
hands reddened with dye ; to have the hands red with 
work ; to beg repeatedly holding out the hands. -rot° 
-X^ I '^•J^f • HI- taking the hand ; help or assistance 
given to some one, esp. some poor person ; rescue ; 
patronage (Gr.M.). — ratun — T%^\ f^^fTipi; m.inf . 
to take the hand ; to help ; to rescue ; to jjatronize ; to 
take the hand, seize the hand, stop, prohibit (Siv. 703) ; 
to grasp another's hand in a dance (Siv. 1432). 
— rotan' — "'Cl'^^ I f^T^SHi: m. pi. inf. the hands to 
be stopped ; to become do^vnhearted and stop one's 
work ; (of a generous person) to cease giving, -ruv 
-■^W I ^♦dO'M^H ni. transplanting by hand. — rawun 
— X;T'^ I ^^T^H^IH m. inf. to be lost from the 
hand ; the liand to be lost, to lose the skill of one's 
hands. — ^rawarun — TTW^'t, m.inf. to lose any- 
thing from tlie hand (K.Pr. 163). — ruzith gafehan^ 
— ^faW 1W^ I l^^sftHT^: m. pi. inf. to have the 
hands stopped in a work (Siv. 1451) ; to cease from 
distributing gifts. 

atha-sag ■^SHJ-^^r I 1^§^: m. sprinkling water with 
the liands (not from a vessel) on plants, etc. -shod" 
-■g^ I t^ff^fw: adj. (f. -shbz^ ■'^1,)' '^l^^ii- 
handed ; one who performs clean or pure handi- 

.work. -shehajyar -ijf^rr^ 1 i^nftf!^j^?i: m. cool- 
ness of the hand ; hence, kindly nature, a habit of 
doing kindly actions; skill in so\ving seeds or potting 

plants. -shehoP -^i^ I ff fifn: adj. (f. -shehiij'' 

-IT^^), cool-handed ; one whose hand is accustomed 
to doing kindly actions. — shehalun — ^f ^fs^^ | ^T- 
IT^fH: m.inf. the hand to be cool ; to receive help in 
accomplishing any work. — shehalawun — ITf ^'R'ii; I 
l^^f l^^T'l'i; m.inf. to cool (another's) hand ; to 
help a person who finds difficulty in accomplishing 


anything, -shelakh -'Sr^ I fT^TTT^S'ITt m. (sg. dat. 
-shelakas -^^^^), a beating with the hand (given 
to a child or a pupil), -sher -IJ'^ I ■^^TTR^lsr^'irR: 
m. the accidentally or ignorantly performing an im- 
proper action, -shoz" -"^^, see -shod", -shozar 
-''SSJT I ^'^T^ITTT m. pureness or cleanness of the 
hand ; ceremonial purity of the hand, -samer -tl«|<; | 
^i^reirlT m. evenness of hand ; (of two or more 
persons) employment on the same work ; (of one 
person) employment always on the same work. 
-saner -^sn; 1 f^lT^^Tj; m. hand-depth, the 
depth of a hand, the depth to whicli a hand will 
go (a measure of depth) . -saner -HT^r^ I f^T^TTT m. 
wetness of the hand (from sweat or from contact with 
water, etc.). -sener -^f^ I f^^'RW^TffWi; m. 
the condition of having no salt in one's hand when 
eating ; hence, met. the having a hand which has no 
' salt ' in it, which turns out work witliout daintiness 
or strength, -saph (saf) -^^1 fif^M^^si: adj. e.g. (as 
subst., sg. dat. -saphas -4(im^), clean-handed; doing 
clean work, deft-handed, -sapher -'RTipr^ I fM'g^flT 
m. cleanness or purity of the hand ; cleanness or 
deftness of handiwork, -sir" -^^ I f^li^fg^T, 
ft^^^: f. (sg. dat. -sere -%^), a brick made by 
hand, not with a mould ; a lump of cotton cleaned by 
hand for spinning, -sor -^'^ 1 ^Wft^pT^: m. beating 
time with the hand (in music), -sbr" -^^ I f^^^T- 
f^fn: f. collection by hand ; gradual removal of any- 
thing from one place to another. — sarun — iTT^I^ I 
^•I ^WT»1<J»1H , l^^T^: m.inf. to collect with the 
hand ; to remove (a crojj or the like) from anywhere 
and pile it in one place ; to touch with the hand. 
-sraner -^T^n; I ^f^T^flT m. moistness of the hand, 
natural, or from sweat, or from contact with water, 
etc. — sorshun — ^^'i; I lW^iftvr^»l m.inf. to 
clean or wash the hands, esp. before and after eating. 
— sorith pakun — ^li:^ trfl 1 ^^t^^^'T^i^ <« 4^irj»i; 
m.inf. to proceed remembering the hands; hence, in 
ease of a wedding or feast, to expend in projiortion to 
one's income, -sutin -^fffi; I ^^"l adv. with the 
hand, by the hand, using the hand as an instrument. 
-siitin khyon" -^t^i; ^5 I f^^I WT^'l m.inf. to 
eat wtli the hand, cf. atha khyon" ab., athau-sutin 
and athi khyon" bel. -stity -^EfllT I 1%^ adv. with 
the hand, by means of the hand, using the hand as an 
instrument. -SOW" -^^ I ^TTST: adj. (f. -SOW" 
-^T^), rich-handed, with hands full of money, wealthy 
and liberal, -syon" -^ I f^^^MXifffi: adj. (f. 
-sen" -^'^)> having a hand without salt, eating food 
mthout salt ; met. one whose handiwork is without 

For words besjinning with e, i, i, see uuder ye, yi, yl respectively, and lor words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wii respectively. 

atha 'ssr^f 

63 — 

atha ^^ 

daintiness or clumsy. -sezar -^51'^ I f^IT^^'F^ m. 

straightness of the hand ; success of the hand, deft- 
ness ; straightness made by the hand. 

atha-thaharun ^^-'Sf^i; I f^%^»i: m.inf. the 

hand to be steady ; to have a steady hand (in 
carpentry, writing, or the like). -thukh -^^ I 
^*!n<'<sl«1»IH ™- (sg. dat. -tlll^^S -'3^^)' driving 
into the ground (as a spike, etc.) by hand. — thlklin 
— 'S^'^\ I f^l^fir: m.inf. the hand to be steady, 
to have a steady hand as in delicate arts (such as 
in boring holes in pearls). — thamun — ^(^^ I 
^yRCtv: m.inf. the hand to be at rest, to stop in 
one's work ; to become poor, -thiph -f^T« I ^^flT^lTT 
f. (sg. dat. -thipi -f^t^), a slap with the hand (to 
a child or a pupil), -thara -^TK I ^^=liT: f. trembling 
of the hand, esp. from inexperience, e.g., in attempting 
a new kind of work, owing to a guilty feeling when 
stealing, when boring a valuable pearl (out of anxiety) ; 
trembling of the hand from palsy. -thbr* -'TT^ I 
^<d^^^> f • hurry of the hand, doing a thing hui-riedly 
or as if one was afraid of it ; trembling of the hand, 
palsy. -thur" -'^'^ I f^f'TfJTfTi: f. making or 
forming (e.g. an imago or a jar) only by hand, without 

implements, -thuran -'^^ I fjrOrfjtfH: f- id. 
-thbrer -wi^ I f^^«r»!»TT^: m., i.q. atha-thor'^ ab. 

-thurer -^^ I l^flfiif^M^l m. ability to form or 
make (e.g. an image or a jar) by hand, -thbthor" 
-■smr^ I wf^Wf^: adj. (f. -thbthiir'^ -'?rfs!T^), having 
a hurried hand, using the hands hurriedly (from 
haste or fear), -thotharer -^t^^-^ I f^in"WTT m. 
hurry of hand ; using the hand hurriedly, with or 
without previous deliberation. -thazar -^tK I 
^■^tWMJ^ m. highness of hand, i.e. excess in the 
qualities of the hand ; thus, extreme dexterity in 
handiwork ; extreme liberality ; extreme wealth. 
-tokh -J^ I ^^TT^fTeT: m. (sg. dat. -tokas -^^IPfC.), 
a i)ush or thrust with the tips of the fingers, -tol 
-<ft^ I l^Tfft^W; m. weighing by hand, guessing 
the weight of anything by lifting it up. -tul -<T^ I 
^^(^|U| 41 HH ™- ^ measure of weight, as much 
as can be lifted by the hand. — tulun — ^^t I 
^%if\r«JTy<1H. W^rTT'T'TH; m.inf. to lift by the 
hand ; to stop by the hand anything which is being 
done ; to raise the hand to commence any work at 
once, or to give alms, or to begin to fight. — tulith 
dyun" — gf^fT ^ I fsfif^'JrT'^^T'TJi; m.inf. to raise 
the hand (from a pile of anything) and give a little 
of it to anyone, -tang -Wf[ I ^ff^ffl^I adj. e.g. 
having the hands contracted, having nothing in them, 
poverty-stricken. -tafijer -fTSfr^ I f^W^t^HT m. 

poverty, see ab. -t*ron" -<t.T5 I ^fl«'lf^: adj. 
(f. -t^riin'* -?^^^), cold-handed, cool-handed; met. 
one whoso touch is cool, tender, loving, and com- 
passionate, -tiimn -^^11 f^^fVff1'>i<J»IH m.inf. the 
hands to become cold or cool ; to have the hands cooled 
owing to receiving help from another ; to receive help. 
— tUranun — l^^l ' f^^cT^m^: m.inf., id. 
-t^ranar -fl,T"5rr^ l f^^fta^r^Jl m. coolness or cold- 
ness of the hands ; a loving tender nature, -t^rafier 
-rj;^-3jj I f ^nf^fl^I^l^ m. id. -trSsh" -J^ I ^f35ff ^: 
adj. (f. -trosh'^ -"^H), hard-handed; hard-fisted, 
accustomed to striking, -trosher -"^W^ I f^^Tf3'Sm 
m. hardness of the hand ; readiness to strike other 
people, -trow" --ftf I ^^?^: adj. (f. -trbw** -"^T^), 
free-handed, liberal. — trawun — Ti^ I *<"1xj.i^ 
m.inf. to set free, let loose, release, -tryun" -v^ | 
f^'?Tt!j: m. (sg. dat. -trenis -^f'l^), a glove. 
— totun — Z^s^ I f ^^Prl^cfil'^: m.inf. to find one's 
livelihood derived from handiwork diminished, -t^feh 

-ct^ I fwrf^JTi^^^: f. (sg. dat. -t^fehi -fi;ffg), 

a dish-clout, a cloth used in kitchens for keeping the 
dishes or hands clean. — tuwun — ^^«^ I f ^^ifit- 
T]«t^ m.inf. to cause the hands to be closed up or 
contracted ; met. to reduce one's expenditure or the 
amount of one's charity, -tyond" -^^ I ^WTl^^- 
^»^Ti: m. the tip of the finger. 

atha-fe^h ^^-^f I 1^^^: m. sucking the hand, 
licking the fingers, e.g. after eating dainty food or 
when very desirous of food. -bhocer -]^W^ I 
^^^^MHI m. shortness of the hand ; met. niggardliness. 
-fehod "Wt^ I ^yi^MUJH f. searching with the hand, 
feeling about in a hollow place for something lost. 
-fahal -^5r I ^^^s^J^ m. a hand machine ; hence, 
a hand-mill ; a lock or bolt of a door which can 
be opened by the hand without a key. -fehen 
-^S^ I l^il^^ in- a hole or wound in the hand ; 
a hole iu book, garment, cloth, or the like, made by 
the hand. — bhunun — W^l. I l^TTW'J'H m.inf., 
lit. to pour the hand, to put the hand into a thing 
or upon a thing, to take into one's own hands ; to 
interfere, meddle (Gr.M.) ; to drop from the hand ; 
to release (EL). -fehop" -^5 I f^^fj^TT^Tft adj. 
(f. -fehbp'' -]^ ), slack-handed, one who is slow at 
work, -tehoper -WW^ I l^^Wc^^l, m- slowness of 
hand, slowness in doing anything, delay. -'fehor'^ 
"^ I "^'^If^: adj. (f. -fehiir** 1 -W^). empty- 
handed, poor ; cf. fehor" atha in K.Pr. 219. -fehUr*' 2 
"W^ I ^<di<l^l'!M<4iT^%T'«T: f. a hand-basket, a shallow 
kind of market basket in wliich things are carried 
for sale, -feharer -W^ l f^^^^i; m. emptiness 

For words beginning with e, i, i, Bee under ye, yi, yi respectively, and foi words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wfl respectively. 

atha ^^ 

64 — 

atha ^^ 

of the hand, poverty, -fehot'^ -j^| I ^NhI^: adj- 
(f. -■fehot" -]^, 8g. dat. -bhoce -W^)' small- 
handed, having" a small hand ; met. niggardly. 
-bhot" ta zevi zyuth" -^ ff ^f^-^Jf I ^f^- 
fl^^ ^^^f^r^: short-handed and long-tongued, one 
who is illiberal but who speaks as if he were 
generous ; one who is not ready to strike, but ready 
with abuse, -fehath -|f3 I If^T^R'IIi; f- (sg. dat. 
-fehati -cflZ, and so on), hand-winnowing, winnowing 
by the hand alone (not with a fan, etc.). -fehofe" 
-W|f I g^f ^: adj. (f. -fehofe" -^|r), empty-handed, 
one who has lost his wealth ; clumsy, unskilful. 
-fehofear -W^T l l^rl'^fWl m. empty-handedness, 
poverty ; unskilfulness. -fchyon" "lET^ I iiffl^«jt: 
adj. (f. -fehen" -?S^), having the hand cut, wounded, 
or cut off. -bal -^T^^ I T\^t{'. f. the hollow, out- 
stretched palm of the hand ; as much as will go 
into it. -feel -'^ST^ I 1%^ ^WTfM^aiMH m- forcing by 
hand stuff into a receptacle, such as a bag, already 
full. — Isalun — ^jH. I f^^lfJi; m.inf. to endure 
a hand ; to live patiently under a violent-tempered 
master, husband, father, etc. -feund" -^''BS' I ^f^lf Ttt: 
f. a hand-beating, a beating of some one by the hand ; 
a blow received on the hand. — ^anun — ^""t. I I^IT- 
%5J«IH^ m.inf. to cause the hand to enter, to put the 
hand into a hole ; to meddle or interfere in some one 
else's affairs ; to undertake what is some one else's duty, 
e.g. to take the law into one's own hands. -'baph 
-Wr^ I 1#1 ^'^Tpi; m. (sg. dat. -faapas -'^TH^, and so 
on), eating the hand ; (of babies) sucking one's hand ; 
a habit of eating with the hand only, -feapol" -^TT^ I 
fWr^l^I^: adj. (f. -feapuj^ -^qgf), one accustomed 
to eating hands ; hence, one who eats his own hand 
and the hand of another, one who is in the habit 
of impeding another in some work he is about to 
commence. — feapun — ^TJ'i; I l^T^1*i; m. to eat 
the hand, to gnaw the fingers in regret or repentance ; 
to eat one's own hand and the hand of another, to 
impede another in work he is about to commence. 

-ferath -^ I f^R^z: m. (sg. dat. -feratas -?[z^), 

a slap with noise with the hand on something 
smooth ; clapping the hands together. -feot" -^z | 
f^qxi: f. (sg. dat. -boce -^'^), a cake made only 
by hand (and not with the help of any implement 
such as a rolling-pin, etc.) ; met. a livelihood earned 
by one's own exertions, -feot'' -^^ I f^Wf^: adj. 
(f. -'but'' -"^Z, sg. dat. ; -bace -^^), one whose hand 
has been cut off (as a punishment or by accident) ; 
met. one who is unahle to work owing to the loss 
of his tools. -fceth -^ I l^fif 5^ m. (sg. dat. 

-Isetas -^2^), pounding or crushing by hand (without 
any implement) ; beating any person or thing with 
the hand, -featur" -^^ I i«s(^g<: adj. (f. -feat"r^ 
-^{^^), skilled in the hand, an expert artisan, 
dexterous, -featarer -^TT^ I l^r^g'^^H m. dexterity. 
atha waharun ^^ ^fi^i; i ?^nTOTTWl m.inf. to 

stretch out the hand ; to put forth the hand, to bring 
under one's own control some work (whether com- 
menced by another or not), -wajan -^l^ft^ I VT^- 
f^^^', m. the name of a village about two Ixos to the 
south-east of Srlnagar, at the foot of a hill near the 
River Veth (Jihlam), sacred to Gancsa. -wajen 

-^Tagaf, see atha-w6l" bel. -wokhur -Wf^ i 

^%^"*^v:^T''I'^ ™- turning sometliing upside down 
by hand (e.g. to empty a coal-box), -wol" -Tt^ I 
^•nsr: adj. (f. -wajen -^T^U'st), one who has a 
(lucky) hand ; hence, a rich man, one who owns all 
that liis hands may require. — walun — ^^'^Pl I 
^T^ITT^' m.inf. to cause the hand to descend ; esp. 
to cause it to descend into a bowl of food, to commence 
a meal, -war -^ I '|%»l'org«W; m. twisting string 
by hand, twisting two or three strands into one. 
-warbi -^TT adv. without hands (W. 113). -was 
-^1^ I tuftr^Y^TI m. pressing each other's hands 
(by a bride and bridegroom), a part of the marriage 
ceremony; joining the hands in a dance (8iv. 1010, 
1432, 1676). -was kanin -^T^^^'i; I f^¥f\irf%VT- 

wf^ m.inf. to press the hands together, as ab. ; to 
grasp another's hands in a dance (Siv. 1441, 1442, 
1460) ; hence, to make a firm alliance for carrying 
out some business (Siv. 956). -was rozun -^T^ 
T^al*^^ I ^-O^I^H m.inf. the hands to remain 
pressed ; to be old and firm friends, -wushner 
-^^T I >!l»nS(c^JT m. warmth of hand, want of cold- 
ness in the hands ; hence, the condition of being 

wealthy. — wushnawun — f ^"R^ I f ^T^nfff^r^Tp^ 

m.inf. to warm the hands ; met. to be pleased at 
another's sorrow ; to oppress another, -vesar -^WC I 
■f^lI^'S^^nn f. having a withered hand ; hence, being 
accustomed heedlessly to let things drop ; met. heed- 
lessness, a memory like a sieve. — ^vesarun — ^PET'^'t. I 
^^T^lj: m.inf. the hand to be withered ; hence, to 
heedlessly let things fall from the hand, to have a hand 
that let things drop, -wath -^T3 I l^^'^TT?'!^ m. 
(sg. dat. -watas -^TZ^), to set together, fit together, 
join together two pieces of paper by hand (not by 
means of gum or the like), -woth'* -'^ I ^^TT* adj. J 
(f. -wutsh* -'^W )> open-handed, free-handed, generous. ■ 
-WUthan -^31, I l^^%S«T»i; f. testing a rope or 
string by hand. — wuthun — ^^i; I fMH^^TJi:, I 

For words beginning witli e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning with n, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 

atha "^"tf 

65 — 

atha ^^ 

Trf^?I«T*l m.inf. to twist a person's wrist in a fight. 
— wuthun" — W3^ I ^'^i'waiT f.inf. to twist a rope 
or string by hand. — watun — ^^^^ I f ^f^W^TJ^ 
m.inf. to shut the hand, to withdraw the hand ; to 
cease distributing gifts, or to withdraw from any 
action, -wat^r -^ri;'^ I f^^f^efiT f- a hand-leaf; 
a written acknowledgment of receipt, a receipt, -wufeh 
-f!| I 1^^t;t ni. (sg. dat. -wufehas -^W^), lit. 
burning of the hand; hence, promptness, quickness, 
or rapidity of action of the hand in the accomplish- 
ment of any work. -WUfcha -^cf I f^TWTl^^^ 
adj. e.g. prompt-handed, quick-handed, dexterous. 

-■wiiteh^ -4^ , see atha-woth" ab. -wafehar -^f^'^ I 
■^^^T'4»i: ra- generosity. — wayun — ^Tgi; I f^'f 
•fl ^ I^«TJ^ m.inf. to row a boat with the hands (and 
not with oars) ; met. to thrust out the hand in 
striking a blow. 

atha yapun '^^ ^ig'i; I f^^rrfrr: m.inf. (of the 

hand) to reach to a place or thing above ; (of the hand) 
to have capacity for, to get as much as one can for the 
money (in a bargain). -yar -'TT^ I ^^fJT^ m. 
a hand-friend ; a man who is a friend only so long 
as one has money in one's hand, a friend for self- 
interest. -yar"z'' -'?r^5l i f^^fir'^T f- hand friend- 
ship, friendship only for the sake of profit. 

atha-zecher '^^-^WK I f^^"^! m. long- 

handedness ; met. stretching out the hand to obtain 
anything, or to obtain control of another's business ; the 
thrusting out the hand to strike another ; prodigality, 
profuseness of expenditure. -zod" -51^ I ^<j|<^*i, 
m. a hole in the hand; hence, profuse expenditure, 
prodigality ; empty-handedness, poverty owing to such 
prodigality. Cf . athas-ZOd" bel. -zadal -51^51 1 1^- 
X;?y^T^ adj. e.g. having a hole in the hand; met. 
spending profusely or extravagantly, a prodigal; having 
nothing in the hand, poor. -z*h -Slf I ^*jl^<<»i; 
the two hands. -z*l -?l^ I ^^^JTTMM^ in- skinning 
or scraping of the hand ; a scratch on the hand ; 
a wound in the skin of the hand caused by some 
disease such as itch or by a blow, -zol" -^Jt^ I ^*si^l- 
?I?^ the space between the fingers, including the web- 
membrane at the roots of the fingers. -zaliu 
-arf^a? I f^Wlf^W*^ f- dirtiness of the hands; the 
foulness of hands habitually sweaty ; dirt attaching to 
things touched by sweaty hands, -zir** -^^ I f^^HT 
f. a motion of the hands ; esp. in dipping anything 
into or pulling it out of water, or in making a sign to 
another in some business transaction. -zor -^It'C I 
^<!<<4^<R1 m. strength or power of or in the hand ; 
hence, wealth, power gained by great possessions. 

— zith^run _^3^5j_ i f^?ft^<*<^(ij*^ m.inf. to 
make a long hand, to stretch out the hand; to thrust 
out the hand to strike another ; to stretch out tlie 
hand to take something or (in a bad sense) to annex 
something belonging to another ; to stretch out the 
hand in giving charity, -zyuth" -W? I ^^^<d: 
adj. (f. -zith" -^^^, sg. dat. -zeche -^WJ), long- 
handed, long-armed ; hence, generous in giving, pro- 
fuse in expenditure, ready to strike another. 

athau ^^ pi. ag. and abl. -sUtin khyon" -^f<T'Tl 
^5 I ^Wrwrt ^T^l m.inf. to eat with the hands 
alone. Cf. atha-sutin ab. 

ath^ 2 ■^'^ sg. ag. by the hand, see ab. For ath' 1 
see ath 1. -ath' -^^ l ^ft^IJ^ adv. quickly, at once. 
-ath^ karun M^ ^fi^l. I f^Hf f^t^^in'W: m.inf. to 
work togetlier (of a number of people), to join in 
some work, -ath' nyun" -^faf ^^ I f^T^Rjl»(*{*1H 
m.inf. to carry off some heavy burden very quickly. 

athi ^f^ sg. abl. (Siv. 1220). me athi lyukh" 

-mot" 1^ '^f^ ^^"5 ' written by my own hand (Gr.M. ) ; 
in the hand (8iv. 1628, 1697). — amot" _^jig | 
fWITTTI.' adj. (f. — amiife^ — '^^T^ ), come into the hand, 
got, m one's possession (Siv. 1794). — anun — '^V^m^ I 
^TVtfTrTWl m.inf. to bring into the hfend, to bring 
into one's possession ; to gain, esp. to regain. — ayot" 
—^^5 I fWI'vJti: adj. (f. — ayiib" — wq'f^), subject 
to one's hand, in one's possession, or under one's power. 
— ayetan — '^ITIfTI • Mld'p'l'^ f- independence, the 
faculty of settling a matter independently. — djnui" 
— W3 ' ^'^'^*L'*l m.inf. to give into the hand, make 
over, entrust. — hyon" — 'gJ'J I ^f*f^Uj*< m.inf. to 
take something in the hand (Siv. 855, 860, 1211) ; 
to take moneys etc., with one when going on a 
journey. — khyon" — ^R m.inf. to eat with the hand 
(K.Pr. 17) ; cf. atha sUtin and atha khyon'' ab. 
— laglin — ^'^^ I ^ *IWl'^, ^I'T'T'^ m.inf. to 
come to hand, to reach, be received, regained; to be 
gained as profit. — lur** hebi khos" — ^n^szrfw 1^5 I 
'^fd^'ifW: m. stick in hand and cup in the bosom ; 
utter misery, as when a man is so weak from disease 
that he has to go leaning on a stick, and so poor that 
he has to live upon food secretly begged and received 
in a cup hidden in his bosom. — lur^ kariin* — W^ 
W^ I ^(iH^»l»t*i f-inf. lit. to do clubbing with the 
hand ; to beat a person severely with the hand (breaking 
his limbs and leaving him helpless). — larun — ^T^«l^l 
^<^l j'l^*IH m.inf. to follow on the hand ; hence, to be 
partly found (when something is lost and a part of it is 

got back sufficient to go on with). — na har andakar 
— T f T'^ ^"^^TT; I '^f?!^4d<«J»l m. a curse, (may there) 

For woris beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yl respectively, and for words beginning witli u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 

atha 'm( 


aith ^ 

not (be) a cowry in your hand, (and may all be) dark 
(to you). The phrase indicates utter misery. — nyrin" 

ajsf I ^•f«(<i^ m.inf. to take in one's hand, to take 

with one on a journey (as a servant, or money and 
possessions). — phol° — 4^ I ^^^Ht^^J m. a little 
grain in the hand ; at a sacrifice, the grain (sesame, 
rice, barley, etc.) mixed with clarified butter which 
is ceremonially thrown upon the fire by the priest 
and those for whose benefit he acts. — ratun 

T,'Z'[_ I ^^ 4J^(!jT^ m.inf. to hold in the hand ; 

to keep imder one's own control or in one's own 
possession ; to keep (children, pupils, or servants) 
obedient to oneself. — rozun — "'Ctfi; I ^ ftgtri: 
m.inf. to remain in the hand ; to be under a person's 
control or in his possession. — sor*^ — ^T^ I f^^T^ 
4j44^<|:, ^^ ^T f- the act of gradually collecting 
property (esp. some one else's) (either openly or 
secretly) and bringing it under one's own control ; 
hence, theft generally. — sozun — 'bY^II. I ^^ 
j)({l!|4(^ m.inf. to send in somebody's hand ; to send 
in charge of somebody, to send by somebody. 
— thawun — ^f i: I f% ^T^H»i; m.inf. to place in 
the hand ; to give to some one to keep ; to put into 
one's own hand, to take possession of. — tsbt" 
lagun" — .i|, ^'i^ I 1# fffl^Tri^: f.inf. bread to 
come into the hand ; sufficiency for a living to be 
earned from the practice of any art or craft. — yun" 
— ^? ' f^TTrfH") ^T»i: m.inf. to come into the hand ; 
to come into somebody's possession (K.Pr. 8, 34 ; Siv. 
1754) ; to be earned ; (of something lost) to be found 
(YZ. 136). 

athuk" '^i^gi sg. gen. (f. athiic* '^I'J^), of the 
hand ; cf. athacen, K.Pr. 17). — maz — ^nsi^ I i^r^ 
JTRfj^ m. the flesh of the hand ; met. money earned 
with great labour and trouble. 

athan '^W^, sg. ag. (rare) and (usually) pi. dat. ; 
cf. athan phakh, a smell to (on) the hands (K.Pr. 
240) ; dod math athan, rub milk on the hands (K.Pr. 
137, cf. ib. 166) ; athan keth, in the hands (&iv. 12, 
543, 620, 1093) ; and athan feon heth, holding in his 
four hands (Siv. 801). 

athas ^^ra; sg. dat. to the hand ; cf. K.Pr. 88. 
-andar anun -'^'^ ^i, I ^^w% '^ti^ij^ m.inf. 
to bring into the hand ; hence, with great efforts to get 
control of something, -andar thawun -'^•^ ^m^ I 
f^»r^ ^m^«{, m.inf. to put into the hand ; to bring 
into one's own possession or under one's own control. 
-keth -^1^ I f^ in the hand, into the hand (YZ. 
242 ; Siv. 543, 620). -keth thawun" -^^ t!IW^ I 
fq 5*144 |i??X:'!I'^ f-inf. to place in (one's own) hand ; 

esp. to rob, carry off, and conceal property, -manz 
-TsT I ^*d*ji ^'^ -i<lv. in the hand, into the hand. 
-peth -TJra I 1^, ^'SR;, adv. on the hand, in the 
hand ; there and then, at once, quickly, immediately. 

-peth atha dyun" -w^ ^"«i ^ I ¥^ f^^sTJ^ 

m.inf. to place hand upon hand (a form of promise 
or oath to do a thing), -siitin atha -^JtII, '^'T, 
hand (joined) in hand (Siv. 1010). -zod" -51^ I 
■^f^I^^Rlf^^ffn m. a hole in the hand, extravagant 
expenditure ; cf. atha-zod" ab. 
aith ^ or bth ^T3 I "^TS^ card. e.g. (dat. aithan 
'^eTl), eight, Siv. 711 (aith), 1494 (bth). 

aitha-b6g° ^^-TtJ l "^rewi: m. the eighth part 
or share of anything ; adj. (f. -bbj" -^T^ ), divided 
or divisible into eight parts, -gun"^ -^ 1 ^ISJTfft- 

ifn: adj. (f. -gun" -'^\), eightfold. -Wior" path 
-T§T| q^ I ■^H^'^^"!T»q^^'^*rTi: m. a path or field 
producing eight khor", or loads of twelve seers each, 
or a total of ninety-six seers ; a path being the area 
in which six seers of grain have been sown, -khor" 
-^^ I ^reisTTT^^: adj. (f. -khbr" -^ir^), weighing 
eight hharwdvs, each liharwdr being sixteen tirds 
or ninety -six seers, -kun" -^i^ I ■^IS^TJi: adj. 
(m. sg. dat. -kunis -*f^^, abl. -konl -^f^; f. 
-kun" -eR'sr, sg. dat. -kone -^Y=l), eight-cornered, 
octagonal, -kuiijal -^^^ I '^S^W- adj. e.g., id. 
-lob" -^ I ^H^tfZ^: adj. (f. -liib" -4^), eight- 
pointed, -labal -^^^ I •^isTf^igTr; adj. e.g., id. 

-lor" -^ I -^re^rfS^: adj. (f. -liir" -^^), eight- 
stringed (of a necklace, etc.) ; eight-stranded (of a rope, 
etc.). -nb -IT I ^SflT^T ^T^TT m. the name of the 
number eight (used in schools), -pol" -Tm | '^S^l^^l 
adj. (f. -piij" -''TSr ), weighing eight jjals ; producing 
eight j}ak ; the produce of eight pals. A pal is one- 
fifth of a seer, -rong" -t;^ I "^S'^l'TSnt adj. (f. 
-riinj" -''^^ ), having eight colours ; of eight kinds. 

-ret" -■^g i '^rs'nfti^: adj. (f. -refe" -^m^), produced 

in eight months, -shot" -irg I ■^TK^T^f: adj. (f. 
-shiife" -TJ^ ), consisting of eight hundred (of the 
number of threads in a cloth) ; costing eight 
hundred (rupees, etc. ) . -shethakh -^'3^ I irSTg^i»T; f • 
a certain unlucky marriage (prohibited by astrology) 
amongst Hindus, when the bride is bom in the sixth 
sign of the Zodiac (or Virgo) and the bridegroom 
in the eighth thereafter (or Aries), -trok" -"4^ I 
'^ISsQ*!!^: adj. (f. -triic" -M\), weighing eight fniks 
(of six seers each), -wuhur" -f^ I '^FW^J adj. 
(f. -warish" -erfr^ )> produced in eight years, eight 
years old. -ZOng" -5|^ | ^S^^md: adj. (f. -Zlinj" 
-^W), having eight legs ; met. swift, rapid in progress. 

For words beginning with e, i, I, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wn, wu respectively. 

ith ^ 

— 67 — 


aithan retan-hond" '^^ ^a^-^^ I ^s?nftr^: 

adj. (f. -hiinz'^ -f^ ), produced in eight montlis, an 
eiglit months' child. 

ith ^^ or ith-keth ^^-^I^, a suffix which added to 
the root of a verb forms the conj. part. (Gr.Gr. 103, 
197). In the Persian character it is spelt it ij:j\- 

ith X<^ e.g. (as subst., m. sg. dat. itas T^^), a secondary- 
suffix, forming adjectives of quality, as in rup-ith 
^f^^, very beautiful, achith "^^^^^ (from ach^ the 
eye), possessing the evil-eye (Gr.Gr. 138). 

oth "^axz^, see aith. 

8th -^^j see onth. 

Uth 'g^ m. (sg. dat. utas ^fi;^), a secondary suffix 
forming abstract nouns, as in band-uth ^"^i relation- 
ship (Gr.Gr. 144). 

uth ^^ e.g. (as subst., m. sg. dat. utas ^TJ^), secondary 
suff. forming adjectives, as from lekh ^sra (base lek 
^^), abuse, lekal ^q;^ or lekal-uth ^^^ra, abusive 
(Gr.Gr. 138). 

iith' ^'^ groups of eight, used in the multipli- 
cation table, as in feor uth' doyetr^h ^■^ ^^ ^['ni » 
four eights (are) thirty- two (Gr.Gr. 84, 86). W. 104 
spells the word oth*. 

athacen wsr^ni, , *^ee athuk" under atha. 

athful, see ath 2. 

athih, see 6t". 

athuj^ ^f , see athol". 

athkal '^3=fi^ I '^•TJJT'I'^ f- estimate, calculation; an 
estimate of the cost of making anything ; anxiety 
(EL, who speUs the word atkal and makes it m.) ; 
agitation arising from affection (Siv. 1574, f.). 

athkav ^^^^ I f^^H^: m. delay (in starting) ; delay, 
waste of time. 

athol" ^^^ I ■^rfww^TTfr f'^: adj. (f. athiij" -^a^gr ), 

(of a tree) liaving untrinimed branches, unpruned. 
othil wfe^ I -^Jift^ft f. a pestle for husking rice. 

athali-kothali ^smfsr-ii^f^r i ^mt^^ ^Tjrni^w; adv. 

tlirowing the arms round a person or thing and lifting 
him or it up ; e.g. lifting up a person in a faint 
whose limbs are stiffened, or lifting or pulling up 
a heavy post. 

aitham ^3fC l '^H'f^ fTlf'T: f- the eighth lunar day of 
a Hindn lunar fortnight. 

ath^r*^ ^^^ I ^^«S?i5^: f. the lai-va of the wool-moth, 
a worm which infests and eats wool or woollen cloth. 

ath^ri-buzy ^^fx;-^5jr i ^^f%^^flT<T; adv. (also 

spelt -buz' -^^), lit. dependent on the wool- worm ; 
hence (with verbs of making, governing an object 
indicating something made of wool), (made) over to 
the wool-worm, put in a place where it is liable to be 


destroyed by the wool-worm, -kyom" -^TT I ^^iS^". 
fsfiftr: m. = ath'ir". -tukh -•z^^ i ^^^^fihr^nr^^: 

m. (sg. dat. -tukas -'5^^), a hole in wool or woollen 
cloth eaten out by this worm. 

athos" ^^H I ^jr^ifsffj: adj. (f. athbs** ^ir^), not 

uprooted (of a i^illar, post, peg, etc.) ; not knocked 
down on the ground. 

aitha-tham"b" ^3-^'t^ I ^tf ^fti^nfTt ^ W^^l m. an 

old, worn-out, and patched garment. 
aithowuh ^Ttjf I ^STf^ffT: card. e.g. twenty-eight. 

aithowuhyum" ^TtjW? I ■^sif«i3it?T?f»?: ord. (f. 

aithowuhim*' ^^t^ffT), twenty-eighth. 
athwar W^^K I ''nf^elRK* m. the name of the first 

day of the week, Sunday. W. 106 spells the word 

ath-wath ^^-^^ i ^^^nr'^T'w; f. (sg. dat. -wathi -^ftr), 

thorough knowledge of anything. 
aithyum" ^^r? o'" iithyuin" <^<^44 i ^^ir: ord. (f. 

aithim*' \ft^ or tithim" ^fz^r), eighth. 
atuj" ^H^, see atul". 
atiij" -^im , see atol". 
atiij" ^Z^, see atol". 

Otij" '^IzV I ftrsf^'^^: f- paste, made of flour, used for 
joining paper, book-binding, etc. ; leaven (EL). 

atok" ^z^ I ^Tf^TT i'^f^fft iHt^<ft WT adj. (f. atuc" 

^IZ^), not noisily crushed with the teeth ; (of a tree, 
etc.) not severed or split with an axe or the like. 

atukh-watukh ^^ig-^ia I ^mmsi ^^ m. (of food) 

neither wholesome nor unwholesome, neither well- 
flavoured nor without flavour, insipid. 

atkal, see athkal. 

atokow" ^3^5 I ^iTsnri: adj. (f. atokuw" ''i^^f^), 

not hammered (of something of copper, etc.). 
atal ^Z^ I ^^5^: adv. immovably, firmly (esp. u.w. 

vbs. of being, in blessings). 

atala-pad "^Z^-Xf^ I f^^q^*^ m. a firm or 

immovable position (Siv. 858) ; (of a king) a firm 

seat on the throne, -rajy -Tl^ I ^f*9T TT^JTJ^ m. 

a firm or secure rule, destined or likely to descend 

to the holder's children and grandchildren. 
atol" ^fl^r I ^%f qi^: adj. (f. atuj" ^fi^), not cooked 

in ghl, oil, etc., not fried. 

atol" ^rz^ I ^qtx:^^?n«i: adj. (f. atiij*' ^i^), not 

moved from its position ; finu, immovable. 
atul" ^^ 1 ^gf^: adj. (f. atuj'^ ^^^), unweighed ; 
unweighable, very great, (of wealth) vast, -betul"^ 
-^f I ^^r^T<Tx;: adj. (f. atuj^'-betuj^ ^^%'^f^)' 

unweighable, very vast, huge (of wealth, gifts in 
charity, etc.). 
atil-kolwan (? spelling of atil), m. an irrigation 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi re9[)ectively, and tor words begiuuinfc with u, fl, see under wu, wu respectively. 

K 2 

atalas ^m^'W. 

- 68 — 

atashekh '^iirT^j^ 

system by which villagers aie bound to repair and 

clean irregular channels (L. 460), of. kol-wan 

under kol. 
atalas ^7{^m^ (of. ^^1), m. satin (K.Pr. 28, 262 ; 

Slv. 789, 1350, 1450, 1821). 
atma "^ssm or atma '^an m. (sg. dat. atmas '^nw^, 

&iv. 1016, 1823), the individual soul, self, principle of 
life, Siv. 473 (atma), 776 (atma), 866 (id.) ; the 
Great Self, the soul of all things, Brahma (Siv. 993, 
1053) ; — as in trayodashe-atma, having thirteen 
selves, consisting of tliirteen (Siv. 524). -bud -^ 
m. knowledge of self (sg. ag. -bud' -^^. Siv. 1812). 
-dev -^^ m. a tutelary deity (Siv. 1761, 1772). 

atmaram ^aiTTT'l m- He who rejoices in His Self, 
or in the Supreme Spirit, a name of the Deity 
(&iv. 1481). 

aten '^^•l, I ^"^ WT^ adv. there (within sight or 
pointed to), in that place (Gr.Gr. 155). ateni '^Sl'T^ I 
■^R ^TR adv. id. (Gr.Gr. 155). atenan ■=?niri1 I 
"^I'W ^T% adv. id. (Gr.Gr. 155). aten"y '^W^ I 
^%qr adv. in that very place (within sight or pointed 

to), atenan^y ^wi^ I ^%^ adv. id. atenuk" 
^M^f I ^^fisrri: ^i%»?^:adj. (f. ateniic^ ^(JpT'g), 

of or belonging to that place (within sight or pointed 

to), atenukuy ^arj^^ I ^"^ai tr adv. (f. 
atenuc"y ^Wl^^), of or belonging to that very 
place (within sight, etc.). atenanuk" -^WI^^ I 

^•^^: adj. (f. atenanuc^ ■^aji»i^) = atenuk" ab. 
atenas '^af»!^ i ^^ adv. = ateh ab. (Gr.Gr. 155). 
atenas^y ^iwt^'T I '^%^ adv. = aten"y ab. 
aton" ^flj I '^f^T^: adj. (f. atun*i ^yj^), not thin, 
viscous ; thick, close, dense. 

atiniic^ •^t?j'l^, see ati. 

atang ^t{^ I 4<^i'. m. strait, difficulty, distress, from 
pain, disease, poverty, etc. 

atenuk'^ ■^WJop, see aten. 
atinuk" '^ffT^'p, see ati. 
at-nil, see ata-nyur". 
atenas ■^RWi^ , see aten. 
at'nas ^^'re . see at^ 
at'n"y ^'^^ , see at'. 

ata-nyur" ■^Z-*^ I '^^^fyf^^^: m. a medicinal grass 
found on the mountains, used as a hair-tonic. It is 
said to render the hair thick, fragrant, soft, and long. 
Corijdalk Falconeri (L. 74, where it is called ut-nil). 

atun^'-watun" ^T|-^t^ I '^Tf^^ft^Ji; , -^^jt?!^ 

f. approval, assent ; acquiescence, concession, admission. 
bt'-pan ■^Tt^-'TI, I ehfifl'-^H m. the waist-string worn by 
briihmans to support the cloth worn over the privities. 
Cf . ath 2 and iit°. 



at^r •^fi;?: ii.= I g^ir^^^^TT: f- the otto of roses or other 
similar flower-essence (Siv. 1149, cf. L. 77). 

at^ri-phn ^c^fr;-^^ i ^"^^^ijftt^: f- "ame of 

a medicine compound of various essences used to cure 
colds and disease of the eyes resulting therefrom. 
atur" ^fT^ I -sa^JJT^^ m- an improper action, an 
action which results in repentance (whether done 
wittingly or unwittingly). 

atur" '^ng^ i ^gr: adj. (f. atiir" ^fi^), distressed, 

autar ^"^rlTT or otar -^fJTT l ^^Hl?;: m. the avatar 
or incarnation of a Hindu god (Siv. 1793) ; i.q. 

autbri ^^fft or otbri "^fTT^ adj. e.g. becoming 

incarnate, one who becomes incarnate (Siv. 625). 
Otra ^'^ I tnji: adv. the day before yesterday, used 
principally in villages and by old-fashioned Musal- 
mans. W. 95 spells the word otar or utar. 
otruk" ^^ I tn:^*d«i: adj. (f. otriic^ ^^^1,)' 

produced on, of, or belonging to, the day before 

yesterday, -kani -^ff or titra-kani ^-^jfsf I in^: 
ViT^'. adv. about, probably, the day before yesterday 
(Gr.Gr. 159). -kanyuk" -^i^ I ttr: ttTH^i: 
adj. (f. -kanic'^ -^1%^), of or belonging to about 
the day before yesterday. 

atraf 1 >^\;s\ m. a spendthrift (K.Pr. 188). 

atraf 2 ^\)o\ or atraph '^TT'^ fpl- extremities, ends, 
environs ; outlying districts, distant countries (Siv. 

dtur^-khdtur'^ ^z^-^f^ i ^vfzw. adj. (f. 6t°r"- 

khot^r" •^^^-Tff'z^), not joined together, not 
pieced together ; imperfectly formed, incomplete in 

bt^ran ^TZT'i: I ^^(^nfNT, fw^^^W ^ f- 

meditating in wrath against a person, regarding 
him wrathf ully ; maliciously searching out a person's 
weak points. 

ot*run ^TZ^^i I ^^rf^^T'^cwi conj. l *(l p.p. btT" 
^f<'^ ; 2 p.p. ot^ryov ^TZ'^ff^), to meditate in 
wrath against a person, to regard him wrathf ully ; 
maliciously to look out for a person's weak points. 

bt'-raz ^Tt2-T?[ m. the name given to the cooked water 
chestnut by the people living on the shores of the 
Wulur Lake (EL). See also 6t". 

atas 1, 2, 3, 4 ^Z^, see ata 1 and ath 1, 2, 3. 

atash-bbzi ^riTT-^t?' 


tj^^ I '^f^nfi^^M^iJi; , 

^f^Ifj^*!. f. fireworks ; met. extreme emptiness, 

atashekh ^cnn^ lUju'\ i ^ti^^iTtT: m. (sg. dat. 

atashekas ^Trli[^i^), the venereal disease, syphilis. 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wn, wu respectively. 




atihot^ ^^^ 

atashin ^j^^ a roast, roasted food (El.). 

ata-sata ^Z-^Z l "^fJT^fT^fTflTXSn^ adv. about, approxi- 
mately (as to amount), u.w. vbs. of giving, etc. 

at'-at' ^r^-^t? I ^TT'^mtp^ adv. so as to cause to wander 
from countr}' to countrj% roamingly, u.w. vbs. of 
expelling or of going forth, at'-at' kadun ■^■^-'^'^ 

m.inf. to expel a person so as to cause him to roam 
from land to land, to banish from the country ; to 
make a person disgraced, at'-at' nerun '^fz-'^^ 
%^«1^ I ■^f?lt'l«^iqT^>n^: m.inf. to issue forth under 
compulsion of roaming from land to land, to be 
banished from hearth and home ; to become an object 
of disgrace. 
atot" ^^g I ■^flTT: adj. (f. atufe'i ^rr!|^), not hot, no 
longer hot, once hot but now able to be touched, 
become cool. 

atith %'^\ I "^f?!^^: adj. e.g. (m. sg. dat. atitas 

■^fftfl^), very poor, indigent, deprived of all wealth 
(Siv. 1751); powerless; very afflicted, miserable; 
a mendicant, ascetic, devotee. 

atith^ '^ffTt'T, see ati. 

Otuth Tig^, see ot". 

atoth'^ '^it^ I ^trr^: adj. (f. atbth*' ^3T3 , sg. dat. 

atache ^ZT^), uot dear, not beloved; not liked, 

atathanar "^fTIZ^T^ I ^^<^T^wi; m. want of love, 

dislike (for) (esp. for something deserving love). 
at'th"y ^^^^, see at', 
atatay' ^ZTT^ I ^n/R'ft^^ m- extreme lowness, 

extreme poverty (owing either to viciousness or to 

misfortune), atatayis watun -iidiifiiH, <*rd''l, I 

^l*»^Tf<,5UHlfFTI m.inf. to arrive at utter vileness, 
to become utterly poor and destitute. 

atatby' ^fmi^ I ^^: adj. e.g., i.q. atatoy", q.v. 
atatoy" "^siTfTa^^ i ^5^: adj. (f. atatoy" ^ciaT^), 

one wlio habitually does grievous wrong to others. 
atUfe" ^I^^ , see atot". 
atow" "^fT^ I ■^»^f^: adj. (f. atiiw" ^fT|[), not roasted, 

not parched (of grain). 

atow" ^tfTf I "^mfia: adj. (f. atbw'' ^^Rfrii^), not 

heated in fire (of metals) ; not dried by the sun (of 

crops) ; not parched or roasted (of grain). 
atwar, see athwar. 
atawar ■^tT^T^ J^^^^ 1 (^•SJJjmFril^lS'^ manners, 

customs practice, habits, conduct ; esp. bad conduct 

Ita-wlth ^ssriz-Tf^ 1 wttt^htt: m. (sg. dat. -witas 

-^Z^), the upper part of the intestines, in which the 
food is first digested. 


atiy 2 ^f?!^ I 71 (^^ VjSf adv. (for atiy 1 see ati), at that 
very time ; for that very reason ; u.w. vbs. of going, etc. 

atiy ^frr^, see at'. 

Otuy "^r^, see ot". 

atyuk" ^(^^ , see ati. 

at"y-tat"y ^l^^-flT^^ I ^^si^^nfi; adv. by chance, 

atyuv"i^T^5 i^<?i^rR;: (f. ativ" ^rrfz|[), altogether 

unsubstantial, with no strength, substance, or firmness. 

atyuv" 2 ^T«5f adj. (f. ativ" ^fz^), made or com- 
posed of flour^(K.Pr. 18). 

bfe*' "^Tfl , see ot''. 

afeh ^^^ impve. sg. 2 of afeun, q.v. 

Ofeh" ■^^ I ^TfT: adj. (f. Ufeh" ^^), feeble, weak, 
emaciated (cf. Gr.Gr. 141). 

ofeh" ^^ I ^?i1^: m. quick effort, exertion, endeavour ; 
the woi'd always conveys the idea of speed with the 

afehod" 'Wtf I ^T^f^fT: adj. (f. afehbd*' '^iw'nf )> not 

searched for. 
alshodu-y 'RWf^^ l ^^^'0 t^^^ adv. even without 

searching, even without seeking, u.w. vbs. of going, 

coming, etc. 
alshol^ ^W^ I W^^ fe|»tl adv. without deceit, honestly, 

afehan '^Wl. I ^T^TTi: m. the N. of a pargana lying 

to the north of Srinagar (cf. RT.Tr. II, 493), and 

also of a village in Chiriit Pargana. 

atshun '^si^'^ I ^I'^^ti conj. 3 (2 p.p. afehyov ^raft^), 

to be feeble, weak, emaciated. 
afehanun •^TW^I^ i ^^P»fti: conj. 1 (1 p.p. abhon" 

^»TW5; 2 p.p. afehanov ■^fg'sfV^ ), to test, try, put in 

use for the first time. 

afehon^-mof ^TTwg-^J I ^fTf^fi: perf- part. 

(f. afehun"-mUfe" ^ffsT-^r^), tried, tested, brought 

into use for the first time. 

afehenna ^^ra^, afehSn" ^W^ , see afehyonn". 

— — * I I ' ^ 

tife*h-pufe«^h ^^f-^f I ^^rar^^TTT^^TT^ftfTTO; 

m. assenting and dissenting, hemming and hawing, 
hesitation. Cf. Uh^-tSh". 

abhar '%^\ l ^^^*^ m. feebleness, weakness, emacia- 
tion (cf. Gr.Gr. 141). 

afehor" ^i|^ I ^g^: adj. (f. afehiir" ^fg^), not 

empty, full (of hollow objects). 

abharafeh ^SRST?! • ■* i m<. i: f- (pi- nom. afeharabha 
^f5TW> ^iv. 966), an apsaras, a fairy (in Hindu 
mythology), (Siv. 966, 1074, 1132, 1452). 

afehSt" ^^ , SCO afehyot*. 

afehot" ^lez I ^jfqif^fi: adj. (f. atehUt** ^^, 
sg. dat. atihace ^fg^), not winnowed (of grain, etc.). 

For wurdf heginning with e, i, J, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words begiuuiug witli u, 3, see under wu, wu respectively. 

ofehath ^tw3 


awuche ^^?0 

ofehath ^w^ I wsi^ f. (sg. dat. ofehati ^?ffz), 

faiutiug, insensibility, a swoon. 
abhyonn" '^sif I l|^t??i: adj. (m. sg. dat. afehennas 
■^lEIW^ ; f- afehen" ^d^ ), not torn, not split, not 
rent asunder. 

atshenna-dara ^^is-^?: i >JT?;TWrfT: f. a violent, 

uninterrupted shower of rain. 

abhyot" ^^ i ^gt^rs: adj. (f. afehit*' ^^g; 

sg. dat. atihece ^SET^), not ceremonially impure, 
not brought into contact -with any impure thing 
(esp. of food). 

afe&j*^ ^'^i^. see afeyol". 

abom" ^^ra^ I '^i^^fi:, ^i^^'g adj. (f. afeiim" 

"^Sf^H ), not decreased in size, not diminished ; (of milk, 
etc.) not boiled down ; unsuitable, imj)roper, unpleasing 
(of speech). 
afeomb" ^#ig I ^5£rf^: adj. (f. abomb" W^ ), not 

bored, not pierced for string (as pearls, flowers, etc.) ; 
not kissed. 

abaman ■^^??'t i ■^BP^fW; f. (sg. dat. abamiin" 

•^^?ra ), ceremonial sipping of water by Hindiis. 

abun '^|ri: l ^^^ll^. conj. 3 [irreg. 2 p.p. bav ^TW (Siv. 
944); bas ^m^, he entered for him (Siv. 1100); pi. 
bay wr^ (Siv. 1073, baye ^r^ m.c.) ; and pi. 
baye wi^ (&iv. 432, 437) ; 3 p.p. bayov ^T^^, 
pi. bayey ^^^ ; and pi. bayeye ^^ ; 4 p.p. 
bayav WRT^; impve. sg. 2 abh ^|f (iSiv. 1817)], 
to enter, come in (Siv. 448, 666) ; zbmin abun 
arrf'll ^^1^ m.inf. to become surety (K.Pr. 67). 

aba-ner ^^-%^ l H^5{t'I'fT: f- the acts of entering and 
going forth, entrance and exit. 

abin"^ 'T#t'^, see abyun". 

abop" '^^j I ^»qf^<ft ^^: adj. (f. abbp* ^^^)' 

not eaten with the teeth, not gnawed, not masticated. 

abar ^^ adj. com. gen. immovable ; bar-abar 

^^-'^^, all that which is movable and immovable, 

the world, sg. abl. bara-abara ^-'ir^, Siv. 624 

(in sense of gen.). 
abar ^l^T^ l '^^T^: m. behaviour, observance of 

custom, rule. 
abbri ^TSiO I ^T^^, adj. e.g. punctilious in the 

performance of religious duties (of Brahmans) ; cf. 

El. s.v. (ifsun Brahman. 

abor" wt^ I '^'HTfwri: adj. (f. abbr" ^^t^), not 

gathered up in one jjlace ; hence, of food, etc., not 
sorted out and put on one side, not sifted, not cleaned. 
abur^ '''^^ I ^rafnilt'f: f- a girl or female animal who 
has never experienced sexual intercourse, a virgin. 

abeta ^^nr, see abyot". 
abit^ ^R#^ , see abyut". 

abot" ^^ I ^fww: adj. (f. abut*i -^r^-z, sg. dat. 

abace ■^^'^), not cut. 
ab&th ^T^f^ I JT^fl;^Tf^ m. (sg. dat. abStas ^wfri'Ei), 

excrement and urine, sewage, filth ; defilement by 

contact with these. 

abyol" ^'^^ I w^^n%fWH: adj. (f. ab6j" ^^?if^), 

not violently entered (of something hollow), not 
having something else thrust in with violence ; un- 
injured ; not hurt by internal pressure. 

abyun" ^^5 i "^^fKri; adj. (m. sg. dat. abinis 
"^J^fro;, abl. abeni ^lt%; f- sg. nom. abm"^wt^, 

dat. abene ^^^), not recognized by a mark, leaving 
no mark (of a blow, etc.). 

abyot'' ^'^g adj. (voc. abeta w^m, f- abeb" ■^'^^). 

without sense, foolish (Siv. 1757) ; without mind or 
thought (of the Supreme Deity, conceived as devoid of 
all qualities) (Siv. 1692) ; beyond the range of thought, 
incomprehensible (of God) (Siv. 1604). 

abyut'i'^sr^ i "^jgiflri: adj. (m. sg. dat. abitis '^r^fzi;, 
abl. abeti ^%fz ; f. sg. nom. abit"^^g, dat. abece 

■^W'^), not poimded to powder, not reduced to powder 
(e.g. a lump of salt). 
av 1 '^T^, he came, see yun". 

av-beth ■^T^^-^^ I ■^1*rTra% f. coming and 
sitting, sitting down on arrival, -gav -1^ I '^^jfir'n- 
apt^ m. coming and going (always with reference to 
some person or thing other than the speaker or the 
subject of the sentence). Cf. K.Pr. 18. -pav -XTTW 1 
uflVIMTfi: ™- coming and falling ; an instantaneous 
fall, hence a sudden death. 

av 2 ■^T^ ( ey ifj{; and pi. eye t^), the 
sufE. of the 3 p.p. of all verbs, see Gr.Gr. 237 if. 
The final v is dropped before pei'sonal terminations. 

awa 1 "?i^ , see ath 1. 

awa 2 '^'^ I ^^ adv. j'es, that's so, so let it be. 

Cf. K.Pr. 18 (where the word is spelt awah) and 

W. 96. El. spells the word ammh. 
awbi iimti; ( = i\ji\), f- a rumour, report (Gr.M.). 

ov ■^^ or auv ■^^^ ( ey H'^ ; and pi. eye 

TJ?l), the suffix of the 2 p.j). of all verbs, see Gr.Gr. 
108 and 223 ff. The final v is dropped before personal 
terminations, and, in forming the perf. part., before 

bwa^T^, see yun". 

UV" ^^, adj. (f. iiv" ^^), a sec. suff. added (like the 
gen. term, uk'^) to nouns, and signifying ' comj)osed 
of. Thus, from son ^s^., gold, sonuv" ^^f, made 
of gold ; see Gr.Gr. 161. 

awace •^i^r^r, see awot". 
awuche ^^m, see awuth*. 

For words beginning with e, i, I, see uuder ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 


awuch" ^^ 


awashekh "^^^^ 

awuch" '^'^W I f^TT ^ft'^npi aflv. without seeing, 
without inspecting, without examination. 

awad ■^^^ I qrra: f. (sg. dat. awiiz" '^^^), a limited 
time, period ; space of time allotted for any purpose. 

aved ^^ I ^t%fv: f- (sg. dat. avlz^ '^^^)' acting 
against rule, doing a thing the wrong way. 

av6z"-kini ^gggj.f^ftf I ^^rf^f^^T adv. in a 
— ^1 
wrong way. -stity -?T(5 I t^^^Ol'!l^«I adv. id. 

avdal '^^^^ I ^^T!!^ m. indifference, neglect, dis- 
regard ; disrespectful abandonment of one worthy of 
respect, etc. 

avedor"^ ^^(^ I ^f%^^: ^fiil^^: adj. (f. aved%" 

^5l|[^), not loose, not slack ; unopposed, unhindered. 
avidya ^f^'gT f- want of knowledge, ignorance (Siv. 13, 

1524, 1816). 
awagahan ^^Ift. I xfNlJ^M'WT^: m. repeated 

practice of any science, art, action, or the like. 
awagon ^^'^ l ^^: m. a fault, a bad quality (in an 

animate being or a thing). 

auwah, see awa 2. 

awahan ^T^T^'^. m. calling, summoning, inviting (Siv. 

71, 77, 78, 87). 
awuj^ ^^^' ^"^^ awol". 
bvij" ^if^^ , see bvyul". 
ovijyar -ijif^sillT; l '^ffl^H^r^Ji; m. extreme softness 

(of things). Cf. by'jyar. 

avekth ^cq^vj adj. e.g. unmanifest, indiscrete, im- 
perceptible (Siv. 1752, of God). 
awel, see bvyul". 
awol" ^^ I ^^fefi: adj. (f. awiij" '^^^), not 

surrounded, in the sense of not covered, not wrapped 
up (in cloth), not wound round (with string), not 

auwal, SCO awwal. 

awalun ^n^^, or awalun" ^T^^r^ I ^T^<f: m. 

(sg. dat. awalanas ■^TR^PI^), a whirlpool (Siv. 

102:}, 1488, 1755, 1840). 
awol"-sawul" '^^^-^^ I ^^m^M*! m. food which is 

partly wholesome and partly unwholesome. 
awaman ^RRT'I; I ■•«^*<H«il m. disrespect. 
awon" ^raM I 1%fT <«V|<1H ^^^- without speaking, 

without saying beforehand, without giving previous 


awun" 'U^^ I ^?fHT«H: adj. (m. .sg. abl. awoni 
^i^fiT ; f. sg. nom. awun'^ ^IL^' ^^^- ^-wone wt'^l), 
not woven, not yet woven (of a cloth) ; (of a string bed) 
not having the string network completely woven. 

avinash ^rf^fT^ ™- non-destruction, salvation (Siv. 170) ; 

N. of Siva, voc. avinashe •^f^TnT' °^' avinasho 
^f%^Tlfr (&iv. 157, 1052, 1269). 

avinbshi ^^Slf^^rni^ m. N. of Siva, the Imperishable 
(&iv. 694). 

avinz^ ^^1,' ^°° avyond". 

awaii '^^'51, f- a prim. suff. added to verbal roots, to 
signify the wages for doing anything, as in lonawau 
^^t'lWSf , the wages of reaping. If the root ends in 
a vowel, the suff. takes the form wawan ^^'3^^, as in 
diwawan t^^^'^, the wages of giving (see Gr.Gr. 129). 

awara "^RTT ^jV I '^^'- adj. e.g. wretched, in 
misery (owing to disease, grief, pain, or poverty) 
(YZ. 60, 279, Siv. 129). -bal -^^ m. presents given 
by friends and relatives to a boy's father at the 
ceremony when the protection of the boy by the 
sixty -four deities is invoked (L. 260). 

awur" ^^^ 1 '^gftm: adj. (f. awur'^ ^3^), not strung 
(as a necklace of pearls). 

awiir" 1 ^T^ I ^Tft?T: f- (for 2 see awanm), 

covering ; encompassing, surrounding ; surrounding 
a person in a hostile manner, -pawur" -qiq^ | 
^iX<\ '^SamXWl f. surrounding a person, e.g. for his 
protection, or to prevent his escaping. 
awaran ■^T'^TI l ^T^f^: f- surrounding. 

awarun '^jt^^i; i ^srrwTWl conj. l (l p.p. awor"^ 

■^T^'^), to cover, to envelope ; to obstruct ; to pervade, 
to surround, encompass; to take possession of (K.Pr. 
54, 111). 

awor" ^T^ I "^h: adj. (f. awiir" 2 ^T^^), 

1 p.p. covered, enveloped, etc., as above ; busily 
engaged (in anything), -mot" -?ig I '^T^fi: perf. 

part. (f. awur'^-mufe" wr^^-?n|^), id. 

awaren '^^T^ I t^fTT f . a funeral pyre ; cf. K.Pr. 22. 

awarene-bal ^^^-^ I Tjnn^T'i;, a burning 

ghat, a place on^a river-bank where dead bodies are 
burnt, -mond" -W^ I TJl^TT^T^^^f^^i^: m. logs of 
wood for a funeral jiyrc. 
awarer ^srr^^"'^ l "^frTcTT, (T?^cIT m. the state of being 
encompassed, being much occupied in any business, 
intense application to any work. 

awarawun ^^tt^i: i ^^rft^RTWT conj. (1 p.p. 
awarow" ^WTt^), iq- awarun, q.v. 

awash ■^^'S| I ^^^H adj. e.g. important, necessary; 

necessary, needed, wanting; adv. of necessity, 

necessarily, certainly (Gr.M.). -pbth^ -'TT^ I 

^eniTHofiTT'Sri ^(JTR^^J^ adv. with same meaning as 

the preceding. 
bvish ^t1%W 1 t(^V' f- entrance (of a supernatural being 

into the body), possession, demoniacal possession, 

inspiration (Siv. 1649) ; i.q. awath. 
awashekh lU^^'aadj. e.g. (as subst. m. sg. dat. awa- 

shekas "ff^^^^), necessary, needful, urgent (Gr.M.). 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wtt respectively. 

awashekata '^Riir^riT 

72 — 

ay 4 ^^ 

awashekata ^^'Jir^tlT f. need, necessity, urgency, 

importance (Gr.M.). 
ovishelad ^f^^?- I Wrarfts: adj. e.g. possessed by 

a supernatural being or demon, inspired. 

awushon" ^4^ I "^^W- adj. (f. awushiin" ^^4'^), 

not hot, no longer liot, cooled. 
avishwosi ^f^^TtH adj. e.g. mistrustful, suspicious, 

— banun — '^^•t., to feel mistrust (Gr.M.). 
awasan ^^^^i; l t^irtxtflT f- crumbling to pieces, 

awasun ^TW^I I f^iftw^'l oonj. 3 (2 p.p. awasyov 

■^^^sft^), to crumble to pieces, to be decayed, worn 

out. awasyo-mot" ^i^^-^rg I f^'sfh^: perf. part. 

(f. awasye-miife" ^T^#-?T^), decayed, woin out, 
crumbling to pieces. 

awasar ^^€T m- an opportunity (Gr.M.). 

awastha ^R^T f. state, condition, circumstances, one 
of the four stages of life through which a man passes 
(childhood, youth, manhood, and old age) (Siv. 515), 
or of the four conditions of the soul (waking, dreaming, 
sound sleep, and final beatitude) (Siv. 1529). balaka- 
awastha, the condition of a child, the simple nature 
of a child (Siv. 887, 1379), dat. in the condition of 
a child, (coming to God) as a little child (Siv. 1379). 

awot'' ^^g I "^Tmr: adj. (f. awbb'i '^J^i^). not 

arrived, not yet arrived ; not yet come to pass ; not 
yet come to perfection. 
awot" '^J^^ I ^^Tt^fi: adj. (f. awbt*^ "^^T^, sg. dat. 
awace ^^T'^), not joined, not united (e.g. pieces of 
cloth, or the component parts of a metal vessel). 

awath or aveth ■=?rR^, ^^ i ^T%r: f. (sg. dat. 

awathi "^I'RfZ, avethi ^TRfZ), entrance (of a super- 
natural being into a person), demoniacal possession, 
inspiration, i.q. bvish. 

awuth'' ^I^ I -^^f^fT: adj. (f. awuth^ ^Jg, sg. dat. 
awuche '^^19), not twisted together (of the strands 
of a rope). 

awothor" ^^iw^ i ^f^?nt^: adj. (f. -thur^ -'?i^), 

not wiped clean or dry. 
awatar ^<^<n^ l ^RWTT: m. the avatar or incarnation 
of a Hindu god, i.q. autar or Star (Siv. 11, 58, 851, 
854, 862). —damn — ^T^n (Siv. 1238, 1739), or 
— hyon" — ^^ (Siv. 1384), m.inf. to take an 
incarnation, to become incarnate. 

awbfe" ''i^^- see awot". 

avetehon" -^^^^ i '^f^^: adj. (v. avefehun*^ ^5if|-^), 

not separated, not teased out, not carded (of wool, or 
the like). 
avefcar ^3imj or avifear ^t%^T^ m. want of con- 
sideration, heedlessness, inattention (Siv. 1111, 1530). 

avifebr^ ^f^^t^ I f%=^^f^i: adj. (f. avifebr" ^f^^^, 

as if from the next), void of consideration, heedless. 
avitior" ^Srf^'31'^ I ^rf^^T^'ir adv. without consideration, 

aWOV" ^^^of I "^^TT: aflj- (f- awtiv" ^^|[), unsown, 

not sown (of seed, or of a field) ; coming up unsown, 

self -propagated (of weeds or wild plants). 
awwal J.^ adj. e.g. first, prior, foremost; best, excellent 

(EL, who spells the word auwal). 

away ^^■?i, see ath 1. 

av"y "^^^ the form which the terra, au ^^ of the ag. 
and abl. pi. takes when emph. y ^ is added ; as in 
guryav^y J^^^ f'om guryau anff (see Gr.Gr. 93). 

avyod"^ ^4^ I ^f^f^: adj. (f. avez'' ^Wj^), not 

known, not recognized, unknown. 
bvyul^ ^^ I "^tTJ^T^: adj. (f. bvij" ^ifWf^), very 
soft (of things), delicate, thin, poshi khota bvyul", 
more delicate than a flower (K.Pr. 88, where the word 
is spelt I'mel). Cf. by^P. 

avyond" "V^k^ I "^TTT^Tfi: adj. (f. av6nz^ ^^1,)' ^°* 
honoured, not revered ; despised, not appreciated, used 
carelessly ; not accepted, not obeyed ; not thought about. 

awaz \\t\ f. sound, noise, voice. 

avez" ^3151 , see aved and avyod". 

awoz" ^4f I ^^5^: adj. (f. awiiz" ^^si ), without 

sound, mute; (of a musical instrument) not played 
uf)on, not sounded ; not capable of producing a sound 
(owing to some imperfection). aWOZU-y ^^^^ I 
^Tf^ Ifg adv. only mutely, entirely silently (of 
a musical instrument). 

ay 1 ^^ the interrogative sufiix (see a 3, a 1, ay). 

ay 2 ^^ or ai ^ conjunct., if (Siv. 165, 634), usually 
appended to the subject of the sentence, as in bo-y 
(boh + ay) karahb ^^ ^fT, if I had made. 

With the past cond. hay f^ may be used instead, 

as in tim-hay karahbn f?i»i;-f^ ^TfK, if tliey 

had made. Its negative is nay T^, as in tim-nay 
karahbn t?l»^-«I^ ^TfT'i; , if they had not made ; su- 
nay (suh + nay) karihe ^^ qsf^t , if he had 

not made (Gr.Gr. 257). 

ay 3 ^^ pron. suff. of 2nd pers. sg. dat., and also of 
the ace. when the verb to which it is attached is in 
the 3rd person. When joined to a form ending in 
a vowel the initial a is elided. Examples are: 
chus-ay karan ^^^ ^iTTI., I make for thee; 
kari-y ^fr^. he will make for thee, or he will make 
thee (see Gr.Gr. 184). 

ay 4 ^^ f. prim. suff. fonning abstract nouns, as in 

wakhan-ay ^<si»iij, teUing, from wakhanun 
^^31:, to teU (Gr.Gr. 128). 

For words beginning with e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wn respectively. 

ay 5 ^^ 


ayetan '^n^rii: 

ay 5 "V^ f. a sec. suff. used in the case of the word 

luk-ay ^;^. a crowd of people, from luk(h) ^ra, 

people (Gr.Gr. 152). 
ay 1 '^T^, they (masc.) came, and aye 1 ^T^, she came 

or they (f.) came, see yun°. 
ay 2 ^rr^ i '^15: m. (sg. dat. ayes l ^t^rj. , abl. 

aye 2 ^T^), Hfe, age, long life, the allotted term of 

life, esp. a healthy long life (Siv. 1209). In Siv. 

1480 there is a pun on the dat. of this word and on 

ayes 2, q.v. 

aye-dor^ '^rra-^ I l^ig: adj. (f. -dur" -^^), 

long-lived ; of a healthy constitution, -gfraye -TIT^ | 
'TJT'W^^: II'C^'^^'T^^: tremor or tottering 
with a tendency to fall (esp. of the weakness of 
convalescence), -gev -iJfW I ^T^^tl^rrfT ^<Ti; m. 
long-life ghl, the ffhi, or clarified butter, which 
remains over and above after certain sacrificial 
ceremonies, and with which the head of the boy for 
whose benefit the sacrifice is performed is anointed. 
It is a Hindi! custom and is supi^osed to confer long 
life. — pyon" — Tg«T I '^^I'^TTTI'T; m- to ascertain 
the prospects of a child's length of life by means of 
a horoscope, birth-marks, or the like. -SOSt" -^RI I 
^rrgwrt'l adj. (f. -sufeh^ "^^)' possessing life, 
long-lived ; esp. used in blessings. -SOW*' -^'^ I 
■^T^TSi; adj. (f. -SOW* -^TT^), long-lived, destined 
to live long, healthy. -tan -tm^ I ^TH'WI*l m. 
independence, freedom (u.w. vbs. signifying granting, 
etc.). -zyuth" -w^ I ^t^Tg: m. (m. sg. dat. -zithis 
-^tcR;, abl. -zethi -%t^; f. sg. nom. -zith" -#|r, 

dat. -zeche -^10), long-lived. 

ayes-tan ^!rra^-?n«i; 1 WWtWC m. the cavity 
supposed to be in the skull through which the soul 
leaves the body at the time of death ; the upper part 
of the skull ; the anterior fontanelle (El.). 

aye 3 ^rnr 1 ^^1 j^M WTU'T'I^ m. setting anything 
as one would wish it, arranging according to one's 
wish, -dar -^T^ I 'ff^: adj. e.g. easy or ready to 
be grasped (of the position of a weapon, etc.). 
— karun — ^^^t, I ^^^T'JII m.inf. to hold 
straight, to hold a sword, staff, etc., ready for the 
hand ; to hold a gun straight, ready to fire at the 
mark. Cf. ayewun, 

oy ^^, he came for thee (av + ay), see yun" 
(Gr.e'r. 241). 

oy ^rri^i they came for thee (ay -t- ay), see yun° 
(Gr.Gr. 241). 

ayod -<||ij,j I ijrrgVT^ m. a weapon. 

ayodya ^^^rr or ^infn^T f- the town of Ayodhyil or 
Oudh (Siv. 865, 1420, 1413). -nath -5TT^, the 


Lord of Ayodhya, Riiraa-candra, the famous hero and 

incarnation of Visnu. 
ayogeta ^Jl^JJffn f- unsuitableness ; disagreement 

(between persons) (Gr.M.). 
ayogy 'll^^ adj. e.g. unfit, improper, unbecoming 

oy'j" ^^IW , see oy'l". 
oy^yar ^i^IWn: 1 ^t^^lrR^rar'^ m. softness, delicacy 

(of anything animate or inanimate) ; cf. ovijyar. 
ayekh ^srnr^ , she came to them, and ayokh -^Hirt^, 

he came to them, see yun". 
ayal ^Sl^n^ J W ' ^4^^^ "^- family, children, household. 

-bar -TT^ (=^UL£) 1 ^sufjif^jg^-sr^: adj. e.g. 

having a family, possessing a large family or house- 
hold (Gr.M.). 
oy'l" ^^m I ^«7T: adj. (f. by'j*^ ^^rr^^), very soft, 

very delicate, easily broken, slender, very weak (of 

persons or things) ; cf. bvyul". 
ay en ^^^l, I '^^'T (^fWWt'^T'rani'i;), m. the sun's 

course from one solstice to another. 
ayenda iJcol m. the future, futurity (Gr.M.). 
oyinah ^^TR^TTf m. (Siv. 500), i.q. aina with suff. ah 

of indef . art. 

ayir" ^Tf^ 1 ^^t: m. (sg. dat. ayeris ^^T^rfx;^), 

a forest hunter (usually Musalman) ; cf . ayer-hbnz". 
In Siv. 1471 the word is used to indicate the low- 
caste forest Bhil hunter who befriended Rama-candra. 

ayurbal ^rrg^^ 1 '^T^^'^TII; m. force of life, long life 
(used in blessings). 

ayurda ^^^^ 1 ^T^J^t!!«1*l m. the calculation of life, 
in a horoscope, etc. 

ayer-hbnz*' ^T^T-fi^ I ^sn^j:, %^^: m. (f. -hanzan 

-^sr^)> oiie who is both a hunter and a boatman, 
a boatman who lives by fishing and catching animals ; 
gen. a forest man who lives by hunting ; cf . ayir". 

ayes 1 ^^ra;, -tan -wm, , see ay 2. 

ayes 2 ^rrJT^, I (f.) came, Siv. 86, 1480 (with pim on 

ayes 1, dat. sg. of ay 2), see yiin^ 
ayot" ^^^ I w^^W' adj. (f. ayiiti" ^rr^), 

dependent on, at the disposal of ; subject to, 

obedient to. pana-ayot", self-dependent, independent 

ayoth ^i^ I ^«j<T*i card. e.g. (sg. dat. ayotas -^l^dH), 

ten thousand, a myriad. 

oyith ^if^^ I ^5^: m. (sg. dat. oyitas '?i-if?T7re[), 

the sun (esp. in old language), used nowadays as 
a proper N. (El. di/ut). 
ayetan ^rRRT'i; f . a resting-place, support, seat, abode ; 
used in compounds such as athi-ayetan, see under 

For words beginning with e, i, 1, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and £01 word.s beginning with u, u, see under wn, wn respectively. 

aydtyum'' ^^? 




ayotyum'^ ^^Hf^ ord. (f. ayotim" '^srata'R), ten- 
thousandth (Gr.Gr. 80). 
ayiite" ITsn? , see ayot°. 

ayebar •^^gr^ l ^^tIWT m. dependence, subjection. 
ayov '^T'ft^, he came, see yun". 
ayewam '^n^^Ji;, you came to me, see yun'^. 
ayewan ^-JT^I: I ^T^SBTTPI; f. the action of aiming. 

ayewun ^^^ i ^^^T'Pl conj. 1 (1 p.p. ayow" 
^T?iw), to aim straight at anything, to aim. 

ayey vr^^, they (m.) came, ayeye ^^?T, she came 
or they (f.) came, see yun". 

az 1 ^^ I ^^ adv. to-day (Siv. 1105); now, at the 
present time (Siv. 1287). -kal -cfiT^ | wnfH m. 
to-day and to-morrow, nowadays (Hindi qj-kal) (as 
a noun), -kali -^Tf% I ^TTffl adv. nowadays (as an 
adv.). -kbl' -qiTt5 • ^STT'gf^^ WT^ adv. id. -kalah 
-^T^Tf I ■<I"4ia»l*<N^^^f%^»ft«R'^ adv. to-day one 
time, only once to-day, doing a thing to-day only 
once (of eating, taking medicine, etc.). -kani -^ifsi I 
^^ TfT^: adv. perhaps to-day, about to-day. -kanen 
-efiajit. I WRfTi^TfT^ «IfT% adv. id. -petha -tji^ or 
-pethan -W3«i; l ^^ IWffT adv. from to-day, 
henceforth. — ratas — TTfl^ adv. to-night (Gr.M.). 
— SUb^han — ^fl. adv. this morning (Gr.M.). 
— shamas — ^jTJI^adv. this evening (Gr.M.). -tam 
-fiTii; or -tamath -mM^^ I ^raTTT^^i m:^^^ adv. up 
to to-day, up to now, still, yet. -tan -TTT'I (Siv. 738, 
1436, 1627, 1829), or -taneth -Tn'^r^ I ^^ra r(X^^_^ 
adv. id. 

aza-bod" ^si-^^ i ;?rn?f<T^ Tfrg^^: adj. (f. 

-biid'^ -'^T, sg. dat. -baje -'^^), great of to-day, 
a noiireau riche, an upstart. -bajer -^5?!^ I ^41r|«f 
Tif^f^ m. greatness of to-day, the condition of an 
upstart. -WOf^ -^g I ^^ inn: adj. (f. -wofe*^ 
-■!fT?t ) , arrived to-day ; having acquired complete 
knowledge to-day ; fixed for and occurring to-day. 

az' ^t? I '^^^ adv. even to-day, on this very day. 
-kali -wrf^l or -kbl' -grr^ l ^^ adv. even 
nowadays, in these very days, -petha -x?ra from even 
to-day, from this very day, henceforth (Gr.M.). -tam 
-jfTf^ or -tamath -ffFT^, or -tan -tit =5 or -taneth 
- HTSf^ I "^^^ rlT^rt, adv. up to this very day, even still. 
azyuk" -v^^m I ^RRni: adj. (m. sg. dat. az'kis 
■^t^t^iB; and so on; f. sg. nom. azic^ ^f^f^), of or 
belonging to to-day. az^ki-petha ■^t^f^-T^H I ^^ 
THrfil adv. from to-day, henceforth, az'kis '^t^t^^ I 
'^RI TR adv. m. sg. dat. to-day then (Hindi dj to). 

az 2 '^^ j\ prep, from (Siv. 650), where it governs 
the nom. 

bz ^5( f. a sec. sufE. used to form abstract nouns from 

substantives ; e.g. chanbz efTTTSl^ the condition of 

a carpenter (chan sTft) (see Gr.Gr. 143). 
OZ" ^^ m. N. of a certain bird of Kashmir (EL, who 

spells it anz). 
azab i—iMks- m. punishment, chastisement (K.Pr. 75) ; 

pain, torment (Gr.M.) ; torture, tyranny (L. 464). 

aza-babun"-trag ^^-^55--^t3i i -r^iptt^^ m. N. of 

a quarter of Srinagar on the east bank of the River 
Veth (Jihlam), below the Zaina Kadal, in which is 
situated the well-known Mahariij Ganj market. 

azic" ^aafgi^ , see az i. 

azad jl;' adj. e.g. free, unfettered. 

az6gu-y ^^J^ l irfflsrriTt f^%W adv. without being 
the least bit watchful, without looking out for 
or expecting at all, quite unexpectedly (u.w. vbs. of 
getting, etc.). 

az-had "^^-^ j^s-:! adj. e.g. infinite, immeasurable, 
beyond expression (Siv. 633). 

azbj" '^jarrw , see azol". 

azal 1 ^31^ J;^ m. eternity, abl. with emph. azalay, 
from eternity (Siv. 652). 

azal 2^51^ (= J=r^) ' 'ni?r»l m. fate, destiny (YZ. 216). 
-peth -xim I ^IH^^H'R: adj. e.g. soft, delicate, 
easily broken, easily torn asunder. 

az*l (? Jjx), used in the following : — karun — ^^i; I 
^T^ffY f'r^TH'm m.inf. to deprive a person of his 
share in the joint family projierty, to disinherit. 
— kor"-mot" — ^-»T^ I ^^♦TRrfw^^ftfi: perf. 
part. (f. — kiir^-mufe^ — 4^-fl^), disinherited. 

azoP ''ffaft^ I ^^tffi: adj. (f. azbj" ^aiT^), not 
burnt, not set on fire, not consumed (esp. of wood, etc.). 

azamil ^srrf'ra m. the N. of a certain brahman, in 
Sanskrit Ajiimila, who was very wicked and whose 
soul was saved at the point of death by the grace of 
Visnu (Siv. 1331). 

azmbish ,^L«;T f. temptation (EL). 

azamath ci^v^iit f. (sg. dat. azamiife" ^gpR^), great- 
ness, aggrandizement (K.Pr. 107). 

azmawun ^srnTf'!: ' ^*9T€:, xif^w ^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
azmow'^ ^^jft^), to try, prove, test (Siv. 530) ; to 
practise (a handicraft) ; to practise (wrestling, fighting, 
etc.), to try conclusions with ; to try, to tempt (EL). 

azmow'^-mot" ^?wtf-'TH i '^«rrl^ ^?fYirw. 

perf. part. (f. azmbw"-milb'^ ■^^JiT^-»Ti5), tried, 
tested; mastered (by practice, etc.) ; clever (EL). 
azan i^S\ f. the notification or announcement of prayer 
and of the time thereof ; the call to prayer (usually 
chanted from the turret of a mosque). It is 
whispered by a priest into the ear of a newly born 
child (L. 270). A Musalman word. 

For words beginning mth e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and for words beginning with u, fl, see under wu, wH respectively. 

azon" ^5ftT 




azon"-^^^ I ^TlTrf:, ^irfrf^ri^ adj. (f. azon" ^3JT^), 

unknown; unrecognized; ignorant, without knowledge; 
a foreigner, azan-poth* "^^si^-^Tt? I "^WTflK^TW 
adv. in an unknown way or manner, unexj)ectedly 
(u.w. vbs. of meeting, etc.). 

azin^ ■^^^, see azyun". 

azapa '^SI'?! f- a certain mantra or mystic formula, 
which is not uttered, but which consists only in 
a number of inhalations and exhalations (Si v. 104, 
983, 1426, 1489, 1512, 1689, 1789, 1847, 1881). 

azar 'R^T adj. e.g. not subject to old age, undecaying, 
immortal, N. of Siva (Siv. 935, 1586). 

azar ■^srrr }\^ l 'T^^q^^ m. trouble, affliction, esp. 
the pangs of a woman in childbirth. 

auzar y,^, decl. 1, an implement, machine (Gr.M.). 

ozar ^1%T l ^l*"!; m- vomiting. 

OZUT ^5(^ ji^ m. an apology, excuse; a defence in 
a law ease (Gr.M.). Another form of wozr, q.v. 

dz^ran ^T^ITI I *IfM<.fll f- bearing in mind, attentive 
consideration ; esp. jealous thoughts, envy, -gbz^ran 
-TT^T'l I ?^^'Tr IW'^ f- jealously counting and 
recounting another's possessions or family of children, 

oz^run ^^^5^ I jqrsuraniTlTi; conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
OZ'r" ^5r^), to bear in mind, attentively consider; 

to be jealous of, to envy ; to interfere in a discussion 
or dispute, -gbz^run -JlT?r?5'l. I ^-a «»| <it ^«| I (4*1 «nJT fi: 
m. inf. to jealously count and recount another's good 
fortune ; to intervene in a discussion and give, as it 
were, a judicial opinion regarding it. 
azarawun ^sjT^ i ^t\«^^ ^swifJi: conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
azarow" ■^RSJ'^^), to jealously regard another's good 
fortune, to be jealous of, to envy. 

azarawun'^ ^^f^^ 1 "^^fi^J^T^: adj. (f. azarawun'^ 

TSSr^cfSf ), of a jealous disposition, envious. 

azarawun ^fT;^ I qftt^^^^WfiT conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

az^row" ^oiT^), i.q. azarawun, q.v. 
azarawun" ^r^jj^^j i '^i^fx^: adj. (f. azarawun** 

^gn:^'^), i.q. azarawun", q.v. 
az^rawaner ^aij^sjT^ 1 ^«f5iij^^c^i^_ m. inability to 

bear another's success, a jealous disposition, jealous- 

ness, enviousness. 
azow" ^^j I ^^fTX!r7t (fmf^) adj. (f. azow" '^siTf ), 

not coagulated, not curdled (of milk, etc.). 

azyuk" ^^^, see az 1. 

azyun" -^sij 1 ^f^tri: adj. (f. azin" ^#^), not 

conquered ; unconquerable ; obtained without the 
necessity of conquering or subjugating. 


adj. e.g. a beloved (YZ. 28, 250). 

For words beginniDg witli e, i, i, see under ye, yi, yi respectively, and lor words beginning with u, u, see under wu, wu respectively. 

L 2 

B "^ SJ 

b ^ t_J. The first consonant of the Kiishmlrl alphabet, 
the twenty-third (or, if we count fe, bh, and z, the 
twenty-sixth) consonant when written in the Siii-ada 
or Nagarl character, and the second consonant when 
written in the Perso-Arahic character. It has the 
sound of the letter h in English. 

The Sanskrit aspirate sonant bha H does not exist 
as a pronounced sound in Kiishmlrl. When a Hindi 
or Sanskrit word containing this letter also occurs in 
Kiishmlrl, the bh *I is represented by b ^. Thus, 
the Sanskrit bhavati 'l^t^, he becomes, is represented 
in Kilshmirl by bovi ^f^. In the case of words 
borrowed directly from Sanskrit, the bh H is often, 
but not always, retained in writing in the Siiradii 
or Nilgarl character. Thus, the Sanskrit word 
Bhagavan ^t^i^tI,, a name of the Deity, appears 
in Kiishmlrl written in these characters both as 
'll^TI, and as ^aj^s^^, but the pronunciation is 
always bagawan. Similarly, the Sanskrit word 
bhakti »lttlf , faith, becomes in Kiishmlrl bakt^ '^^ 
and other related forms, although occasionally spelt H^. 
In the present work, whether a word is spelt in 
the Niigarl character with 7l{ or with ^, that letter 
will always be transliterated b, and hence words found 
in any native book spelt with "^ should be looked up, 
in the English order, under b. Thus, JI^I^T't, will be 
found, in alphabetical order, under bagawan. As 
a rule, spellings with H will not be indicated in this 
Dictionary, even in the Niigarl character. The 
principal exception to this rule will be found in 
the case of proper names, in which it is most usual to 
preserve the 5^ in native writing. Thus, the Sanskrit 
proper name Bhairava l|?;^, a name of Siva, will be 
shown in this Dictionary as bairav W(^)'^er. 

ba c_> , the Persian inseparable prep., with, by, for, from, 
in, etc. As in bakar .'^ , for use, serviceable. 
Cf. W. 99. 

ba 1 Ij, the Persian prep., with, by, possessed of, as in 
ba-adab, with politeness, politely. Cf. W. 99. 

ba 2 ^, an inter jectional suft". used in addressing males. 
It means literally ' brother ! ', and is employed as 
follows : — he naran ba, Nilriin, in addressing 


30 i 

a priest, a person of the middle class or a servant. 

If he is old, hata-so-he . . . ba or hata-ba-he 

. . . ba is used. If a woman addresses a man or 
a woman respectfully she says hata-ba . . . ba, or if 
addressing a familiar or junior, hata-ba . . . au or 
hata-ba . . . a, or when addressing persons by their 
proper names only, hata-ba . . . a-baye or hata- 
ba .. . a-bayau. Other words are often prefixed, 
as in ada-ba (v. ada), ahan-ba (v. ahan), and 
na-ba, No, sir. Cf. Gr.Gr. 99 £E., W. 101, and 
L. 279. For examples of its use see K.Pr. 49, 232 ; 
Siv. 1244. 

bai 1 ^T^, see bay. 

bai 2, m. a treaty (EL). 

bau, m. the forearm (EL). 

be 1 or be ^ or eg , ,__j , the Persian privative particle, 
prefixed to other words, as in be-adab, without 
politeness, insolent. It is equivalent in meaning to 
the Kiishmlrl suff. rosf* (q.v.). Although a Persian 
prefix it is also commonly employed, usually under the 
form be ^ , with non-Persian words, as in be-baye, 
fearless. For words commencing with this prefix see 
s.w. It is often used as a mere preposition, governing 
another noun, and meaning 'without', as in yilm 
be bahs, knowledge without argument (K.Pr. 216). 
Similarly, adverbial phrases, such as be sabab, 
without cause, causelessly. 

be 2 c~J , the name of the second letter of the Persian 
alphabet. Alif-be = a b c, the alphabet. 

bi f%, pron. adj. other, another. Tliis word is not used 
alone, but forms the base of the declension of byakh 
(bi + akh), q.v. Its dat. sg. beye or biye 
(q.v. s.v.) is used as an adv. or conjnct. meaning 
' moreover ', ' and ', ' also '. 

bo, bu 1, boe, or btie ^ , <-_yj f. odour, scent, 
fragrance (YZ. 9, 32 ; K.Pr. 89). 

bo 1 or bu 2, a poetical form of bdh, q.v. (EL). 

bo 2, m. a habit (EL). 

boi, boi, etc. These are common spellings in the 
Roman character of the word boy", a brother, q.v. 
(e.g. K.Pr. 34, 130 ; W. 18) ; similarly, bbi or bbi for 
the nom. plur. bby'. 

For words contaiiiing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bab 1 ^w 

— 77 — 

bob" ;>>? 

bab 1 ^ I fxiTTT ra. a father (cf. K.Pr. 1, 43, 156, | 
165, 255 ; Siv. 435, 1526, 1790), grandfather, or other ! 
ancestor, -wohav -Wl^ I ft^Wtli: m. vulgar abuse 
or imprecations uttered against a person's father. 

baba-dag ^^-^ir l fqHlft^: f- grief for the death 
of a father, -dag pin*^ -^31 W^ i fxraHTUTTmci: 
f .inf. the falling of grief for a father's death, a father's 
death (and the consequent grief) to occur, -dagal 
-^^^ I ^^TfTt^gifl'^: adj. e.g. suffering grief for 
such a cause, -hafear -?^^ I ftg^«Irn^t^: m. the 
want of a father, the disadvantage experienced by 
a bride or bridegroom not having a father alive. 
-pon" -^^ I fTTrTTTir^'^'l, in- sorrow occasioned by 
a father's death, -rost" -W I TflftfTcli: adj. (f. 
-riifeh" -■^W )) wanting a father, one whose father is 
dead, esp. one who is not yet grown up, and whose 
father has long been dead, -saver -^^TC I ft^TlT- 
STc^T^ m. a father's prosperity; comfort and luxury 
provided by one's father who is • still alive, -saway 

-¥i^ I f^5^f^: m. id. -ton'' -i^g i fq^«[T- 

T^^TJJ^ m. fatherhood ; acting like a father to another's 
child, -yetim -^<f^J^ l JTfjItjrl^: adj. e.g. one whose 
father died leaving him or her a child ; a fatherless 
child, a helpless orphan with no one to supply the 
place of a father. 
bab 2 «R I Wf: f. the nipple, pap, or breast of human 
beings, esp. of women (Siv. 1371) ; the udder or dugs 
of an animal. — difi.*^ — 'feal I 4^>^1]T^«I1 f.inf. to 
give the breast, to apply a child (esp. a crying child) 
to the breast, to give suck. — hSn" — 'gTaf I ^n?ixn- 
•TH^PtI: f.inf. to take the breast (esp. of a newly-born 
child), to suck the paps. 

baba-kbn" ^^-^jT^ l ^?;^^^ f. a woman or 
female beast suffering from obstruction of the flow of 
milk, -kauer -«BT'5r^ I *j>»l«f l^fsJTt^irf^siiTT: m. a 
certain disease, obstruction of the flow of milk from 
the paps, -kor'^ -^T^ I M«mu^5f*( m. the breast-orb. 
-way -^T^ I «d*l'*I'JT m. a severe pain in a woman's 
bosom ; caused by disease, or as a consequence of the 
unsatisfied longing of a pregnant woman. 

babi-tal hyon" ^fw-rr^r ^ i ^nqm^sin m.inf. 
to put to the pap, to give the pap to a suckling child. 
-ttiluk" -<T^ I M^v^^T^^: adj. (f. -taliic" -fT^l^), 

one who is close to the pap ; hence a suckling child ; 
also applied to very fresh milk immediately after it 
has been drawn from the udder, or (in the fem.) to 
the .stream of milk as it issues from the udder. 
-tyond" -?g^ l 'Sr^^iJ^ m. the nipple of the breast of 
a human being or beast. 
bab 1 4_;'j m. a chapter, section, division of a book (El.). 




bab 2 Wr^l m. a father (El.). Cf. bab 1. 

baba ^T^ \j\j I W^'-, ft'^f^: m. a father (esp. in his old 
age) (cf. k.Pr.''22 ; YZ. 79, 93, 126, 456), grandfather ; 
old man, sir, sire (respectfully), the head of an order of 
monks called Calendars (Qalandnr). Used principally by 
Musalmiins in this sense, but also, generally, by Hindus 
in reference to a religious ascetic ; hence, a respectful 
title given to any pious Musalmiin, as in Ildj'i Bdba, 
HiijI, .sir (K.Pr. 74). -zi -^ I ^'g^frf: m. 
a respectful form of address to a religious ascetic, 
Hindu (Siv. 555) or Musalmiin. Also used as a term 
of endearing address to children. 

babu '^^^ m. a gentleman of good family, esp. an immi- 
grant from India. In this sense it has a gen. babjTUn". 
Generally used as a prefix equivalent to our 'esq.', and 
as such is not declined (Gr.M.). Cf. baban. 

beb '^^ l ^^T^^T«f['?^HlT: f- the inside of a garment in 
front of the body, the inner fold of the breast of 
a garment ; the inside breast of the long gown worn 
by Kashmiris (K.Pr. 23, 29) used as a kind of pocket. 
The word is often used to signify generally the space 
between the body and the clothes. 

bebi hyon" ^f^ -^ i ^^T'ii^?'!?^ m.inf. to 

take into the bosom of one's dress ; to take a child 
to one's bosom, inside one's dress, to warm it, or to 
console it. -nar -•TTT m- fire in one's bosom. 
" Kashmiris whilst squatting on the ground in the 
winter time place their (portable stoves or) hangars 
under their long cloak next their skin. Give a 
Kashmiri his Ldiigar and he is perfectly happy. 
Hence tlie words bebi-nar come to mean without 
care " (K.Pr. 125). In the following it means 
exactly the revere, fire in one's bosom being equivalent 
to discomfort or pain, -nar lalawun -'srn: ^^^ I 

^fTl^TVT^iT'^: m.inf. to cherish fire in the bosom ; to 
feel trouble or sorrow on account of losses or calamities 
affecting oneself or those near and dear, -febt^ -t?Z I 
JTJrr^Iri: f. a loaf in the bosom, met. any hidden 
thing which, because it is hidden, is considered to be 
extra good; a reputation earned for being good at 
one's trade or clever at one's work (which therefore 
gives a man a certainty of a comfortable life or a 
perpetual loaf in liis pocket) ; u.w. ref. to harlots, 
a loaf (i.e. a means of earning one's livelihood) in 
one's bosom, something like the English expression 
" my face is my fortune ", but more indecent. 
bob" ^5 I W^^tT: m. a man, in appearance and dress 
honest and respectable, who deceitfully intervenes 
between others for his own profit, a calumniating 

For words containing bh, see uiidi-r b, See article b. 

bubbb ^WT 


bebosh" ^R^^ 

bubbb ^wi I ^^TFT' ™- tte name of the letter ba ^, 

used in schools. Cf. boy'-bo, tlie name of the letter 

bha H, under boy". 
beba-gara 1 Sir^-TIT l ^^T f. Ht. searcliing (for 

refuge) inside (another's) breast-cloth, hence fear, 

dread, apprehension, timidity. See beb. 

be-bagara 2 ^^r-^^j-n: i 'sutfs^f: adj. e.g. not cooked 

in oil, gin, or the like. Cf. abagor". 

bebagor" ssi^'ft^ I ^^«s%^: adj. (f. bebagbr" 

c?[^^Il^), id. 
be-bahs ^.S.-^sr^ ^ , without disputation, without contro- 
versy ; yilm be-bahs, knowledge without argument 
(i.e. without exercise), K.Pr. 216. 
be-buj^-'srw, ? m. want of discrimination, misgovern- 

ment, anarchy (K.Pr. 223). 
be-bakh xb ^ adj. e.g. without remainder, complete, 
paid up in full, (of an account) balanced, settled (Gr.M.). 
babal ^^^^ l ^^^T adj. f. possessing a large bosom, 

fuU-bosonied, high-bosomed. 
babil ^t^^ I t^^W^T^TPHI^: f- action like tliat of 
a father, showing a father's affection, esp. of one who 
deceitfully pretends such affection. 
babul'* ^^ I txi^^^^T'!!' adj. (not used in f.), one who 
acts like a father, or shows a father's affection, esp. of 
one who deceitfully pretends such affection. 
bobali, f. a well (El.). 
bubul J-J m. a nightingale {hulhal) ; bubula-rost", 

(a garden) without a nightingale (YZ. 46). 
bubul" f^^ I JlfJU^f^^'^: m. a large kind of jar used 

for holding grain or the like. 
babuna or bobuna ^'^\> '^- camomile ; camomile 
flowers; Matricaria cliainomiIIa{E\..); Cotuia anthelmintica, 
an indigenous medicinal plant, stomachic, and good 
for rheumatism (L. 75). 
be-buna «?f-'5»I -iUj ,_j l '^51^: f. (lit. absence of 
foundation), uon -production, e.g. of crops failing to 
germinate, or of profits not accruing from one's work. 
— kariin" — ^■q^ 1 f^^Tlpm; f.inf. to destroy utterly, 
annihilate (a person's entire wealth, crops, profession, 
or the like), lit. to cause non-existence. 
bebun" 3^5 1 ^*r^^»^^'^5R: m. the becoming non- 
existent of some article of general use, such as grain, 
money, or the like. 
babau ^l^^ f. a lady of respectability, one of good 

family. Cf. babu and b^r^ka. 
babar (? spelling and gender), a kind of good white rice 

(L. 463). 
bab^r ^5»-^ or babur" ^t4^ 1 tvm\ f. fluster, flurry, 
agitated haste in doing anything (Gr.Gr. 122, Siv. 633). 
— pen" — W^ I ^>TOTT?T<t: finf. flurry to occur. 

bab*ri-bab»ri ^T^f^-^f^lT 1 ^rf?T^>?^ adv. 

hurriedly, flurriedly. -hot" -Wg I ^»^?n^^: adj. (f. 
-hiife" -^^), hurried, flvirried. 

babur" ^^^ 1 i^g^-Jn^: adj. (f.bab"r" 1 w^^), young 

and well-conditioned, stout, stiirdy, healthy, sound in 
wind and limb, a hero. 
bab"r" 2^^^ I ^clTf^^^:,'^T^(%^-)g^Wt f- a certain 
plant, the sweet basil, the Persian rihan (cf. El., 
K.Pr. 155, YZ. 565, Siv. 1691). For bab"r" 1 see 
under babur". 

bab^ri-byol" ^f^-s^g 1 ^jnf^^^'^^'l m. its 

seed, used as a cure for dysentery and other abdominal 
diseases, -dan -^s^, I -^Jif^^: m. the name of a dark- 
red or purple Aye for cloth, etc. -dan* -^'^ I 
TTlf^^T'S^'^fl' adj. e.g. dyed with this colour. 
-lund" -4t!|^ I ^f!Tf^^T1T f . a twig or small branch 
of this plant. -kath -WTH I 5frnf^t^(%^g^Wt) - 
jjteh^jlJ^T m. (sg. dat. -kathas -^3^), the dry 
wood of tliis plant, used in the worsliip of the god 
Bhairava (Siva). 
bubur ^^ I f 3;^: m. (sg- tlat. bubaras y^T^ and so 

on), a bubble. 

bab^rUad WT^fr^ 1 ^'^Jrgw: adj. e.g. (as subst. f. 

bab^riladin ^t^tr^f^"^). flurried, flustered; one 
who is by nature, or from fear or the like, easily 
flurried or flustered. 
babarun ^f^«i: 1 ^J^WJi: conj. 3 (2 p.p. babaryov 
^"j^^'g), to be flurried, to be flustered, babaryo- 
mot" crNiff-»Tg I ^*Jini: perf. part. (f. babarye- 

mufe" ^^"^-'T^). flurried, flustered. 
bubararay ^WTTT^ i ffX*^ ^- °' "^^i^l^le, esp. the bubbly 
foam of fermentation, etc. 

babarawun ^f^T:!^^ I ^^nsfft^WJi; conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

babarow" «(t«)0^)> 'o cause a person to be flurried or 

flustered. babar6w"-mot" ^f^g-^g I ^'jR^tt- 
^Tf^ri: perf. part. (f. babarbw"-mub" «lt^^TW-»T'^), 
flustered or flurried by somebody's action. 

bubaray ^^T^ I ^l[^'l f- the foam or bubbles of 
a waterfall or of a spring issuing from its source ; the 
saline efflorescence drawn forth from the earth at the 
commencement of rain, from ant-hills and similar places. 

bobus" <ft^^ I ^iMifl^r^^^: in- a small earthenware 
vessel, the size of a slop-basin (K.Pr. 139) ; a small 
hollow earthenware bomb, with a little orifice at the 
toj). It is filled with gunpowder and other ingredients, 
and when ignited emits showers of sparks (Hindi, andr). 

be-bash ^-^1^ I iWTVrRf^: adj. e.g. one who, when 
engaged in any act, does it without care and attention, 
and perfunctorily. Cf. bash. 

bebosh" ^^t^ I ^ir?n^"R: adj. (f. bebbsh" szrtw ), id. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See luticle b. 

be-basti ^-^^ 

- 79 

becha or beche i t?f 

be-basti ^-^^ l ^€fHw1"'Tfrr f- the condition or state 

of being uninhabited (of a country, village, or house), 

uninhabitedness, vacancy. 
babath^T ^^^ i j^'^^: m. a brother's son, a nephew 

(cf. Gr.Gr. 133). 
be-baye «!r-^^ l f'n^^: adj. e.g. without fear, fearless; 

wanting in reverence. 

beboy" s^r^g i 1%«t?t: adj. (f. bebiiy" ^^), id. 

baca 1 or bace 1 ^^^ <i2sr l "^^m: m. (often written 
bachih in the Roman character, as a transliteration 
of "t^), the young of any animal, e.g. W. 129 (a colt), 
K.Pr. 240 (a sparrow-chick) ; esp. a very young 
infant (K.Pr. 23). bal-baca (-bace), children 
(Gr.M., Siv. 1051). baca-dar -^T I ^^l^ adj. 
f. possessing cliildren or young ones ; pregnant, with 

baca 2 or bace 2 ^^ l »r^^: m. a dancing-hoy, a male 
professional dancer, who dresses in women's clothes ; 
with suff. of indef. art. bacyah ^^TTf (&iv. 1724). 
-nag^a -•fr?? I 5I7T<*«11*IH m. the entertainment of 
singing, music, and dancing, given by one of these 
dancing-boys and his attendants, -pother -TT'I^ I 
•TrT^iWfTT: ra. the profession of such a dancing-boy. 

baca 3 ('bachah'), m. (?) the prey (of a kite), K.Pr. 
65. (Not noted elsewhere.) 

bic' f^^, see byuc". 

bic" f^'f, i.q. byuc", q.v. (of. K.Pr. 250). 

boc" ^^ I '^I'^in^: m. (sg. dat. bocis ^Tt%^), a man, 
generally a Brahman, who lives upon what he can get 
in the way of gifts, and is ignorant of any trade or 

baca(bace)-bath ^t^-^ i HT^THf:, ^Ttfff!: m. 

(sg. dat. -batas -^^^), a Kashmiri Brahman who 
lives by officiating as a priest. His wife is called 
baca-batin ^T^-wIZ'^, q-v., or the following : see 
L. 302 for the fliree of Briihraans in the country. 

bacabath-bay ^t^^-^t^ i »rRTHf^, grtf^rT^rr- 

fa^^^ f ■ the wife of such a priest-Briihman ; a woman 
of the priest-Brahman caste, bacabath-dor" «(|-q«li- 
^^ 1 ^T^fiafHTTW: m. a collective term for tlie priest- 
Brahmans of Kashmir ; a general term for all the men 
of this caste, bacabath-ton'^ ^T'^^Z-Wtg I t^Tttf - 
(<I<4IMI<: m. the condition or state of life of a priest- 
Brahman ; hence the circumstances of any other 
professional man who lives in comfort. 

bacabatil ^'^tz^ I n^Ttffeim: f. the profession of 
a priest-Briihman ; the body of rules and customs 
practised by him in the of his profession. 

baca-batin ^l^-^fz^^ l g^frff a^ f . the wife of a priest- 




bacha ^w. bache ^m, bachi ^fif {hachhih of K.Pr. 7, 

23, 163), see biith^ 2. 

bache ^la, sec both". 

becha or beche 1 ^^ m. alms, in the following : — 

becha-becha %i^-^^ l fH^^T^f^: m. the condition 
of living on alms, the profession of a beggar ; begging 
as a last resource, -becha lagun -^^ "5f1^ I fii^- 
^IT'J'IjT: m.inf. to be so reduced to poverty as to he 
compelled to take to begging for alms (of one formerly 
rich), becha-bokuf^ ^W-f f 3 i fw^ 1^1^: m. ' an 
alms brat ', a child sent out to beg by some one (usually 
too proud to beg for himself) who lives on the alms 
received by it. -bana -^Tf I t^'WT^T'R; m. a beggar's 
wallet or platter in which he puts the food received bj^ 

him as alms. Cf. bechanas bana under bechun 
and bechan-bana bel. -bata -^ti i t^^'^g^J^ m. 

food received b}' a beggar or set apart to be given 
as alms, usually cooked rice, -dana -^^ I f>T^T^- 
(^'r1W*1H ™- wealth accumulated little by little, and 
by means of severe economy, as the result of begging. 

-hara -fir i f^'^if^fTV^'m f. id. -kath -^i 
t'P^lfiT^TST^f^: m. (sg. dat. -katas -^iZ^), ' a son 

of alms,' a boy who, although well-to-do, out of 
sheer greed is fond of begging (in a way that brings 
disgrace) from others, and especially from people of 
low caste, -kiit'^ -^Z I f^Sf^^T^St f- (sg. dat. 
-kace -^'^), the fem. of the preceding, a girl who 
has no hesitation in begging from people of low caste, 
and thus bringing disgrace on her family, -myond" 
-MJU^ I fH^T»i1'«l»1H ni- an alms-morsel, cooked rice 
given in alms, -myond'^ afeun -«n^ ^^i; I fv[^\- 

»ft^»n?^T€n?n'?[. m.inf. the alms-morsel to enter, to 
take to begging (of one who has once tried begging, 
and found it so suitable to his temperament that he 
takes to it as a profession), -phol" -T?!'^ I fH^Tf^fTT- 
g^T^^; m. alms-grain, a store of grain realized by 

bechan-bukur" ^i;-^^ I fH^W^f^: ni. a face 

for alms, impudence in begging, -bana -^TT I tJT^- 
4!m«IH ™- a dish for alms, hence a beggar's stock-in- 
trade of articles used in begging ; met. a habit or 
custom of begging, -buth" -^^ I f»T^T^VT^»i; m. 
a fate for alms (cf. buth'' 1) ; the condition of having 
one's fate that of being a beggar ; a face for alms 
(cf. buth" 2), impudence or audacity in begging (even 
when the beggar is not in need), -gara -IT I f*!^- 
5i^?^ m. an almshouse, a place where alms axe dis- 
tributed regularly, a monastery at which there is free 
distribution of food, -kuth" -^Z I fir^m^Wi: m. 
(f. sg. nom. -kuth*' -gi3, dat. -kuche -JIEI), an 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

beche 2 ^wi 


bacun ^^*t. 

alms-room, hence one who makes a regular practice 
of giv-ing alms, -kothul" -W^ I f'l'^'ir^^: adj. 
(f. -k6th*^j" -U^W), a confirmed beggar; one who 
will not give up the profession of begging even when 
he has a chance. 

beche 2 "^s, see behun or bihun. 

biche f^^ , see bith or bith". 

bocha ^W I ^*T^T f- often pronounced and written 
boche ^m or bochih, or in the Persian character 
&^^ (YZ. 402), hunger (Siv. 1584). -bocha -^ I 
^ >| x4| ^ iq: f. telling of one's hunger, crying out for 
food when starving. — karlifi" — ^f^ I 5?J^¥^' 
f.inf. hunger to be experienced, the feeling of himger. 
— lagun'^ — ^'Pf I ^f^^^: f.inf. hunger to be 
attached, the arising of a feeling of hunger (K.Pr. 71). 
— mariin" — J?T^ l "^^TT: f.inf. hunger to die, 
hunger or appetite to pass away owing to its long con- 
tinuance. — Isalun" — ^W=f I ^t^frr: f.inf. hunger 
to flee, one's hunger or fast to be broken by getting food. 
bochi ^flf (often spelt ^^), sg. dat. and abl., as in 
bochi-sUtin ^f^-^fTTi: (dying) of hunger (YZ. 408) ; 
putra bochhi, in hunger (i.e. ardent desire) for a son 

(K.Pr. 174). bochhi-gata ^f^-Jiz i ^ffTf^'^ f. 

hunger-darkness, extreme hunger, starvation. -gata 
wasiin^ -JR ^^ l ^fTTW^T^TVftl^: f.inf. the 
pangs of starvation to be felt, the experiencing of the 
pangs of starvation. -hot" -f H I W^T^Tf cT: adj. (f. 
-hiib"-^^), smitten by hunger, starving (YZ. 410, 
W. 113)." -hafear -f^ l '^^?T?^h; m. the being 
smitten by the pangs of hunger, starvation, -led 
-^^ I ^(^tUf^w^i: adj. e.g. conquered by hunger; 
hence, one who cannot stand being hungry even for 
a short time. — marun — H^i^ to die of hunger 
(K.Pr. 120). -rost" -T^ I f^fffT: adj. (f. -rulsh« 
-TW), free from hunger; as an adv., without hunger, 
wthout being hungry, u.w. vbs. of eating and the like. 

b6ch'» ^ 1 ^^1^: adj. (f. boch" f^), hungry; 
m. sg. d"at. boche ^^ (K.Pr. 35). 

bachih, see baca. 

bochakar ^T^T"^ I ''Jf^If JRT m. extieme hunger, 
usually employed with reference to a suckling child. 

bechun ^^t; i T^^'[ conj. 1 (1 p.p. byuch" ^ra^), to 

beg, to go daily from door to door asking for alms 
(K.Pr. 29, 191); bechan-wol'^ ^Wl-^^. ^^ beggar 

(L. 458) ; inf. dat. bechanas bana ^f^ ^r^, 
a beggar's pot in which he collects food (K.Pr. 29), 
cf. becha-bana under becha. 

bechani nerun %^1i| %^i^ i f^r^TU^t^: m.inf. 
to go forth to beg ; hence, to take to the profession 
of begging. 


bdchun ^^^ i ^r^^^wr^'W: conj. 3 (2 p.p. bdchov 

«rW^)> to become or be hungry. 

bocho-mot" ^r^t-^H I f tITT: perf . part. (f. boche- 

miife" ^if-JT^ ), hungered, ready to eat anything. 

buchun ^n, I <ai»iH conj. 1 (1 p.p. buch" ^), (of 

a snake, scorpion, etc.) to bite, to sting ; (of a 
beloved's hair compared to serpents), YZ. 35, 205, 
265, 507. buchana yun" ^w^ f^^ I ^s^»l^^n 
m. inf. pass, to be stung ; hence, to be stung or terrified 
by the memory of some former grief, pain, or calamity. 

buch'^-mot'* ^-^ I ^: perf. part. (f. buchh"- 

miib'^ 5^"''^)' l>itten, stimg. 
bechanawun ^1^511^*1; 1 fH'gif^vm'R; conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

bechanow" ^lf«fr^), to set a person to beg; hence, 

to reduce a person to beggary. 
bbchin •^^fw^ I ^F^T5lTfi;(t%T-)^'lT f- a female, esp. 

a cow, a long time after giving birth to a child, or 

after calving, who is consequently fat and in good 

condition, but with a diminished flow of milk. 
bachera ^i|?: 1 ^"grf^iftTi: m. the male young of an 

elephant, horse, or ass ; a colt. The feminine is 

bachir', q.v. 
bachiri ^^^^ | ^^if^ij^ffi^T f. the female young of 

an elephant, horse, or ass ; a filly. Cf. bachera. 
bocher ^10^ 1 ^fTIf »jfgfT«^»i: m. hunger, esp. a sharp 


bochatur" ^^g^ 1 j'ftSfrT: adj. (f. bochat^r" f^f(^), 

food for the hungry ; hence, a child adopted by one 
who has no children of his own, and to whom tender 
quasi-parental love is shown. 

becha wun" ^^WJ 1 fw^: adj. (f. bechawun"^^^), 

a beggar, esp. a professional beggar, a mendicant. 

buchawun'^ ^5? i ^1 '"• (f- buchawiin^ ?^^)' 
an animal (such as a serpent) that bites or stings ; 
met. one whose words are sharp and stinging, a 

bechyov ^s^^, see behun or bihun. 

bacun ^^^r; 1 T'^Txif^: conj. 3 (2 p.p. bacyov ^^^), 

to escape, be saved, preserved (Siv. 1299) ; to be 
saved, spared, set aside, remain over. Cf. Gr.M. 
bacan-har ^'^i^-fT^ 1 ^t^r^HT^:, qft;ftr^»TTT!r: 
adj. e.g. one who escajies, a survivor, long-lived, 
persistent ; that whicli remains over and above, or 
remains unused. bacan-pay ^^«t^-xrr^ I Ti^'JT^: 
ra. a means of escape or of preservation, etc. bacan- 

wol" ^'^5i(-^^ I ^nirTf^-('3^^1^-)^w^: adj. 

(f. -wajen -'^T^Sl'^), one who escapes or is about to 
escape ; hence, of one who has been passing through 
great danger, and who it now seems probable will 
survive, bacyo-mot" ^^-^g 1 TTTTT'^^: perf. part. 

For words containiug bh, see under b. See article b. 

bacuri ^'g^ 

— 81 

bad 1 jb 

(f. bacye-miifc" W%-jt^ ), escaped, saved, preserved ; 
remaining over and above, etc. 

bacur' ^^1^ i ^f%^ f. (sing. dat. bacore ^^t^), 
a young girl still in its mother's arms, a babe, a term 
of affection. 

bacur'^ ^^ i ^j^w. m. (sg. dat. bacuris ^^It^, pi. 
dat. bacoren ^^^it;), a young male child still in its 
mother's arms, a babe, a term of affection. 

be-cara j^.U- ^: adj. c.g„ i.q. becor^ q.v. YZ. 408 and 
frequently in the Persian character ; used as a subst. 
its dat. is becaras (K.Pr. 1-36). 

becor" or bicor'^ f^t^ (= j^U ,_j) i WK.1W. adj. (f. 
bicor" f^^T^), without means, without resources, 
destitute, unfortunate, wretched ; a helpless person, 
a poor wretch. 

bicar or bicer ^V^ i ^fT^lT m., i.q. bicer, but also of 

the hands, etc., after touching grease or greasy food, 
bicer 1%'^n^ l %^TW^ m- greasiness, the condition of being 

smeared with grease (e.g. a pot which has held ghi, etc.). 
bicur" 1 f^^ I ^^'T^f^^^: m. the fringe of hair or 

side locks worn by young boys. 
bicur" 2 f^^ I (»n:iT^)^f^rfW^: m. a certain bird, 

the skylark {?). 
bac^ran ^^^^^t, I l^^^'ni: m. a means of escape, a device 

for safety. 

bac^run ^'^t, or bac^^rawun ^^[^^ i ■^^^thh conj. 
1 (1 p.p. bac"r" w^ or bac^row" ^=^[^5), to save, 

preserve, cause to escape, protect ; to save, set aside, 
keep what is over and above ; caus. of bacun, q.v. 

bac*row"-mot" w^^^-iig 1 qf?;Tnf%fi: perf. part. 

(f. bac*row"-mufe*i ^^tV-??^), saved (by some 

one), caused to be preserved, caused to escape ; saved up, 

stored up (of a surplus). 
bicis f^f^, etc., see byuc". 
bacath ^^ f. (sg. dat. bachufe** ^^1^). savings, 

surplus earnings (Gr.M.). 
bacaw ^^T^ I T^NPti: m. preservation, salvation, 

deliverance ; protection, defence, refuge ; guarding, 

screening, cloaking. 

bacawun ^^T^ 1 Tjfi;f|^j!f*i^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. bacow" 
^^^), to save, preserve, rescue, deliver, protect; to 
set aside, put or lay by, save, spare, leave over and 
above ; to reserve, keep back (a part of anything) : 

i.q. bac*run, q.v. bac6w°-mot" ^^g^j-jT^ 1 fgf^- 
•^^: perf. part. (f. bacbw"-mufe*^ «jg-T|r-»?^), saved, 
preserved, rescued ; saved, put by ; kept back, reserved. 
bacawun'i ^^^ • ^^'l' ^ftftT^Tr'ii: adj. (f. baca- 
wun" g-ilq^), one who escapes or survives, one who 
is saved ; that which is reserved, set aside, laid by, or 
remains over and above. 




bacyah g'^nf , see baca 2. 

bacyov w^ftw, see bacun and bakun. 

bad ^ Jo I ^ini^: adj. e.g. bad, evil, wicked, vicious, 
K.Pr. 163 (f. sg. nom.) ; inauspicious, unlucky. As 
m. subst. a wicked person, a bad man, K.Pr. 157, 23 
(sg. dat.), 157 (pi. dat.) ; evil, harm (K.Pr. 242) ; a wild 
pig (L. 117). -bakhHi -^jft j^^i^. I ^"^H^i^n^ 
f . misfortune, bad luck, adversity, misery, wretchedness. 
-bakhHh -g^^^ ci-virji-j 1 fsp^jn'Ji: adj. e.g. (as 
subst. sg. dat. -bakh^tas -gfTT^), unfortunate, un- 
lucky, wretched, miserable. — dua Uj Ja ra. a bad 
prayer, a curse, an imprecation (for gend. see W. 18) 
(W. 110). — hal JU- Jo m. a bad condition, bad 
state (W. 110) ; as adj. in bad circumstances, in evil 
plight. -kar -^TR: jI^Jo I ^TT^TT* adj. e.g. acting 
evilly, wicked, sinful, dissolute, licentious. -kori 
-^JXt i_sj I^aj I ^T-«)<U!H f . a misdeed, wickedness ; 
profligacy, licentiousness. — karun — '^^'t. m.inf. 
to make bad, to disable (EL). — nam *lj Jo m. a bad 
name, ill repute (K.Pr. 157) ; as adj. of bad name, 
infamous (W. 110). — nazar^ Jo f. the evil eye 
(K.Pr. 55). —shekel jLi, Jo adj. e.g. iU-formed, 
deformed (Gr.M.). -etikad jlibcl Jo adj. e.g. mis- 
trustful (Gr.M.). — yun" — I^J conj. 3, evil to come ; 
yes mahanivis biy^-sond" bad yiyi, to what man 
the evil of another will come, i.e. the man who wishes 
evil to another (K.Pr. 242). 

bad g^, great, in compounds, such as the following. 

Cf. bada and bod". Bad-gom" ^-afrj I ^HTH^- 
fg^: , ^fSTi: m. a large or important village ; the 
name of a well-known village about 10 miles west of 
Srlnagar (cf. El.), -gom^ -JITt?» I ^TiTTf 3lf%^>i^: , 
IWT^^* adj. e.g. of or belonging to a large or 
important village ; of or belonging to the village of 
Badgom". Badshah ^LiJo m. the great king, used 
as a proper N. referring to Zainu'l-'abidln, the eighth and 
greatest of theMusalman rulers of Kashmir (K.Pr. 261). 
-sherwar -^^TT; l gil^TRWlf^^W: f. a certain astro- 
logical period. A man is bom under that Zodiacal 
sign in which the moon happens to be situated at the 
moment of his birth. Taking that sign, together with 
the one immediately preceding it and the one im- 
mediately following it, the period of 7\ years during 
which the planet Saturn is passing through these three 
signs is that man's had-sMncar. Thus, suppose a man 
is bom under Aries, his bad-shiricar is the 7| years 
during which Saturn is passing tlirough Pisces, Aries, 
and Taurus, -watharu -g^^ ni. a large rice-field 
(L. 463, where it is spelt bad wattni). 
bad 1 jb (Persian impve.), let it be, may there be, in 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 


bad 2 ^? 



phrases such as apharl bad '^H'SVf ^5 "i^ cM/^ ' 
may there be applause, may there be praise (Siv. 655). 
bad 2 arr^ l -^art^^:, ^H^: m. venereal disease, 
syphilis (El.); also, a noisy downward breaking of 
wind. — ^pakun — il3i«i; I Tj^t«i:?ff?T: m.inf. the 
breaking of wind with noise. — pen^ — w('l I ^M^Sj- 
■'(Y'i^^' 111. pi. inf. syphilis to occur ; — peyi-y, 
may syphilis attack you ! an imprecation (K.Pr. 147). 

bada-paj> ^^-lit? ' ^^i^^i^tTT: f- the 

spreading of sj'philis through a man's body, con- 
stitutional syphilis. 

bbd'-hath ^^if^-f^ i ^xj^gnttr: f- (sg. dat. -hiifc" 

-^^ ), an attack of syphilis. 

bad ^f^, in the following : -bid -^T? 1 ^^: '^: BfTWl 
m. repeatedly urging, pressing, or insisting upon. 

bad ^^ I ^^TEf: m. a jester, buffoon, mime, strolling 
player, actor, dancing-boy (Gr.Gr. 10). See L. 312 
for an acoovmt of these people. — lagan^ — ^T1^ I 
•nZ^ft^T^TJl m. pi. inf. to employ buffoons for an 
eutertaiument, to give a theatrical display with hired 

bada-begbri ^T^-"%^t^ i ^^^tt ^T^^fi*i: f. 

jester's forced labour (K.Pr. 200), doing a thing with 
an outward appearance of enjoying it, but inwardly 
hating it, like a professional clown acting with 
a breaking heart, -bay -Wl'^ I ^^>4M1 f- the wife of 
a buffoon ; a professional actress, -jesh^n -3i^J•^^ m. 
a banquet or festival at which there are buffoons for 
the amusement of the guests ; with suff. of indef . art. 

-jesh^'nah -sinpnf (Siv. 1705). -kar -^-^ i ^^- 
ma m. the actions of a buffoon ; stage-acting. -kot° 
-^^ I ^HM'Idl^: m. (f. sg. nom. -kUt^ -cRj , dat. -kace 
-^i^), a buffoon -brat, a boy-actor who dresses as 
a woman, and takes a woman's part in a play ; (in the 
fem.) a buffoon's daughter, an actress, a dancing-girl, 
a light o' love, -pother -TT^ I 1T^H«(^tI m. acting 
■ (in a drama) ; the profession of an actor. 
bada ^'^ l ^tTnTzrii: adv. very much, in a great degree, 
very ; too much, too, excessively. Although generally 
an adverb, this word is also not infrequently used as 
an indeclinable adjective, synonymous with bod°, 
and meaning 'great', 'much', etc. See Gr.M. s.v. 
—bad — ^^ 1 TT^nJ'n, ^^tITT f1%: f- steady 
increase, esp. of opposition, dislike, or a disease. — bod" 
— W^ I ^tHUfTI idj. (f. sg. nom. — biid* — -sfj^, 
dat. — baje — ^^W), very great; greater (than some- 
thing else). — bud^ bab — f ^ ^ I Trfxramf: m. 

a paternal great-grandfather, sometimes a maternal 
great-grandfather, —bran — W«^ | ^'^^^: m. 
a certain large forest tree, with a hard wood, probably 





a kind of elm. Cf. bran. — dabar — ^^T''^ (cf. 

Arabic .4jt>, the west wind), m. a wind which blows 
from Barilmiila, and drives away malaria (L. 465). 
— gnla — 5^ I '^t^f^f^^: m. a certain plant ; it 
creeps along the ground and is used medicinally 
as an internal styptic ; cf. gnla in L. 76. — gUT' 
— ^r^ I fJTWr'ai'?^«rr conciliation by false 
promises, or offering false expectations. — hihur" 
— f^5^ I H'a^T- m- a granilfather-in-law, a husband's 
or wife's grandfather, the father of a husband's or 
wife's father or mother. — hohawnr" — 5W^ I 
xr^^"<<M^: m. the family of a wife's maternal 
grandfather. — hohawar'-bay — Sf^^-^T^ I 
*?T^rf»TTg^^t?(^ f. the wife of the son of one's 
wife's maternal uncle, the wife of one's wife's cousin 
on the mother's side. — hash — ^ I Tl^^: f. a 
wife's or a husband's paternal or maternal grand- 
mother, a grandmother-in-law. — matamal — ^TIT- 
JTT^ I TRTTTflTO^T^ni: m. the home of one's mother's 
maternal grandfather. — matamal-pokh" — JTT- 
«!T5RT^-TT^ I JTT^flTfTmiq^: m. of, belonging to, 
coming from, or related to one's mother's maternal 
grandfather. — nan — ^n^ I TTfxTfnJT?^, TTJTTfJT- 
JTf^ f. a paternal or maternal great-grandmother. 
— nyov" — ^'^ I ^^■^[tjTin;^ m. the esculent water- 
lily, Nymphcea lotus. Not necessarily the wliite- 
flowered variety. — pran — TTT'l. I ^^^5)^: m. 
a kind of wild onion. — shal — ITT^ ™- oi' kamrazi, 
the name of a violent wind blowing from Karnao 
(L. 465). — tynth" — ^ l tjl^f^'^: m. a certain 
bird, described as small and black, with a very long 
tail. — wbriv^ bog" — ^if^t? ^5 ' 'T^TTfiUTi^^- 
^^7^: m. the nuptial present given by a bride's 
parents to the bridegroom's maternal grandparents' 
relations. — woryuv" — ^ffTf I *lflTfTT*?ft^: m. 
the home of a husband's maternal grandfather. — zag 
— 51JI I cfl^^t^^: m. a kind of rice ; pale red in 
colour, a good cropper. — ziig'^r*' — ^iar^ I VJ^- 
f^T^: f. a kind of paddy, or rice plant, producing 
a light-red rice. — zyur" — fsr^ I wtT^f^^: m- 
a coarse white cumin-seed, used in medicine as a 

badah ^TTf = bada, with suff. ah giving sense 
of indef. art. Often written bada in the Roman 
character ; e.g. khan bada, a big tray (K.Pr. 103). 

bada, see badah, s.v. bada. 

bada ^t^ m., in bada kanin ^t^ ^^«i: i PT!iiTf?TfrR»l i 
m.inf. to settle, establish, a bargain, etc. ; to agree to, 
to promise. 

badai, badoi, see badby^ 

For woids containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bade ^T% 

83 — 

bod" 1 


bide ^f% I ^T^taTiiJiiif: m. one, esp. a callage elder, 
who thinks himself a great man, whether others agree 
with his estimate or not ; a man with a good conceit 
of himself. 

badi ^f^, see bod" or bod", 

badi ^^ i_jJo I TltTJ^^rfJT, ^<M<C!H, f- badness, wicked- 
ness, ex-il, ill, mischief, injury, misfortune. — gafehuia" 
— IW"^ I ''•I'TST^f^: f.inf. badness to happen, going 
wrong, turning out badly. 

badi ^if^, in badi gabhun ^tT^ w^\ i (?;7ii-)f5nftv- 

f^WtZ^^^: m.inf. ' to occur by stoppage (of the flow 
of blood) ', i.e. the black swollen bruise caused by 
a blow or the breaking of a limb. 

bed 3^ i.q. bid, q.v. 

bed 1 ^5, ^^, or bid ^^ m. separation, difference, 
distinction (manz, between) ; bid karun ^^ ^i^'l, 
m.inf. to distinguish (Gr.M.). 

bida-nyay €t^-(or H^-);qT^ m. the system or 
belief in duality, as opposed to the Vedanta system 
which maintains the unity of God and the universe 
(Siv. 1816). -rost" -W adj. (f. .rufeh<* -iw), free 
from duality, non-dual ; N. of God, who, according to 
tlie monism of the Vedantic school of philosophy, is 
one with universe (Siv. 1077, 1865); one who is 
a follower of Vedantic monism, and repudiates duality 
of the Deity and the universe (Siv. 1567). 

bed 2 ^^ f. (sg. dat. biz" <^5I , and so on), secret or 
hidden virtues or resources (of) ; secret, mystery. 
— kadui." — ^^'I I ^T'JTT^^T'W f.inf. to extract the 
secret ; to a.scertain the real reason, j^urport, or object 
of anything ; to find out the real motive. — naniin*' 
— •I^"5} I ^T^rrf^HT^i f.inf. a secret to be naked, the 
unveiling of a mystery ; the real purport or object 

to be discovered. — nan^riin" — ^^r^ I 'rart^- 

¥lf^«f7^ f.inf. to unveil a mystery, disclose the real 
purport or object of anything. 

bed 3 Jlo m. a willow, in -mush*kh -^IJ^ cJLl,, Juj I 
« jmr«t^H : m. (sg. dat. -mushkas -^l^^!^), a certain 
plant, the musk- willow, Seilix capren, from whose flower 
is produced an essential oil much used in perfumery 
(L. 77) ; Salix JEgi/ptiaca (EL). 

bedi %f^, in bedi gafehane ^f^ Tff^ I fM^S^H^ft 

f. pi. inf. to be ensnared, entangled, impeded. 

bid f^'^ or bed 055 f. in the following. — marUJa*' 

— i \ K^ I ^I^TTf^: f.inf. a thing to turn out as one 
• desires, to one's secret pleasure but to one's outward 
dissatisfaction. — mariin'* — ^^'^\ ' ^S^^J'n f.inf. 
to interfere in some business undertaken by another, 
so as to make the result to suit one's own wishes. 
bid ^^, sec bed 1. 



bdd 1 ^f I 5^: m. (voc. bdda ^^, Siv. 478), the 
planet Mercur>-. 

bod-war ^-TT^ I g^^TTrar: f. Wednesday. Cf. 
bodhwar in'V. 100. 
bdd 2 ^ m. the Buddha (Siv. 861). 

boda-bror" f ^-wt^ i ^ n^m T^ m. the Buddha 
incarnation, the founder of the Buddliist religion, 
counted by Hindus as the ninth avatdra or incarnation 
of Visnu. -khor" ^^ I ^^^'ra^: m. (f. -khiir** 

-^■^) , a wise lotus ; as a term of affection applied 
to a good, intelligent, boy or girl. 
bdd 3 |r^ I jf^: f. (sg. dat. bBz" 1 W^ , e.g. ^iv. 881), 
intelligence, reason, discernment, judgment, under- 
standing, reasoning power (K.Pr. 25, 125 ; Siv. 42, 46, 
182, etc.). — kariin" — ^t;^ i ^f^xj^^^'iT finf. 

to apply discrimination, to apply one's mind (to). 

bbz"-breth ^-t3 I ^fl"'^: adj. e.g. (as subst. 
m. sg. dat. -bretbas -^Z^), intellect -foolish, one 
whose intellect or sense of right and wrong has been 
injured or destroyed. -gah -anf I ^flTT^rnT- ni. 
intellect - brilliancy, clearness in exj)lanation, or in 
seizing the point of anything, -manzar -I'W^ I 
^^JTT'^l'^ HI. slowness of intellect, feebleness of 
intellect, unintelligence. -rost" -^^;^ I ^fl^i: adj. 
(f. -riifeh'* "^^)' without intellect, stupid. -wan 
-TTi; I ^t^»?Ti;adj. e.g. wise, sensible (Gr.M., Siv. 995). 

boda ^^ I ^^^ij: adj. e.g. unintelligent, stupid 
(= Hindi haudh). -gafehun -Tffi I ^^»i«(«IH m.inf. 
to become stupid or a fool, owing to some mistake 
or forgetfulness. -kiin" -^aT I qf^irnJI^^f^^^: f. 
a foolish stone, a weight which weighs too much, 
i.e. more than it is supposed to weigh. 

bod' ^^ I '^^t c^g. a prisoner in jail, a convict, -hal 
-?T^ I ^«l1T^ra: f. (sg. dat. -hoj^ -^f YZ. 384), 
a prison-house, a prison, jail (YZ. 385). -hol' -fT^ I 
qiT?T«T^: m. a jailor, -wan -WTi; I ^^T m. a jail, 
prison, -wan lagun -■^^^ w^ 1 ^itct^to^^i: 

m.inf. to be impiisoned, to go to jail, to be sentenced 
to imprisonment, -wan lagun -^T'l ^TJ'l. I ^^T^lt 
fi)^5J«i*(^ m.inf. to put in jail, send to jail, sentence to 
bdd" 1 |r|- I t^ftrsf^gw: adj. (f. bbz*^ 2 j(%), wise, 

intelligent, quick to understand, esp. of children (Gr.M.). 

bod'-breth ^^-%^ 1 ^•ral^: adj. e.g. (as subst. 
m. sg. dat. -brethas -WZ^), without intelligence, 
stupid. -yech -"^^ I ^^HfTt%^: ni. a wisdom- 
demon, a certain yakm or demon believed to have 
possessed persons in former times, and to have turned 
their intellects upside down, or to have inspired them ; 
also u.w. reference to a wise person lapsing into 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

M 2 

b9d"2 f| 

84 — 

bod'' ?Tf 

forgetfulnesB, or of a fool unexpectedly doing some- 
thing intelligent. 
bod" 2 ^f or bod" 1 ^f I ^fs^'v: m. (f. boz" 3 ff^or 
bUz" ^5j ), a handful of leaves, twigs, grass, etc., held 
together in the hand, as in haka-bod", a bundle of 
sjMnach (Gr.Gr. 145) ; any similar bundle ; in reaping, 
the handful of rice-straw cut by the sickle (L. 328, hudv) ; 
used as a suffix with the numerals 100 and above, it 
implies plurality, as in hata-bod" f rf-^, by liuncbeds ; 

sasa-bod" ^^-^7, by thousands; lache- (or lacha-) 

bod" ^50-^5' , by hundreds of thousands (see Gr.Gr. 1 44) . 
In this sense it is generally, but not always, employed 
in the pi. As an example of the sg. we have lache- 
badi ranga, in a hundred thousand forms (Siv. 1522, 
20, 32, 51). For the pi. we have hata-baza wata 
(f.), hundreds of ways (Siv. 1626) ; lache-bad' sasa- 
bad' sas dyar, wealth by hundreds of thousands, by 
thousands of thousands (Siv. 952 ; so 952, 1436 fern., 
1519,1545,1912). El. spells this word iam?. — kanin 
— i^%*\ I 4liit|i^<n^<1H ni.inf. to grasp stalks, twigs, 
grass, or the like in the hand, so as to tie up the part 
below the hand with a string, etc. (e.g. in making 
a posy) ; to gather up the edge of a body-cloth, etc., 
into the hand. — phirun —fqi^?^^ | ^^rft ^T^^'^ITJ?; 
m.inf. to tie a person's hands behind his back. 

badi anim ^f^ ^\ I ^^fftf^'^wt^TWl m.inf. 

to bring into the hand ; hence, with reference to some 
action or thing which is lost or in disorder, by diligent 
search or arrangement to put it in the way of accom- 
plishment, to put in good order. — kadun — ^^"l^ I 
^WTfH*j<^ <*<,'l!H m.inf. to extract from the fist ; 
hence, in reference to any concealed thing, requirement, 
action, or the like, by means of arguments, etc., to 
make it manifest, and to wield it for one's own purposes. 
— khanin — ^sTT^'^ i ^^^^rnxn^T'i; m.inf. with 
reference to any intricate or unintelligible thing or 
action, to explain it according to one's wishes. 

bod" 2 ^7 m. a sec. suff. used with nouns of relationship, 
as in sona-bod" CO- wifehood ; pit*r'-bod", fatherhood ; 
bby'-bod" or bbj'-bod", brotherhood, commensality 
(see Gr.Gr. 144 ff.). Cf. bod" 1, with which it is 
probably connected. 

bod" ^ 1 JTfTT, adj. (f. biid" 4f , sg. dat. baje ^m). 
(In the Roman character this word is usually written 
by others bod, but sometimes (e.g. K.Pr. 125, 128) 
bud. The f. is often written bad, a transliteration of 
Ij , for ^), great, big, large (in size) (K.Pr. 144, 168, 
188, YZ. 201, L. 458, W. 20, Siv. 859) ; great (in 
quantity or degree) (K.Pr. 125, of a pain ; Siv. 655, 
of favour) ; great, grand, imposing (Siv. 120); great, 


important (K.Pr. 125) ; great, loud (of sound) (YZ. 
571, Siv. 725) ; great, superior, famous, excelling (K.Pr. 
62, Siv. 671) ; great, rich (K.Pr. 33) ; great, mighty, 
powerful (K.Pr. 170, W. 155, Siv. 10, 158 (voc), 159) ; 
great in dignity (K.Pr. 23, 24, 33, 80, Siv. 36) ; great, 
noble, munificent (K.Pr. 33) ; great, chief ; elder (of 
brothers) ; (pi.) one's superiors. Often used instead 
of bada '^^ (<l-v-), qualifying another adj. with the 
sense of ' very'; in such q^ses it agrees with the adj. 
in gender, number, and case (Siv. 427,687 ; cf. Gr.M.). 
It appears as an adj. suff. in words such as kbdfca- 
bod", very fearful, timid (Gr.M.) ; paye-bod", of 
great dignity (YZ. 25, 240, 543 ; cf. badi paye bel.). 

The following forms may be noted : masc. sg. nom. 
bod" (bod, bud) (K.Pr. 28, 33, 62, 125, 170, 188, 
239 ; L. 458 ; W. 20, 155) ; dat. badis (K.Pr. 20, 24, 
YZ. 240) ; abl. badi (K.Pr. 144) ;' voc. badi (Siv. 
1236), bady-6 (YZ. 543) ; pi. nom. bad^ (YZ. 25, 
571) ; f. sg. nom. biid" (bad) (K.Pr. 33, 80, 168, 
YZ. 201, Siv. 869) ; dat. baje (Siv. 1136) ; abl.baji 
(K.Pr. 24). 

badi ^f% I ^(a^^^TTj adv. greatly ; with a great 
(voice), loudly, u.w. vbs. of speaking, teaching, and the 
like, —badi — ^f^ I ^^%: adv. very loudly. — bod" 
— 4f I ^tTTIffTi: (f. sg. uom. —biid" — ^^, dat. 
— baje — '^^), "^"ery great, very large ; greatest of all, 
supreme (Siv. 580). -bagawan -^(»T)l^T't m. one 
who is fortunate in possessing much ; N. of the Deity, 
the All-Possessor, Siv. 158 (voc), 1216 (voc). -bala- 
SOSt" -^^-B^ adj. (f. -siiteh" -flW). possessing great 

might (Siv. 1259). 


a great day, on a festival 

— l[f I ilWrfg^ adv. on 
see bod" doh above. 

— dohok" dob — f f^ if I J?fTWTf^ adv. id. (lit. 
the day of a great day). — pala — TJ^ I ^ITi: adj. e.g. 
lifted up, elevated ; high (of a price) ; high (in 
honour) ; high (in generosity) ; and in similar 
meanings. — pbth*, — pbthin — inl?, — iTTfeli; I 
TffT^T adv. in a great manner, to great extent, 
greatlj', u.w. vbs. of giving, spending, etc. — paye 
— m^ I ^?T'ftr*^'Je*: adj. e.g. provided with much 
assistance, provided with ample means or materials for 
doing anything (cf. paye-bod" ab.). 

bod" dob ^^ If I 4jfc(c(^: m. a great day, 
a holiday, a festival (K.Pr. 28) ; a long day, a day of 
the spring and summer seasons, when the sim is north 
of the equator. — day — ^ ra. a great god ; N. of 
Krsna ; voc. badi-daye (Siv. 1383, 1487). — hyuh" 
— tfl I ^Tt^iJ^: adj. (f. biid" bish" ^^ ff ^), greatest 
of all, greatest, used as a superlative of bod". — karun 
— ^^"l^ m.inf. to make great, increase, augment 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bud 1 ^ 

85 - 

badaharer ^rafrarr 

(anything) (EL). — mahanyuv'' — »Jff5T^ I '^nSTSRt 

m. a great man, either owing to wealth or jiosition. 

— maz — JTT?! ni. beef (El.). — pahan — ^fT^ I 

l^^'JTlT^raw: ni. somewhat great, a little greater (than) 
(Gr.Gr. 9*3). 
biid" ^^ 1 5Rffft f., see ab. —jay — g(T^ i ^ft^w- 

t^fi^: f. a great place ; a place terrible through wicked, 
sinful practices, etc., such as a haunted burning-place 
or the like. — moj" — TT^ I ^f^f'T'f^ f. the big 
mother, the senior lady of a famil}^ who manages the 
household affairs. 

boduy qff^ (fem. biid^y ^f;^) = bod", with 
emph. y, even great, exactly great, verily great ; K.Pr. 
33 (m.), 23 (f.) ; Siv. 428 (m.). 
bud 1 «r^ I tJM*!.; irar^: m- learning, knowledge, 
wisdom, intelligence derived from study ; ocular 
evidence, direct perception, apprehension of the senses; 
knowledge, perception, understanding, apprehension 
(Siv. 1812, 1850) ; cognizability, visibility. — gafahun 
— TW1 I ^Tt^l^: , ■RW^^^TWfl: m.inf. intelHgence, 
or the critical faculty (from study, etc.) to be produced ; 
(of something hidden) to become visible or cognizable 
by the senses. — karun — «li^»i; I HrtJ^'^^'U^ m.inf. 
to make manifest, make visible or cognizable (of some- 
thing hidden). 

buda-wol" ^^-^"^'5 I ^'i^: m (f. -wajen 

-eJTall^), learned, well instructed, intelligent. 

bud 2 "Sf^ adj. e.g. wise, vigilant (Siv. 1812). 

bud 3 J»j became, came into existence, the past participle 
of the Persian hudcin, to be. With emph. y, buday 
(Siv. 1521). 

bud 4, Malacochwte pedinata (EL). 

buda ^^ I ^rf^: adj. e.g. old, aged, of a human being, 
beast, tree, etc., K.Pr. 36, 121 (sg. abl.) ; an old man 
(or woman), K.Pr. 36 (pi. dat.). Cf. bud", —ail 
— ^^ I T^^mi<!ir<4$<4* f- a kind of cardamom, bearing 
a large seed. — badam — ^T^TJl I TTWr^^Ri^rf^^^: 
m. a kind of almond. — brang — sT'T I f^'^TT^^f^I 
m. ' an old minaret ' ; met. an ugly, tall, fat, silly old 
man. — dala — ^ I ftl^fTf^: adj. (f. — dul" — ^^), 
a lecherous old man or woman. — drfikh'^r'' — ^%.^ I 
^rff^T^f^Wr^ f- an old hag ; a withered, feeble, ugly 
old woman. — gofi" — TT^ I fT^WTT f- an old harlot, 
a woman, a harlot in her youth, who still endeavours 
to practise her profession in her old age. — khor" 
— ^T^ I ^'t^iqTf^^'^; m- a certain round-leafed swamp 
plant much \alucd as food for cattle. Cf. L. 71. 
— kul" — gi^ I 9ii^T$5^: m. an old tree, a withered 
tree even though young, a prematurely old tree. 
— pin — xf^T I T^lTf^TWfTT: m. the birth of a child 


in old age (of women or cattle), -pinuk" -'R^'^ I 
^TfWT'TOW^: adj. (f. -pinuc'* -tJ^?!^), a child born in 
the old age of its parents. — tatur" — ^^ • f^lftB^tt: 
m. (f. — 1111%*^ _^'^), 'an old withered'; a vile, 
slanderous old man or woman. — fehawul" — |b|<|v| | 
JT'S^l': m. (f. — fehaw"]'" — ^^rw), 'an old goat'; a 
foolish old man, a dotard, an old man who is felt as 
a burden bj^ his relations. — wal — ^T^ I %fITr^: 
m. ' old hair ' ; grey hair, white hair. . — zaz — 5|5| | 
'^f?!<^T!r; adj. e.g. ' an old ancient ', a very old man, 
even whose eyebrows and e3'elashes are white. 

bud" ^^ I 1^: m. (f. sg. nom. bud"^^, dat. buje ^511), 
an old man (K.Pr. 87, 127, Siv. 943) ; (f.) an old woman 
(YZ. 241) ; cf. buda. For exam, of buji (f. sg. ag., 
etc.) see K.Pr. 80, W. 142, YZ. 247, 493. -rud" 
f W'^ I 1^1^: adj. (f. sg. nom. bud"-rud" ^1^-^^, 
dat. buje-ruje c^sg-^g^), a jingling repetition of 
bud", old people and the like, i.e. old people, the 
helpless, the unfortunate, and the like. 

bud'-bab J^-^ I f^lflTIf : m. a father's father, 
a paternal grandfather (L. 460) ; also used for a 
mother's father, -poth^ -^it^ I Wt%T«li^W adv. like 
an old man, after the manner of an old man. 

buie-buth" ^W-^T l ^'iTTi: m. a j'oung man 
who has a face like an old woman's ; i.e. whose face is 
shrivelled and wrinkled. 

budu (L. 328), see bod" 2. 

bedab ^^ l •^^l^rriffJi: adj. e.g. ill-shapen, ugly, 
ungainly ; clumsy, awkward, unmannerly. 

be-adab t_jjlc=-^ ^^l- <^g- ^vithout manners, rude, 
insolent (Gr.M.). 

badad ^^^ (?j1aj), in — anun —^51: I "sqfTrfwt- 

qf^rp^; m.inf. to oppress or buUy a person by comiielling 
to do something which he does not wish to do ; to 
distress or interrupt some one engaged on any work by 
making a needless noise. — yun" — 1^1 1 ^x^i^H^T'^ 
m.inf. to be bullied, oppressed, or distressed, as above. 
Cf. bedad. 

be-dad j1Jc="' adj. e.g. unjust (EL). 

bodagi Wt^'ft' I ^^I^Wf^: f- want of intelligence, 

bad-gom" ^^-^^, see bad. 

bodager '^^'^ I 'H^f^^: ni. the name of an ancient 
site to the west of the Pradyumna-giri or Hara-j)arvat ; 
a well-known hill lying north of the city of Srinagar. 

badahor" ^^fY^ I ^^W- adj. (f. badahor" ^^fj^), 

spotted, brindled, variegated, of a dirty black colour with 
here and there clean or white spots scattered over it. 
badaharer ^^^l^<, 1 im^c^ii; m. spottiness, a brindled, 
spotted, or variegated state or condition. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b, 

budij fl^a^ 

86 — 

badun ^^^r; 

budij gf^sr, see mush*kh. 

badiij^-miifc* «i^^-jTi|^, see badol"-mot" under 

budakh ^^^ i ^^f'TJi^^T'r*!: m. (sg. dat. budakas 

W^^^), flickering, of a flame; flickering, fluttering, 
of breath, breatliing that at one time exists and at 
another time is almost stopped, like the flickering 
of a flame. — din^ — t^t^ I ^gT«Tf'Tl»?1^»ft^'iT 
m. pi. inf. to give flickerings, to be at the point of 
extinction of a flame ; to draw the last flickering 
breaths of a dying man. 

badal ^^^ J^j or bad*la ^5f aIa^ m. (abl. sg. 

bad^la W^^ a)Jo, see bel.), change, exchange, 
alteration ; recompense, return (YZ. 428) ; requital, 
retaliation, retribution, revenge ; used as postpos. 
governing abl., in exchange for (K.Pr. 70) ; as a 
substitute for, instead of (K.Pr. 155, Siv. 910) ; 
instead of, like, as it were (Siv. 1243). — dyun" 
— t^J m.inf. to exchange (EL). 

bad^la ^^^ a! j>j , see ab., used as adv., in exchange, 
in revenge, etc. ; also as ^rastpos. governing gen., dat., 
or abl, = badal (Gr.M., W. 97). — hyon'' — fi? I 
^^flfft^T- ni.inf. to take revenge, to take vengeance. 
— karun — es^si. m.inf. to exchange (Gr.M.). 

bidil ^1ft%^ I ^^ni^f%: f . the profession of a bSd or 
actor, etc., q.v. 

bedol aS|xj^<f| I ^'^li: adj. e.g. shapeless, hence mis- 
shapen, ill-fashioned, ugly, clumsy ; ill-mannered, ill- 
bred, uneducated, loutish. 

b6d*la ^^^ I 'T^TS: adj. e.g. intoxicated, senseless 
under the influence of an intoxicating drug. 

bbdil ^Tt^^^ I ^"^IT^^^fT: m. a jail-officer, a turnkey. 

budal W^5J I ^^^i: adj. e.g. wanting sense or 
discrimination, one who commences to converse without 

budld" g^g I 3[T^t%^^: ni. a kind of tree, the 
Himalayan silver fir, Abies Wehbiana. Its timber is 
used in house and household carpentry (L. 79, 80). 
El. calls this hailar and butkir, and also gives budal as 
meaning ' fir-tree '. 

badalad ^^^ I ^i^^ipctlT^rrnT: adj. e.g. (as subst., 
f. badaladin ^T^^f^^lJ. afflicted with venereal 
disease (bad, q.v.). 

badalun ^^^^i; i 1%1%?n?: conj. 2 (1 p.p. badol" 

^^1, f. badiij'' ^<(\), to be changed or altered 
(Gr.M.) ; to change, alter, vary ; to be changed, 
transferred, removed, exchanged ; to be transformed, 
transmuted. badol"-mot" ^^^-»Tg I t%f^Tt»Jri: perf. 
part. (f. baduj'^-inufe" ^^ -?t^"), changed, exchanged, 
altered, etc. 

badalawun ^^ifl I l^f^^r^: conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

badalow" ^^^^)> to cause to be changed or 
altered ; to change, alter, or vary anything, etc. ; cans, 
of badalun, q.v. Cf. also Gr.M. badal6w"-mot" 
^^^5 -?Tg I 1%fnf^«T: perf. part. (f. badalow"-mub'' 

sTff^Xl' -Tf^ )' caused to be changed, etc. 

badalawan ^^^^"5? i t%f^^^^?^ f. the price of 
exchange, the difference paid on the exchange of 
articles of different value ; e.g. when an old article is 
exchanged for a new one of the same kind. 

badaliyeth ^^f%^ f. (sg. dat. badaliyiife" w^^j^^), 

a condition of cliange, a changed condition, trans- 
formation (iSiv. 1704). 
badam m'^ ^^\j I T'raT^'n^^'i; m. an almond, cf. 

badam. -ph.ulay -^^ I TT5rr^i^frrf%^T^: f- the 

almond-blooming ; the beauty of a garden in the 
early spring, in which, as is common, rows of almond- 
vines are in blossom. 

badam ^T^T*l >^^'V ' il^l^'IMi'slH ni. an almond, 
i.q. badam, q.v.' Cf. EL, so YZ. 478. -guj' 
-lt^ I ■^TWT^'S'SHI K^ f- an almond-kernel ; met. (of 
a bride, or the like) a girl of good family. -sh.ira 
-iftr I TT«rr^1T55lT^: m. almond-juice, a milky 
liquid made by pounding almond-kernels in water, 
used medicinally as a tonic. — shirin ^.jf^ /•^jlj 
m. the sweet almond (L. 458). — talkh -J^' |«bl> 
the bitter almond (L. 458). -tyo^" "^ ' l^^^if^^^ - 
m. the name of a tilak or mark put upon the forehead, 
triangular in shape but with a round base ; a person 
marked with such a tilak (f. -tec" -'51^ ). 

badimi ^-^Jft l »Tf t^ f- greatness (cf. Gr.Gr. 141), 
esp. u.w. reference to the exercise of generosity or the 
Uke. — hawun" — fT^ I *<1t=IH^^'RR: finf. to 
display or proclaim one's greatness by word or deed. 

badom^ ^l^^ i_f»^^^V • ^l^^l^: adj. e.g. almond- 
coloured, hght-brown ; as subst., the colour light- 
brown, or a cloth or other similar article dyed 
that hue. 

badun ^^n, I f1%:, ii^T'm;, ^f^npni»iconj. 3 (2 p.p. 

badyov ^^sft^), to become large, become big, get big 
(L. 461) ; .so, bata badyos, I am become big 
through (eating) food (K.Pr. 26) ; to become bigger, 
increase in size (K.Pr. 173, Siv. 1462, of love) ; to 
become extended, lengthened ; to grow, rise, increase 
in age (K.Pr. 119) ; to grow up, become of full age 
(K.Pr. 71); to swell (as a stream); to be raised, 
elevated, exalted (K.Pr. 33) ; to grow tall ; to spring 
up fast and in quantities (of crops), to become rank 
and luxuriant ; to rise, be enhanced (of a price, or 
prices gen.); to go on, set out, proceed, advance; 

For words coataining bh, see under b. See article b. 

badun ^T^'i; 

— 87 

bodur" ^^ 

to go out, be extinguished from want of fuel (of 
a flame, or fire), badan-wol" W^i;-Tt'g I ^^tTT- 

^fl'^:, H^l«n^fh: n. ag. (f. badan-wajen ws^- 

--^j^"^), one who keeps increasing, who increases 
gradually and regularly ; one who is about to set out 
or go ahead on a journey, badith asun ^f^ "^SffWl I 
^^ft^lfiimf^: m.inf. having increased to be ; hence, to 
be prosperous, in good condition, to be excellent (as 
a man's qualities, learning, wealth, or reputation). 

badith behun ^f^ ww^ I t^f^nTt^T^'m m.inf. 

to increase and sit ; lience, to give up anxiety 
(regarding any matter), to be at ease, without care. 

badith rozun ^fs'^^ ''Ttfl i ^TfwmfrT: m.inf. 

having increased to remain ; hence, to acquire and 
retain a reputation for increased greatness (of wealth, 
good qualities, etc.). badyo-mot" ^^-vlg I ^fl'- 

^tjiht:, irf%?T:, i!lw{: perf. part. (f. badye-miife" 

^^-TW), increased (e.g. in age, size, wealth, extent, 
etc.); advanced, gone forward (on a journey); ex- 
tinguished (of a flame). 
badun W[%^ or bradun WTf'i; conj. '.i (2 p.p. badyov 

^"rat^ or bradyov WT^^), to become powerful 
(Gr.Gr. Iv, 175). 

be-din ^^.j^cH ™- *^ infidel (El.). 

bodun ^st; I Ji^'T?^^ conj. 2 (1 p.p. bod" ^^ ; 2 p.p. 
bojyov ^irfft^), to dive, to sink, drown, be drowned 
(K.Pr. 121 ; fig. Siv. 1582) ; to be immersed, sub- 
merged (lit. or fig.), inundated ; to be destroyed, 
ruined ; to sink, go down (of the sun) ; to be at the 
bottom of a hole ; to sink down a pipe, be carried 
away ; to sink in sin, be a sinner ; to sink in debt, be 
overwhelmed with debt. K.Pr. spells 1 p.p. htiff. 

bodan-wol" ^^^i^-^^ I t^^T^Tjiir: n. ag. (f . bodan- 

wajen ^^sj^-^rW^), one who sinks, etc. ; hence, 
anything wliich naturally sinks in water, or easily runs 
down a pipe, or anj'one who is naturally prone to sin, or 
readily gets badly into debt, and so on. bod^-mof^ 
^^-^T^ I Jlf^nr: perf. part. (f. sg. uom. bbd"-mub" 
^-*r^, dut. boie-mafae "^^-Tf^), sunken, immersed, 
etc. (Siv. 1629). 
budun 5^ I 5R:T^^Tf?T: conj. 3 (2 p.p. budyov 
<N^fl), to become old, to reach old age (of animals 
or trees, etc.), cf. Gr.M. and K.Pr. 22, -56, 65, 
12;3, 234. — abun — ^ft, I W^T^^'^xrt^fTT: m.inf. 
to enter old age, to become old ; esp. to become 
old before one's time, to become i^rematurely old. 
budyo-mot" ^^-'ig I ^^^Wrfwr^ perf. part. 
(f. budye-miife" ^^-»i3), one who has become 
old ; one who has become old before his time, who is 
prematurely old. 


budana ^^l l ^l^lt^^f^- "i- '-^ certain bird, a kind of 
wild duck, the gadwall, Chniiklasrmis strepertis, good 
for the table (L. 129). Probably i.q. El.'s fmdim, 
a bird which is said to migrate to Ladak in the hot 
season and to return to Kashmir in the cold season. 

bedana-t*l «i<i«»-(i:^ (cf. ^b,™i) i ^tirerf^^TC m. 

the fruit of a sjiecies of mulberry (cf. El. s.v till). 

bedana - t4a - kul" ^g^M - f(^5T - ^^ , the special 
mulberry-tree which produces this fruit (see El. s.v. 

badanawun ^t^tr'^. conj. 1 (1 p.p. badanow" 

^T^»ft^), to cause to become powerful (Gr.Gr. 175). 
bodanawua ^^stt^i; I f^»iwr»^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

bodanow" W^'ft^) , to cause something (that does not 
naturally sink) to sink, to dip, immerse (Siv. 67) ; 
to submerge, drown, flood ; to lose, waste, exhaust, 
sacrifice, ruin. Cans, of bodun in all its senses. 

b6dan6w"-mot" ^^^^-^rg I f^mt^m: perf. part. 

(f. b6danbw"-miife" ^^TTf-fl^), sunken, immersed, 
etc., by anyone. 

budanawun ^^gTT^'^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. budanow" 

^;g«ft^), to cause to grow or be old (Gr.Gr. 175). 
bud*n-neng ^^-^^ii ^^q^rniT»^ adv. in old age, 

in the period of old age. 
badar 1, the Himalayan silver fir, Abies Wehhiana, see 

badar 2 ,jo adj. e.g. out of doors, outside. — karun 

— ^5^»l^ m.inf. to turn out, expel, reject, repulse. 
Cf. El. badar, repulse. 

badar ^T^TT l '^ST: adj. e.g. rich, wealthy, opulent 
(lit. and fig.). 

badbri ^T^[rO l '^TSTrlT f- opulence, wealth (lit. and fig.). 

bedar =!r^TT i^-^^dj- e.g. awake (K.Pr. 25, YZ. 47) ; 
wakeful, sleepless; watchful, vigilant, alert (of. El.). 
— karun — ^^'l. I ^^sffl. m.inf. to awaken from 
sleep ; fig. to awaken the intellect, arouse ; attract 
attention. — gabhun — TW1 I ^^^TfjT- ni.inf. to be 
aroused, awakened from sleep ; to have the intellect 
aroused ; to have one's attention attracted, to become 

bedori, bedbri sjr^TT^, ^^T^, u^^J^ ' ^ITWI f- 

waking, wakefulness ; vigilance, watchfulness (Siv. 198). 

bid%" '^5'^ I TJ^Tf^^T f. a bag ; wrapper, cover ; esp. 
a large baU or wrapped up parcel of silk, valuable 
cloth, etc. ; cf. Hindi Udri and Persian i .ja . 

bbdiru, m. (EL), i.q. bbdripeth, q.v. 

bodur" ^ (f. bud^r" 1 ^^), in —dad — ^f i 

efij^ra'^JT: m. a bull of a brown or tawny colour. 
bud"r"-gav ^^-ttt^ I ^ItRiT ^'. f- a cow of the 
same colour. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

budur 5^T 


bddeshdr ^>v'^ 

budur ^T I 'Jt^f^^^: in- (^ kind of bird, said to 
frequent the lakes north of Kashmir, and to be not 
quite so large as a goose. 

budar-kon" f^T-^j i TrT^ft^:, ^t^Ttif^^: 
m. a certain bird, described as shaped like a sparrow, 
but with a long beak and tail. It dives from a height 
and catches small fish. A certain distressing disease of 
the eyelids, accompanied by swelling. 
bud*'r" 2 ^^ I TTlf^"^^ f- the act of painting or 
stamping coloured pictures or patterns on walls, cloth, 

etc. — khar"n** — ^^TT^ I g^ ^f^^rsrit; f.inf. to 

raise painting, to apply paint ; esp. to paiiit the face 
(e.g. of an actor) ; to paint, as a practical joke, some 
one who has been rude enough to go to sleep in public. 

bad-rad wanun ^-T^ ^g^i. I ^fTTT^Wl m.inf. to 

use abusive language about or to an opponent (either 
before his face or behind his back). Cf. Persian 


bad=^rkal ^^^BT^r or (Si v. 1174) badrakoli v^^bt^ 

m. a village where there is a temple of Bhadi'akiill 

(RT.Tr. II, 489). El. calls it Badrigul, and states 

tliat it is in Macliipor Pargana. 
bodrimawas ^if^^TR^ I W^H^flTWT^lT f- the day 

of the new moon of the month of £dd"r(ipefh (q.v.). 

KnSa [Poa cynosuroides) grass is collected on this day 

and worshipped. 
bad^ran ^^'5|;»l^ i ^'^•m; , ^JT•I»^ f. the act of increasing 

or making greater, or spreading abroad, anyone or 

anything ; the act of extinguishing a flame (Gr.Gr. 

121). — gabhiiii" — Tf?"^ I ^xj^^qf^: f.inf. to 

increase (of anger, disease, hatred, or the like, owing 
to measures taken with the contrary object). 
— kariiii" — ^T^ l f^^rrT;T!n finf. to cause to spread 
abroad, to cause to increase (esp. of anger, hatred, 
disease, or the like, in spite of and owing to measures 
taken to reduce it). 

bad^nin ^^^^ i ^^f»^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. bad"!" 

^^), caus. of badun, q.v., to make to increase, 
esp. (of a human being or animal) to nourish, cherish, 
bring up ; atha bad^run, to stretch out or thrust 
out the hand, to join in hand-to-hand combat, see 

atha. bador^-mot" ^^-^rg i ^f^\ perf. part. 

(f. bad"r°-mu1s" ^^^-?T^), "of a human being or 
animal, brought up, nourished up, and now of full age. 

bod^ran f^TI I t^JT^sw: f. the act of causing 
some one or something to sink, of dipping, immersing, 
drowning, flooding, etc. Cf. bodanawun. 

bod^ran ^TS'^'t, l %q^ f. plastering, applying a 
plaster of ordinary lime-plaster or of mud mixed with 
chaff and chopped straw. 



bbd^run ^rf^si; i %xt^;r conj. 1 (1 p.p. bbd^r" ^ff^), 

to plaster (a wall) ; genl. to prepare a house, make it 
ready for habitation (Siv. 1065). bbdor^-mot" 
WTfl-JTa I t%TT: (f- bod"r"-mufe" ^V^^-??^), 

plastered (of a wall or the like). 
badranjboya, m. (El.) Nepeta mdem/is. 

bad^rapeth ^t^^tji^ or bbdripeth ^l^iim I ^IT^I- 
^mw. m. (sg. dat. bad^rapetas ^T^T^f!?^.), the 
name of a month of the rainy season, corresponding to 
August-September, the Sanskrit Bhadra-pada, and the 
Hindi Bhado (K.Pr. 128) ; used also as the name of 
groups of small boils which commonly affect people 
in the rainy season. bbdripetuk'^ ^t?^^^ I 

HT^^^ra^'^ adj. (f. bbdripetUc^ ^jf^a^), of 

or belonging to the month Bad^rapeth. 

bad*ra-pith ^?:-Tft^ I H^TO^n m. (sg. dat. -pithas 
-Ml<i^), fin auspicious seat; esp. a riija's throne used 
on ceremonial occasions, and a god's throne in a 
temple or other sacred place (cf. L. 161). 

bad^rawan ^?:'R'l. I ^>5»Hi; f. the act of causing to 
increase ; (of things, qualities, or acts) encouraging 
the growth, spreading abroad, increasing by accumu- 

bad^rawun ^^-^^t^s^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. bad^row" ^^^tj), 
to bake bread or cakes over hot coals (Gr.Gr. liii). 

bad^rawun «|^?;tji; i ^tj^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. bad*r6w" 

W^"^^), to cause to increase, to make larger (Siv. 
1885) ; (of things, qualities, or acts) to encourage the 
growth, to spread abroad, to increase by accumulation ; 
to cause to grow up, bring up. bad*r6w"-inot" 

^^5-?T5 I TRf>5fi: perf. part. (f. bad*rbw"-mufc" 

^^TT^-Ti5 ), caused to increase, made larger, etc. 

bod^rawun ^^ttt^s^ i f^ji^Hi^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. bod^- 

row"^ ^'^T^)) to cause to sink, dip, immerse ; met. 
to cause to sink in sinful acts, to debauch, bbd^row"- 

mot" ^^Ttj-flJ I t^flf^TT: adj. (f. bod°^rbw"-mub" 
^^■^;7^-?r^), sunken, immersed (by some one) ; met. 
debauched, led into sin. 

bbd^-rawun ^jl^TTf^ I %q^fl conj. 1 (1 p.p. bbd^row" 
^T^"rt^), i.q. bbd^run, q.v. bbd*r6w"-mot'' ^^- 
ftf-4g I t%fftTirq'f%^^: perf. part. (f. bbd"Tbw^- 
miils" ^T3TT^" ^^ )> plastered (of a wall, etc.). 

bad^rawawun^^^TT^^g m. (f. bad*rawawun" w^- 

f^lc^ejal ), one who causes to increase, a cherisher (Siv. 

862). ^ 
bad-shah il.iiLi , see bad. 
badshahi, adj. e.g. kingly royal, in badshahi wath, 

f. the king's highway (borrowed from Hinddstiinl) (EL). 
bodeshor ^V^^ m- the lord of knowledge, N. of Siva 
(Siv. 1178). 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bad-sherwar ^rs-ii^K 

— 89 

bag 2 ^T'l 

bad-sherwar w^-if^t^, see bad. 

baduth ^t^^ I ^T^^^t%: m. (sg. dat. bidatas wrs- 

<T^), the profession of an actor or buffoon. 

badav WST^ I "Rt^tTi: m. setting forth, setting out, 
esp. if one does not expect or intend to return ; (of 
nionej- or the like) excess over an amount agreed upon. 

badav ^^^ l ^^it^H m. largeness in size, e.g. of a 
person's arms, of a vessel. — a%un — ^i5«i; I WST^^: 
m.inf . largeness to enter ; hence, of the growth of plants, 
to grow too large in a short time, to become too 
luxuriant, -dar -^T^ 1 ^^^: adj. e.g. possessing 
largeness, hence too large, e.g. of a pot, a basket, or 
. a garment. — yun" — f^ I WSH^W, m.inf. to be too 
large, e.g. of a pillar which will not fit into the place 
prepared for it in building a house. 

badawun 1 ^^Tf^ I ^^: ^JT'fi^conj. 1 (1 p.p. badow" 

^'^^), to extinguish a light or a fire by withdrawing the 
fuel. bad6w"-mot° 1 ^^J-^rg l T^ift^iri: perf. part. 
(f. badbW^-miib" ^^T|r-4^), extinguished(of a fire). 

badawxin 2 ^^^^r, i ^iM^ti conj. 2 (1 p.p. badow" 

^Ttf), to set out on a journey. bad6w°-mot" 2 

^^f-'Tf I ■R^t^TfT: perf. part. (f. badow"-mub'' 

^^T^-?T^), set out, started (on a journey). 

badawun'^ >^^ i ^^a-r:, ir^^ adj. (f. badawun" 
^^<t^), one who regularly and continually increases, 
etc., cf. badun; used politely to mean one who is 
about to depart, or set out on a journey. 

bodawun f^SJ^ I t'Tfl^iTR; conj. 1 (1 p.p. bodow" 
^^^), i.q. bodanawun, q.v. (Gr.Gr. 171). bodow"- 
mot" f if-^if I 1^f^<T: perf. part. (f. boduw"- 
miite" ^^^ -?Tt3 ), made to sink by some one (of some- 
thing thatdoes not sink naturally). 

bodawun" ^^J I f^Jf^i: adj. (f. bodawun" ^^•^), 

one who sinks or dives ; that which sinks of itself 
owing to its high specific gravity. 

badawor" «(r<^«h^ I IftfTl^: m- anger caused by envy 
at another's honour or success. — gafehun — IWI I 
^MlsftiTl^cf: m.inf. to feel rage caused by such envy ; 
to display anger at greater respect being shown to 
another than to oneself on some ^'ublic occasion. 
— karun — qri[«I^ l Tt^r^r^TJ^ m.inf. to cause 
another to feel such anger. — wdthun — W^^ I ^TT- 
■^t^fTt^: m.inf. such anger to arise. 

bediwati «!rf?[^(ft' I '?l'Jl1''T'Rn f- ugliness, want of 
beauty, badness in behaviour, dress, actions, intelligence, 
skill, or the like. — karun" — ^rr>f I •'I^T' ^-i^f. 
to make ugliness, to humiliate a person by abusing 
him in public, when he expected to be honoured. 
— hgn** — ^^ I ^^ *<H«1l ^H^: f.inf. to take such 
humiliation, to suffer or undergo it. — pSn** — Tgaf I 


K^JlTflT^TfTn f.inf. such humiliation to fall, humili- 
ation to be experienced. 

bediwath sjrf^^ I ^^HT: adj. e.g. (m. sg. dat. bedi- 
watas ^f«(«)ff<^), ugly, without beauty in appearance, 
dress, actions, conduct, intelligence, quality, or the 
like, -pbth^ or -pothin -TTTt?, -Trft^ I ^^*t^7Rn 

adv. in an ugly manner ; in a wicked way. 

bSdaway ^f^^^ I •rZ^d'Ul f- an actor's or buffoon's fee. 

bSd^ay Wf^^^ l ^«RWt^: f- the fees paid at 
intervals by a prosecutor for feeding a prisoner who 
is in jail at his suit. 

badoy' ^^^ I JUtTT f. greatness, esp. of generosity 
or good fame ; greatness, in size or importance (K.Pr. 
111). In the Roman character this word is often 
written badai. 

buday ^'^, see bud 3. 

bbd'yana ^t^f^ • WfT^^ f- sweet-fennel (El.) ; its 
seeds, anise-seed, -gui^ -iflu I IJcfTjuft^'il'STT: f- the 
kernels of anise-seed, extracted by pounding in a mortar. 

be-fdida iJuU^^j adj. e.g. unprofitable, useless, vain; 
as adv. in vain, to no purpose, fruitlessly. — khar^'Ch 
— ^ITT^ na. extravagance. — ^karun — ^^^l, m.inf. to 
make in vain, misspend, waste (Gr.M.). 

bag ^1 I V{^m_ m. pudendum muliebre, vulva. 

bag 1 Wl^ ni. a share, a portion (Siv. 1695) ; hence, 
part, in the sense of position, as in manz-bag JTsf-^PI 
in the middle part, in the middle, in the centre 
(Siv. 20, 914, 1107, 1459, 1547, 1588, 1668, 1695, 
1744, 1759). — dyun" — f^ I 'N*<i<sNI^T ^^^n 
t%»n^RT> Wni^l*^ m.inf. to deal out shares 
to those entitled to them (Siv. 1695) ; to divide into 
parts or shares, (in arithmetic) to divide (a number). 

baga-har ^TT-IT^ I ^^f^»TT3T5l?^ m. (in arith- 
metic) division (of a number). 

bag 2 ^T^ ill I ^^RH ™. a garden (Siv. 181, etc. ; 
K.Pr. 56, 204 ; YZ. 46, 254, 407) ; an orchard ; 
pi. dat. with eraph. y, baganay ^am^^ (Siv. 503). 
-wan -?rTi: I ^^Titn^: m. (f. -wan-bay --^t^-^t^, 

see bel.) (in El. and W. ill spelt oiDtionally bagban), 
a gardener, esp. a tree and shrub gardener (K.Pr. 142) ; 
in fem. a gardener's wife or a female gardener. 
-WOnil -^f^^ I ^^UTm^^fri: f- the profession or 
trade of a gardener. 

baga-bab"r" ^t^-^^ i ^fnt^^^: f. a kind of 
sweet basil grown in gardens (Siv. 1691) ; see 
bab"r" 2. -bombur -^^gr l '^Tft^: "i- (sg- dat. 
bomburas ^JJT;'^.), a garden -bee, a bee which 
frequents only gardens and does not seek \vild flowers ; 
met. a libertine, one who haunts women as a bee 
haunts flowers. -dor" -^t^ I '3'{IT'm^air<.*{: f- a 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bag 3 m% 


bog-^ ^>5 

garden side-door, the door of a house opening into 
a garden, -moy -^R^ I wf^iJlIilH f- a small garden. 
-wol" -^f I ^3^TT^T^ in. (f. -wajen -^nr^ir^), 
one who owns a garden, the lord of a garden. 

baguk" WT5f I ^^TPT^^'^ adj. (f. baguc" ^^\), 
of, or belonging to, a garden ; produced in a garden 
(sg. gen. of bag). 

bag 3 ^T^ii, in bag-dora WTf-^T I ^^^'^^?;^fw^: 
m. a bridle-rope, a long rope by which horses, etc., are 
tied, a halter. 

big "^V i—XlAi I ^: yJil^HH i- a loud cry in 
order to call persons together from a distance, 
a halloa ; the call to prayer by the mu'azzin from 
the tower of a mosque (K.Pr. 25, 199) ; the crowing 
of a cock (K.Pr. 176). —din" — f^ I ^VTr^fTT: 
f.inf. to call Musalmans to prayer; to call out at 
the latter end of the night to waken people ; to crow 
(of a cock). — waniin*' — ^'rf; i ^ ^n^HT^W^l 

f.inf. to whisper the ozdn or call to prayer, as is done 

by a Musalmiin jnr in initiating a disciple, or (at 

a birth-ceremony) in welcoming a new-born child into 

the world ; cf. L. 270. 

biga-lot" ^t?I-^ I sR\^1^f%lt^: m. a certain toy, 

a kind of peg-top. 
bage ^ur f- a buggy, a kind of one-horse cairiage ; 

a carriage in general (Siv. 1859). Cf. bagi. 
bage^nJT ni. prosperity, good-luck (Siv. 821), i.q. bog' 1 

under bog**. 
bagi ^^ f. a long barge with a hood like that of 

a buggy which covers the passenger (EL). 
beg i ^-J m. a lord, master, a Mogul title of honour 


bega s^mr, in bega-wakhHh ^nrr-^'i^^ i irnNrra: 

m. (sg. dat. -wakhtas -^^fl^), evening, the first 
three hours or so after sunset ; cf. be - gah. 

-wakhtan -^tT'T, -wakhtan-bog' -^Tiff^-aril^T, 
-wakhtas -^^i;, or --wakhtas-bbg' -^^ci^-wr^ i 

HT^»i;, f'nin^^ adv. at evening, at some time in the 
first three hours after sunset. 
biga 1%^! m. the Indian measure of area, a blghd. In 
Kashmir a kaccd biga contains 40 square gaz, and 
apakkd biga contains 60 square gaz (EL). 

bog ^5T in bog-baganay ^jt-^t'PT^ I t^^nsR^i: f. 

dividing out into proper proportions, e.g. of a piece 
of gold for the various members of an ornament in 
course of manufacture. Cf. bog". 
bog' 1 ^Tt?I or bbgin ^\fi[^ (for bog' 3 see bog") I 
%^TnH postpos. governing dat., at about the time of, 
u.w. words indicating a part of the day or night, as 
in shamas bog' (or bbgin), at eventide ; subahas 



bog* (or bbgin), at dawntide ; mandenes (or 
mandenen) bog' (or bbgin), at about midday. 

bog' 2 ^T^ I f^rfJTTTJi; (for bog' 3 sec bog"), postpos. 
governing abl. (with vbs. of giving, accepting, etc.), 
on account of, for the sake of, in exchange for. 

bbgi ^T'fY I *IT'nf1'''J': adj. e.g. entitled to a share. 

bbg' ^^^ l ^^■'^T^T^^ft. ™- ^^^ mu'azzin who calls 
out the hdg (q.v.) or call to prayer (K.Pr. 25). 

bog" ^5 I ^T^: m. (sg. dat. bbgis ^if'ra;, abl. bagi 

^Tf'I, pi- nom. bbg' 3 Wl^), a share (K.Pr. 103) ; 
an allotment, apportionment ; a share or helping at 
a meal (K.Pr. 38, 81) ; a portion or aliquot part of 
anything, as in aitha-bog", an eighth part ; (also 
in pL, see bbg' 1 bel. ) lot, fortunate lot, good fortune, 
the betrothal jiresents given by a bridegroom's father 

(L. 268, cf . bada wbriv' bog" under bada) . -bagay 
-W[^^ I f^THTW'TO: f., i.q. bog-baganay, q.v. s.v. 

bog. -band -W^ l ^ft^'^t: m. a travelling-bag 
or hold-all for carrying bedding, clothes, etc. — kanin 
— ^^ I WTWf'Ifnf^VT'T'i; m.inf. to make a share, 
to share anything with some one else. 

bagi amot" ^t1^ ^^th i "f^^fv^^'m: adj. 
(f. — amiife" — 'Wl^^ ), come into sharing; hence 
of a husband (or wife) who has become partner for 
life with his wife (or her husband) (perf. part, of 

— yun" bel.). -bod" -^ i ?rfr*rr'?i: adj. (f. sg. 
-biid" -■^^, dat. -baje -^W), having great good 
luck, jirosperous, well-to-do and blessed with offspring. 
-bog" -^3 I »^T^3nT2r>TIT: m. a person's full 
share of anything under division (K.Pr. 24) ; the 
share to which a person is entitled by his fate. 

-barut" -^^ I ^Txr\: adj. (f. -bur"fe" -^^1.). 
filled with good fortune, excessively prosperous ; (of 
a thing) complete in all its parts or in aU. its good 
qualities ; (of a vessel) completely and satisfactorily 
filled. — dramot" — ^"FR^ I i^TITSfff^lfT: adj. (f. 
— dr amiife" — ^"W^ ), one who remains outside the 
distribution, i.e. one who, even though present at 
a distribution of food or the like, does not receive 
his or her share (perf. part, of — nerun bel.). 

-hyiin" -1J»[ i m'^lft'j: adj. (f. -bin" -it^), 

deprived of good fortune, reduced to ill - fortune, 
deserted by fortune, miserable. — kadun — «fi^"l. I 
*IIM«jT^TT^XT!rJ^ m.inf. to expel from a common or 
similar employment, or from a common means of 
livelihood, or from a common association, or from 
commensality, etc. — khasun — '^^PT; I ^H^T Wfa?: 
m.inf. to receive one's fated share of a thing. 
— nerun — ii^i; i STTTncf^'^^TJi: m.inf. to go out 
from a share, to be outside a distribution ; i.e. not 

For words containing bh, see under b, See article b. 

bug w'T 

— 91 — 

baganay ^i»i^^ 

to receive one's due or expected share at a distribution, 
even though present, -wan -^T1^ I ^'IT'^n adj. e.g. 
having good fortune, prosperous. -woni -<^|»n I 
^JfT'^^Tn f- the possession of good fortune, prosperity. 
— yun" — l^g I 1%^T^^«3W2f^T: m.inf. to come 
into sharing, or into one's good fate ; of a husband 
(or wife) becoming partner for life (as a result of 
fate worked out in former births) with his (or her) 
wife (or husband). Cf. bagan' yun". 

bagyuk" ^^ I »?T»l^i!r ^»T^'i: adj. (f. bagic^ 

<mfiN ), of or belonging to a share ; of or belonging 
to good fortune, hence prosperous. 

bog* 3 ^T^ I ^TWr^jPl ph nom. shares; good 
fortime, 2)ro.sperlty, the happening of prosperity. 
— karan' — W^^ I 'TTT^r^^T m. pi. inf. to make 
shares ; to arrange in, or to divide out into, shares. 
— nin* — fsT'^ I ^TT'^ITTT m. pi. inf. to take away 
good fortune ; to have one's prosi^erity or good fortune 
destroyed owing to some act of folly, robbery, ill- 
success, failure of crops, or the like. — WOthan* 
— WT^ I *n'Wri?'W: ni. pi. inf. good luck to rise up 
(and depart), to lose one's good luck. 

bbgis peth watun ^f^^ ^^z wr^^ I ^rr^ST^- 

^T ^^f^fii: m.inf. to arrive upon good fortune, to 
arrive at exactly the right time, so as to share in 
the fruits of another's success. 

bug ^ I M\tf'. m. enjoyment, pleasure, esp. worldly 
pleasures, as opp. to yog or yug, asceticism (Siv. 
866, 867, 1377, 1458, 1714); fruition (Siv. 1696, 
18-35,1838); sexual enjoyment ; experiencing, feeling, 
perception; advantage, pleasure, delight. — karun 
— ^i^l, I jft'^rT^'T^: m.inf. to enjoy, etc. 

bugi ^jft I ^T^TF^w: adj. e.g. devoted to enjoyment or 
luxury, a voluptuary. 

bug"^ ^3T, see bugun. 

be-gah ili-^ adj. e.g. untimely, unseasonable (K.Pr. 21). 

bagal wi^ JJc I ^r^ m. the armpits, -canda -^^ I 

'TT'^f'ltfTf'T^T ni. tlie side-pocket of a coat or similar 
garment, -boy -«f^ I ^^5ReRY %'^^'. f- the stink of 
the armpits ; the sweaty smell emanating from a man's 
skin and perceived by those who are close by his side. 
bag^li gafehun ^ji^ ii^f^ i Tf ^htt^t: m.inf. 

to go to a person's araipit, hence to meet liim 
privately or secretly ; to go by a side-path instead of 
by the direct road. — yun" — f^g I ■?;f^€?nT5R: 
m.inf. to come together privately to meet secretly ; to 
approach a person with the object of ofEering a bribe. 
b6g4a ^JRT I ^^^TT^t^t^: a kind of bean, 
Vicia /aba ( = L. 330, bdgldh, El. biigla). -dal 
-^TW I ^"UTT^fejij iH^: f- a quantity of these beans 


husked and split ; a spiced pottage made of these 

bugal ^1^ I '^^t^ adj. e.g. fond of pleasure or 

enjoyment, a volujituary. 
bugol afsf^^ m. geography (Gr.M.). 
bagambar ^TTJ^T; ni. Viigambara, a N. of Siva (Siv. 

bagnai, v. baganay. 
bagani ^^■^^^ in bagan* yun" wT'i^ f^g i f^m^^- 

ITf^'TT fHfT^J^ m.inf. to be joined to a person in 
marriage, to become married to a person (Siv. 37, of 
a woman) ; to obtain one's share allotted by foi'tune, 
to receive one's fated portion ; K.Pr. 54 spells the 
word bcKjuni. Cf. bagi JTUn" under bog". 

bagnu ^11 111- the Himalayan 2D02jlar [Populiis ciliata) 

begana ^-il^ adj. e.g. strange, foreign, alien (K.Pr. 
146, Siv. 1605). 

bogin^il'Ii; I ^^^ adv., see bdg* 2. 

boguni, see bugin. 

bugun ^jfi; I »itT: eonj. 1 (1 p.p. bug" ^5, 2 p.p. 
bujyov ^5?tw), to enjoy (Siv. 1423, 1603) ; to enjoy 
the delights of the world (as opposed to asceticism) 
(Siv. 1458, 1828) ; to experience, suffer, undergo, to 
reap the fruits of one's actions in this, or a former, 
life (Siv. 1795) ; frequently with cognate ace. pi. of 
bug, q.v., bugan bug^un, to enjoy delights (Siv. 
1377, 1714), or to reap fruition (Siv. 1835, 1838). 

bug"-mot° ^^-'T^ I *raf^^: perf. part. (f. buj"- 
mufe'* ^51 -?T^), experienced, suffered, undergone, 
reaped (as above). 

bagandar ^J|^<, I *r'l'<^<Cti: m- a fistula in the 
pudendum muliebre or in the anus, a boil in or close to 
the anus. — pyon" — igj I ^TI^^^I'^W: m.inf. 
fistula to occur, the occurrence of an attack of the 

bagandarlad ^n|t^<^^ I ^^i^^TT^f Tf rr: adj. e.g. (when 
used as subst. the f. is bagandarladin ^3is^?:^rf^-q), 

suffering from or afflicted by fistula. 
be-gunah iLf,-_j adj. e.g. without sin, sinless, guiltless, 

innocent (Gr.M.). 
baganay ^T'Pf^ I t^TIi f- division, dividing into 

shares, i.q. bagay, q.v., Gr.Gr. 129 ; fate, fortune 

(El. bagnai). — nerun" — %T^ I ^¥"^'nifw»?T'i^^g^: 

f.inf. sharing to issue ; i.e. in dividing aujdihing out 
into several shares, the shares to come out accuratel}^. 

baganaye-dar ^'I'ra-^T^ I t^ftrHWiT^: adj. 

e.g. divisible into parts, easily or naturally divided 
into equal parts, or such as demands subdivision on 
account of its quantity or the like. 

For words containing bh, see undur b. See article b. 

N 2 

baganay ^TT«i^ 


bbg^run ^t^i; 

baganay ^T'i^, see bag 2. 

bugin ^f'f^ I ^Tf«q(^ f- the wife of a servant's 
master, a servant's mistress ; K.Pr. 263 spells the word 
hognni. It is fem. of bugiy, q.v., of. Gr.Gr. 38. 

bagar in bagar bang, m. Hyoscyanms niger (L. 74, 76). 

bagara ^TPC I %f : m. oil, gM, dripping, or other grease 
used in cooking ; cf. Gr.Gr. 122. — karun — ^B^l I 
^li%^'H^3r»I1 m.inf . to fry in oil, etc. ; to cook in or 
with oil, etc. -dar -^T^ I ^^f^d^^: adj. e.g. 
greasj'-, oily, buttery (of cooked food), -rost" -'?^ I 
^R^S#^: adj. (f. -rufeh" -TM)' without oil; any- 
tliing cooked or baked without grease. 

bagar' ^TfJl^ I t^S^g^^: adj. e.g. made of mixed 
metal (of pots, dishes, or the like). Cf. b8gur". 

bagair .^ postpos. governing abl., without, exclusive 
of, excluding, exce23t, besides (K.Pr. 178). 

bagir (? bbg«r"), f. a share (El.). 

baigar %V[K. I ITBIfT conj. on the contrary, nay rather. 

begor" 5Tai^ I ^^TUT^T^: adj. (f. begtir" ^^i^), 

acrid, astringent, throat -burning (of food). Cf. 
begarun. -bana -'m^ I ^ft%^rft^T m. an earthen 
cooking-pot, spoilt by grease or oil being often burnt 
in it. 
begbr^ 1 ^^rr'p: ^J^. I ^T^ f- compelling to work 
for nothing ; pressed or forced labour (K.Pr. 17, 200). 

-nakha walun" -^iw ^^^ I ^^<3T ^T^flflTHlH 

f.iuf. to do a thing carelessly and hurriedl}' (as if by 
forced labour). 

begari lagun tuTfT ^ji; I ^T^^fti: m.iuf. to 

be suddenly and unexpectedly j^ressed for such service. 
-mabanyuv" -*Tff^5 I ^^%^5li: m. a person 
pressed into service against his will, one pressed to 
carry loads (for individuals or the public). — ^ratun 
— Tf^ I ^TFrTtl[^Tnn^»TT!I»i: m.inf. to press into 
such service, to seize a man for such service. 
begbr' 2 ^1T^ ^J^. • t^lst'I^'li: m. a person pressed 
into service against his will for carrying loads or the like. 

bigar fwTTT; in bigar karun t^an^ ^^i; i fer^^vnn- 

^•IH m.inf. to set at variance, to set friends at enmity. 

bbgur^ fi^ I vrg«ffE»j^: adj. (f. bbg"r^ ^T'i^)> 

i.q. blgar\ q.v. 
bagarun ^'rR'i. i ^r^xjn^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. bagor"^^^), 

(in cooking) to fry, etc., in oil, etc. ; to add hot oil, 
etc., in the process of cooking. bag6r"-mot" W?t^- 

»TH I t%tffi%f^5H: adj. (f. bagbr"-mufe" ^arf^- 

Wri ), cooked in or with ghi, oil, etc. ; fried. 
begaran ^nn:«i; l ^rrr f- acridity, astringeney (of 

flavour of food). 
begarun s^ni^^ l t^^f^^irtTfrT: conj. 3 (2 p.p. 

begaryov ^m^f^), to be acrid, to have the flavour 


of grease burnt in cooking ; to cause the throat or 
nasal passages to have a sensation of astringeney (e.g. 
by the smoke of burning grease). — tulun — rj'ji'j^ I 
^^T^T^^T^WTJ^ m.inf. to cause the sensation of 
acridity in the throat or nasal passages (e.g. of the 
smoke of burning grease, etc.). — WOthun — Wf^ I 
^TZTi^ I ^ -^ <=( • m.inf. the sensation of acridity, 
astringeney, or throat-burning to be experienced, 
(e.g. from the vapour of burning grease or of burning 
cayenne pejjper). 

begaryo-mot" snraf-Ji^ i ^"TTf^^Tirr^^: adj. 

(f. begarye-miife" s!r»i^-4^ ), that which has acquired 
an acrid taste (e.g. by going bad). 

bigaran fifU'^w^ l f^^rr^: f. change for the worse, 
impairment, deterioration, corruption, vitiation, dis- 
figurement, defacement ; decline, decay ; disorder, 
disarrangement, confusion ; ruin, hann, injury, 
damage ; blemish, stain, flaw ; disagreement, discord, 
quarrel, misunderstanding, disaffection, rebellion, 

bigarun f^T^^ I t^^TTT^rfri: conj. 2 (2 p.p. bigaryov 

fsf j| ij^ ^ ) , to be changed for the worse, to be impaired, 
deteriorated (K.Pr. 246) ; to take harm, be damaged, 
marred ; to fall off, decline in beauty ; to fail, mis- 
carry ; to break down ; to go or turn bad ; to get out 
of oi'der, be disordered ; to be mismanaged, bungled ; 
to be at variance, to be estranged ; to get out of 
temper, become angry ; to become vicious ; to rebel, 

revolt, bigaryo-mot" ft'pif-flW I f%iff7i»?Tx?g: 

perf. part. (f. bigarye-miife" f^'i^-^T^), impaired, 
damaged, spoilt, etc. 
bigarun f^an^n, I t^^T^r^T^^conj. 1 (1 p.p. bigor" 
f%'rt^)) to ruin, spoil, mar, vitiate, etc. ; to bungle ; 
to break a custom ; to cause a misunderstanding 
(between friends). Cans, of bigarun, q.v. Cf. 

bigarawun. big6r"-mot° f^art^-jig i ftqnr'n- 
^Tf^: perf. part. (f. bigor" - miife" f%Trf;-H^), 
ruined, spoiled (by some one). 
bbg^'ran WT^ITI l f^HT^RT f- dividing, apportioning ; 
division, distribution (Gr.Gr. 121). 

bbg^run ^W'^'t: I t%H^Mn; conj. 1 (l p.p. bbgT" ^t^t^), 

to divide, apportion, distribute, portion out, parcel out 
(Siv. 1072, 1510) ; to go shares in, share out, divide 
among each other. bog^rana-bog" ^T'IT?I-'^3 I 
■f^HT^PWri: m. a share for dividing, an extra share 
given to the person engaged in dividing, as a perquisite 
for his trouble, bbg^run" ^'T^? I f^H^H^^: fut. 
pass. part. (f. bbg^riin" ^^r^af), to be divided, fit 
to be divided ; that which is to be divided ; a thing 
or act which is the subject of divasion. bog^ran-wol" 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

begarer ^Jfip^ 

93 — 

bah 2 wt^ 

■ W[^^-^^ I f%W5f^: in. (f. bbg^ran-wajen ^arc'i;- 

^TEr=5), a divider, an apportioner, a distributor. 

bbg^rith thawtm ^inft^ ^T^ri I f^^Mffir: 

m.inf. to fix, during one's lifetime, the shares in which 
one's own property is to be divided amongst one's heirs ; 
to hide shares in any property from those who are 
entitled to it. bbg''r'^-mot" ^T^^-flg | f^Jfaf: perf . 
part. (f. bbg"r"-mufe'^ ^t'T;^-??^ ), divided, apportioned; 
divided, shared out. 

begarer ^ni^ l f%^TlIT^rr3[: . 'Wfl'^' m. acridity ; met. 
anger due to hidden enmity. 

begarawun ^^njfi; I ^^^i!i»i:, ^^i; conj. l 

(1 p.p. begarow" ^JHrxft^), to make acrid ; intr. 
to be acrid. begar6w"-mot" ^JT^j-Tig I ^^?>fi: 

perf. part. (f. begarbw^-mufe" ^3n:T^-»i^ ), made 
acrid (of food, etc., by smoke, burnt grease, or the 
like) ; met. made acrid in temperament, angered, 
estranged (by some busybody). 

bigarawTin f^^njjs^ i t%if?Tt^iTW1 conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
bigarow" f^arrtw), caus. of bigarun, i.q. bigarnn, 
q.v. bigar6w°-mot° t^arftg-jT^ I f^^TflT^Tf^cT: 

perf. part. (f. bigarbw"-mub" flfJiTr^ -JT^ ), i.q. 

bigor'^-mot'^, s.v. bigarun. 
bbg^rawun ^ai-sa^ I f^i^T^isTi^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
bbg^row" ^Jl^j), caus. of bbg^run, to get divided, 
to cause to be divided by some one (Siv. 855, 969) ; 
to divide among each other, to share out (YZ. 254). 

bbg^r6w"-mot" ^tt^-jt^ i f^^f^: perf. part. 

(f. bbg*rbw"-mub" ^T'rrr|r-'Ti|). divided, ai^ijor- 

tioned, shared out. 
bbg^rawan qx^li^efoj i f^Yll^HHf^- f- a fee or pajonent 

for dividing ; the commission or perquisite kept back 

by a distributor. 
be-garaz ,_/Jfi ^^J adj. e.g. disinterested, without 

selfishness, impartial ; independent, indifferent. 

bugath ^^ I Ht^iiift'r: f. (sg. dat. bugiife" ^^), 

the enjoyment, possession, usufruct of that to which 
one is entitled (e.g. wife, house, wealth, etc.). 
bagav ^^RT I ^^*icii ^iT^: m. a gluttonous lazy fellow ; 
a young fellow who eats much and won't work. 

bagawan ^'rari, or »ti^t^ I iysx.: m- God, the 

Supreme Deity, the Bhagamn, or the Adorable, of 
India proper (Siv. 1712) ; vocative bagawana, 
O God ! (K.Pr. 102). Commonly applied as a title 
to certain Hindu deities, esp. to Visnu (Siv. 6, 31, 
447, 863, 1142, 1156, 1317), Siva (Siv. 158, 944, 
1216, 1629, 1737), and the sun (Siv. 476, 580). The 
f. form of this word is bagavati, q.v. 
bagewan ^■RI^T'T adj. e.g. fortunate, lucky, blessed with 
prosperity (Siv. 432, 685, 687, 939, 1331, 1554,1832). 

bagewbni ^iggi^ft f. prosperity, good fortune (Siv.1141). 
bugawun" W^^J I WR: adj. (f. bugawun" ^5r^), 

one who enjoys, experiences, suffers, undergoes, etc. ; 
one who is fond of enjoyment, a voluptuary ; bugan 
bugawun", one who enjoys earthly pleasures (as 
opp. to an ascetic) (Siv. 866). Cf. bugfun. 

bagavati ^^rfrft or jrai^Trt f- of bagawan, q.v. the 
revered one, applied as a proper name to the goddess 
Parvati in Siv. 101, 1527. 

bagavath ^(»t)3I^^ adj. e.g. adored, holy, revered, 
venerable (applied to a divine being), as in bhaga- 
vath-maya, the adored Miiya, or illusory power of 
the divinity (Siv. 34, 665, 1234). 

bagay <^\f\iX l f^HTi: f. dividing into shares, distributive 

division, i.q. baganay, q.v. — neriin" — %tT i 

^Jjrf^Tt'ltW^: f.inf. sharing to issue ; i.e. in dividing 
anything out into several shares, the shares to come 
out accurately. — boziin" — ^3?^ | f^iTTTq^T^ft^tT 
f.inf. to consider sharing ; to calculate out shares, to 
arrange a fair division. 

bugiy f f'l^ I ^Wt m- (f- bugiii jfl^^ qv.), a master 
(of a servant). 

bugiye-kur" ^fira-|R^ I ^Tt'T^'JfT f- a master's 
daughter (of whatever age), the daughter of a servant's 

be-grizar j\'d^ ^—j adj. e.g. impassable (of a forest, 
mountain-pass, river, etc.) (Gr.M.). 

bah 1 ^^\^ or bah <>.: i '^j^ card. e.g. (sg. abl. (?) baha 
^f K.Pr. 162 ; pi. dat. bahan ^Tft. Siv. 523), twelve ; 
-Sheth -11^ , twelve hundred (Gr.Gr. 84, Siv. 738, 188). 
See baha. In K.Pr. 162 this numeral is in agreement 
with a noun in the sing. 

bah 2 ^f I fT^^ fnf^: f. (sg. dat. bbsh" ^TU), the 

twelfth lunar day of a lunar fortnight ; the name of 
a certain expiatory funeral ceremony, carried out at 
Martanda or other holy place, in cases of those who 
have committed suicide, or who have died a sudden or 
unnatural death. In Sanskrit the ceremony is called 
navdj/ana-bali. Ordinary funeral ceremonies terminate 
on the eleventh lunar day after the death. 

bbsh" bihun ^^ f^w\ I 'HT'raw^f^fiirsrrT'WWl 

m.inf. to commence such an expiatory ceremony. 

■bapar -^itrr^ i ^[T^an^^'ftf'i^TrrT: m. the 

actions of the twelfth lunar day, i.e. the Hindu 
preparations for breaking the fast of the eleventh 
lunar day ; the arrangements for tlie ab. expiatory 
ceremony, -bata -^(T I UT^lftsRHai. m- the food 
eaten after breaking the fast on the twelfth lunar day. 

■bond" -f^ I g[T^3ft«^«f\- adj. (f. -hiinz" -f^), of 

or belonging to the twelfth lunar day, or to the 

For wolds coutaining bh, see uuik'r b. See article b. 


— 94 — 


ab. expiatory ceremony, -ved -31^ I "TTTT^^^f^^^* 
f. the ritual of the ab. expiatory ceremony, -wol" 

-•^rtf I ?rr^^^: m. (f. -wajen --^rw^), one 

who fasts by eating only once on the twelfth lunar 
day, after having accomplished the Hindu fast on tlie 
eleventh, -wol* -^T^ I TTTT^^^^lT^^^^t^f'^- 
VJH R gi: of ab. the relations of tlie deceased 
wlio are engaged in performing the ab. expiatory rite. 

baha, in K.Pr. 162, apparently f. sg. abl. of bah 1, 
twelve. K.Pr. writes bahah. 

baha ^T I ^#^: m. vapour, mist (EL). When -°, as 
in atha-", the word is practically equivalent to ' sweat ', 
V. atha. — dyxin" — fl^^ l ^^JT^^J^ m.inf. to give 
steam (to), to subject to the influence of steam, to 
steam (e.g. to give a vapour bath, or to separate 
papers clotted together by appljdng steam, etc., etc.). 
— khyon" — ^g I ^^ftr^TT^frf: m.inf. to eat 
steam, hence to go bad b}' becoming steamy (e.g. of 
stored grain heating, clothes becoming musty, or the 
like). — lagun — ^^^i; l fwSRK^Wg^: m.inf. steam 
to be attached ; the going bad by the production of 
steam (as of clothes or grain packed away in a damp 
condition), -thana -'3TT , see s.v. — yun" — i"^^ \ 
g(\i||c(iic(|fjT: m.inf. steam to come ; hence (of unripe 
fruit, grain, etc., stored away so as to heat through 
absence of ventilation) to become rij)e, to ripen after 
being plucked or reaped. 

baha m^ l e(l<MH ^i- steam from boiling water, etc. 

bahi 1 ^^ I 'PSRTjf^^T, ^Tf^ f. an account-book, an 
oflicial register (Gr.M., Siv. 1912). 

bahi 2 "^^ I d'^M<'!IH f. habitual custom, habit ; — " 
conduct like (that of so and so) ; as in Shekha- 
bahi, the custom of the Shekli (is to do so and so), 
K.Pr. 194. 

bah' 1 ^ft I ■^T^^T^Tirl^^xC f. a kind of bracelet worn 
on the forearm, described as made of engraved gold 
or silver, and being eight or nine inches long ; ef. 
Persian J : I) . 

bahi-band ^f?-^?§; i ^t»|3iTf%^%^iiri?;: m. a single 

similar bracelet ; cf. a^j^jU . -gul" -J^ 1 TJ^JTr"^^- 
W^T^^: m. a single similar bracelet. 

bah' 2^1? , in bah'-bahaway «rtf-^Tf^'i I fl»?^^T^ 

card. e.g. (the emph. form of bah 1, twelve), the 
whole twelve, all twelve. Cf. Gr.Gr. 85. 

bahi ^ff , in bahi wahare, in tlie twelfth year (K.Pr. 
72) ; cf . bohyum". 

beha 'ar? or biha f^% l l^tTT: m. sitting down ; stopping, 
arrest of motion ; laziness in work ; cf. atha-" ; 
a wooden or rope ring for supporting globular-shaped 
vessels (in which they 'sit') ; the parts of a wooden 

spinning-wheel in contact with the ground (EI.) ; 
a chair (K.Pr. 31, spelt hilteh) ; cf. Gr.Gr. 122. 

— afeun — ^fi, I ^rr?ft^'WTwrre^T: , '^^'i^HW'TH 

m.inf. laziness to enter ; slackness in work to be 
exhibited, laziness to be shown. -dar -^T^ I fllTin"^: 
adj. e.g. fitted with a ring support as ab. -drav 
-^S^^^ I f^^iltT: , ^V«dlrti^d*i^: adj. e.g. that of 
wliich the sediment has settled, clarified, clear, -wal 
-Tra I ^^JT'Sfl^ tifVl^^:, "^J^ftlfTT^: adj. e.g. one 
who stops work and intimidates others ; a lazy person 
who stops at home (K.Pr. 193, W. 21) ; of a Hquid, 
that of which the impurities have settled as a sediment 
and is now cleai- ; K.Pr. and W. both spell this word 
hehu-al. -wbli -^^ I ^■'SfVfaT f. the lazy do- 
nothing of one who has stopped work and is without 

bih (? spelling) in bih-dana, m. seeds of the quince 
(L. 389). 

boh ^f I "^^^^ e.g., pron. of 1st pers. I (YZ. 19). In 
poetry this word sometimes takes the form bo ^ or 
bii «r . Witli the empb. part, y ^ , it takes the form 
boy ^^ (Siv. 24) or buy ^^, even I, I indeed. So 
also with the conj. ay ^RI, if, we have boy ^^, if 
. I (Gr.Gr. 257), and similarly we have bo-ti ^f?T, I also 
(Gr.M., Siv. 73, 119, 988, 1608), bonai |%, not I 
(Gr.Gr. 22). This pronoun has no gen. sg. or pi., 
emplojong instead thereof the possessive prons. 
myon'', my, and son", our, qq.v. In the sg. for all 
cases exc. the nora. it has me ffl (Siv. 511). In 
the pi. its nom. is as' 1 ^^ (Siv. 984) ; other cases, 
exc. gen., ase ^5^1 (Siv. 1284). (For as'2 seeasun.) 
As in the case of the other personal pronouns, this 
pron. has a series of pronominal suiSxes, but only for 
the sg. number. It has no suff. for the pi. These 
suffixes can be optionally added to any finite form 
of a verb. The suff. of the nom. sing, is S ^, and 
of all other cases of the sg. is m H. These are added 
directly to forms ending in vowels, but wlien added 
to a form ending in a consonant they take a ^ as 
a junction-vowel. Thus pok'' + s becomes pokus 
ifgi^, I went; kor"^ -I- m becomes korum SR^H;, 
made by me, I made ; korun + s becomes kor"*nas 
<=h<l,»l^, I was made by him, he made me. 

There are certain irregularities in adding these 
suffixes. The principal are : ( I ) A final h is dropped 
before them, and a final kh (the suffix of the nom. of 
the 2nd pers. sg. and of the 3rd pers. pi.) becomes h. 
Thus chhuh -f m becomes chhum ^l^ , there is to me, 
I have ; korukh + s becomes kor"has ^^f^, I was 
made by them, they made me. (2) Before them the 

For words contaiuing bh, see uiukr b. See article b. 

boh' w\m 


bahana ^fR 

term, av becomes 6 and iv becomes yu. Thus ! 
karav + m becomes karom eRTfJi;, we shall make 

for me, and kariv + m becomes karyum oR'Sj^:, 

make ye me, or for me. (3) When added to the 8rd 
sg. flit, the final i of the verb is changed to e. Thus 
kari + m becomes karem W^^^, he shall make me. 
(4) When added to the 2nd sg. impve. they take 
U as a junction vowel. Thus kar + m becomes 
karum ^^J^, make thou me. (Of. Gr.Gr. 87, 181, 
183, 257.) 
boh-tana wanan^ ^f-rTR ^'rf't I ^f^ifTTi^q: 

m. pi. inf. to tell an imuginary story, so as to gain 
another's confidence. 

ase ^f^, see ab. ase-ti pathi ^^-tW V!\fs I 

^WT«*i*<m^ interj. may that be mj^ luck!, an ex- 
clamation used at seeing another's good fortune. 

as* ^tj^' ^e ; see ab. as' gafeh* badan' '^t? 'it^ 

WS^ I W^ Wf^^Jlff interj. may we flourish ! may 
we prosper ! lit. it was proper that we should go forward. 

— gabhaw zenan* — TW^ ^^^ I ^^ ^^TRl interj. 
may we be victorious ! lit. it is proper that we should 
conquer, —gay asiy —3?^ ■^t%^ I ^(HfHrnsPttw: 

interj. indicating self-satisfaction, 'I'm the man!,' 
lit. we (honorific pi.) are we indeed. 

bo ^, bu ^, see ab. boy ^^, buy J^, even I, 
I indeed, if I, see ab. bo-ti ^fH, I also, see ab. 
bo-nai ^T , not I, see ab. 

me JIT ace. dat. ag. or abl. sg., see ab. me-ti 
1^fH, me also, etc. (Siv. 521, 625, 1165, 1434). 
me-y W^, even me, me indeed, me only, etc. (Siv. 
544, 634, 644, 692, 724, 760, 768, 900, 901, 1257). 
boh' ^ft^ card. e.g. the special form which bah, 
twelve, takes in multiplication by a number exceeding 

ten. Thus, kah boh' akh hath ta doyetr^h ^btj 

^T^ ^^ ^^ fT 1[1^ . eleven twelves (are) a hundred 
and thirty-two (Gr.Gr. 86). 
bahadur or bahodur ,jl^j adj. e.g. and subst. m. 
brave, bold, valiant, courageous (W. 117) ; as a title, 
Eampani b', oR^T'ft' ^fT^fT. the East India Company ; 
cf. K.Pr. 189, 190. W. spells this word hohMin: 

bahagun" ^?T^ I ^T^Jfjftjfi: adj. (f. bahagun" 

^^Tl^ ), multiplied bv twelve, twelvefold ; (of a rope, 
or the like) twelve-stranded. 

bahugun ^w^ i wra^f^^*- m. (sg. dat. bahuganas 

^-^'MH.)> a small brazen vessel with a wide mouth. 
In it tea is made, rice is cooked, ghl is prepared, etc. 
(K.Pr. 36, where it is spelt huhognn or hhogmi). 

bahugan-khiind" ^^T'I^-^t^ I 'srg: ^t^cft ^ 

^T'Ttf^^tf: f- (sg. dat. -khaiije -^^), a broken 
vessel, as ab. ; a small bahugun. 


bahagan WfTT^ I ^s1"^x:'re^:, ^t^fiTii^ f. a certain 
nominal coin, the value of the eighth part of a British 
pice. The latter is now used as the equivalent of 
the old nominal coin (representing a hundred cowries) 
called the hath or ' hundreder '. Bahagau therefore 
means 'a twelver' (for 'a twelve-and-a-halfer '). 
As sixty-four cowries now go to a pice, therefore 
a bahagan now equals eight cowries. Cf ad'-hyoP 
and RT.Tr. ii, 312. 

bahagane-hond" ^fTT^i-i^ i ^t^T^i|^: 

adj. (f. -hiinz" -f3 ), of or belonging to eight 
cowries ; costing eight cowries. 
bahagonun" ^WT'T^g I ^Tt^trif^f'IfT'R^^TT- m- a coin of 
the value of a bahagan or eight cowries ; when 
preceded by a num., — •, a coin worth so many 

bahah, v. baha. 
biheh, see beha. 
bahujybr' ^^ssrr^ i ^1F#T adv. abundantly, usually, 

ordinarily, commonly. 

bahakh ^Tir^ i 'af;T^T#fT\^TT^n^: f. (sg. dat. 

bahaki W|7f^), any distant forest on a high 
mountain, a mountain forest. 

bahaki khasun ^fjf^ 'i^'i; i ^^J^TWT^JT- 

'^tSr^'^T'i;: m.inf. to ascend to the mountain forest ; 
esp. of villagers paying a visit to such a forest to 
inspect their herds, which it is the custom to send 
there to graze during the warm months of the year. 

bahikath, m. (sg.dat. bahikatas), Adlmtoda vasicn (EL). 

bahal ^f^ i ^is^fw^^: f. (sg. dat. bahali ^ffsr), 

a long stout staff used by mountaineers, an alpenstock. 

bahali-pawi ■^if%r-'qTf^ i ^(St^s: adj. e.g. raised 

above one's fellows, exalted above others (metaphorically 
or physically, of a person or anything inanimate). 
bahil (? spelling), ? m., the name of a certain soil. It is 
a rich loam of great natural strength (L. 319). 

behal^T^T^ or be-hal %fT^ JI^ciH • ^^fT^^ adj. e.g. 
out of condition, ill-circumstanced (Siv. 573) ; damaged, 
unserviceable, worn out ; unemployed, badly off, in 
a bad state. 

bahalad WfT^^' l ^^'Srf^afcr: adj. e.g. turned musty 
or decayed from hot damp, of anything put by in 
a damp state, and hence getting spoiled by the heat 
of damp fermentations ; spoiled by damp heat. 

bahalad ^f^^ I ^is»Tf^3f<!: adj. e.g., id. 

bahim'' ^f »t , soo bahyum". 

bahana «f?TT <UL,j I ^5: m. an excuse, pretext, plea 
(Siv. 650, 1123) ; pretence, shift, evasion, subterfuge; 
with suff. ah indicating indef. art. bahanah «lfHTf 
(Siv. 682). — karun — sj^ii^ 1 ^gH,^3|«»H m.inf. to 

For words containing bh, see und^r b. See article b. 

bahan ^Tf^ 



make an excuse ; to pretend, sham, feign ; to evade, 

bahan ^Tf «t , see bah. 

behun or bihun ^^^, f^Fi: I ^TT^^pTn:conj. 2 [1 p.p. 
byuth" ^1 (Siv. 842, 847), pi. bith* ^^ (Siv. 78) ; 
f. bith" "^3, pi. beche %^ (Gr.Gr. 212); 2 p.p. 
bechyov ^Wt^ (Gr.Gr. 231) ; conj. part. al\va3's 
bihith twff^ (Gr.Gr. 197), and freq. part, bihi bih^ 
1%^ t%-^ (Gr.Gr. 105)], to he seated, to sit, to sit 
down (K.Pr. 132, impve. ; YZ. 409; Siv. 842, 847, 
1468, 1484, 1914) ; to settle, reside in a place 
(K.Pr. 191) ; to remain, continue in a place, be fixed 
in any position (Siv. 730, 1690, 1797, 1821) ; with 
dat., to sit (at a thing), to remain busy (at anything) 
(Gr.M.) ; to he unemployed, idle (K.Pr. 33, m. sg. dat. 
of 1 p.p.) ; to alight, settle, perch ; to subside, settle, 
abate ; to cease motion, be stopped (of a vehicle or 

behan-jay 3!if5T.-wr^ or -jyay -sut^ I ^t^^n: 

f. a place for sitting ; a place where people meet to 
sit and converse, the reception-room of a house ; 
a favourite place for sitting, a home (Siv. 90). 

bihith t%ff^ conj. part, having sat (YZ. 383, 
Siv. 1102, 1119); also used as an adj., seated, etc. 
[Gr.M. ; K.Pr. 31, 87 (busy at the -spinning-wheel), 
145; YZ. 67, 141; Siv. 1101, 1567]. — gafehun 
— Tlfr, I ^T^»lir' m-inf- to sit down; to settle down ; 
to fall in or down (of a house, wall, etc.) ; to cease 
motion, be stopped ; to lose one's occupation or post, 
to become unemploj^ed. 

byuth"-inot'^ ^^'TW perf. part. (f. bith"-mUte" 

^g-^^), seated, etc.; so sg. dat. of 1 p.p. blthis, 
to an idle man (K.Pr. 33). 

behonar or be-hunar ^^,_j adj. e.g. unskilful, un- 
skilled, unaccomplished (K.Pr. 150). 

bahanawun ^f»TT^couj. 3, to fix (EL), perhaps incorr. 

for behanawun, q.v. 
behanawun s^f^T^si; I ^m^vj«ih conj. 1 (i p.p. 

behanow" "^Tfit^), to cause to sit; to cause to 
perch (of a bird) (Siv. 1694) ; to put down, to set 
down (on the ground or on a supporting stand) ; to 
cause something in motion to come to rest ; to set 
anything in its proper place (as in a row) ; to calm, 
assuage; to press down, make flat or even; to plant (EL). 

behan6w°-inot" ssi^iift^-^R^ i ^q^ftjTT: perf. part. 

(f. behanow"-inul5^ ^f^T^- ??!? ), caused to be 
seated ; set down, put down, etc. 

bahar^^sr m. a sea, gulf ; a river, manind-e bahar, 
like a river, going on 
(K.Pr. 64). 



bahar 1 ^TT '^'^v- outside, without, out of doors (Siv. 678). 

bahar 2 ,1\-j ni. spring, spring-time, the spring season 
(Siv. 54). — yun" — f^J I ^TrI'r'B[f%^-reTilf%: m.inf. 
spring to come, to blossom, bloom ; (of persons) to 
flourish, be blooming, to be happy and joyful. 

baharuk" ^fT^^ I ^'BStTTt^^'^^ adj. (f. baha- 

riic'' ^?TT'1!)> of o^ belonging to the si^ring-time, 

baharas-kyut" ^f TT^-fsfi^ i ^€^1^1% adv. in the 

bahor^ '^fT^ ojk-J ' W^'aif^^^'^'^ adj. e.g. of or 
belonging to the spring-time, vernal. 

Ijajjujii ^^ or bah^r'^ ^f^ l irf^t^^^; f. a kind 
of hawk or falcon, said to be strong enough to carry 
off even children ; the royal white falcon (El.) ; the 
corresponding Hindi word is bahrl (also fem.), the 
Falco calidus. _p6n" —i^\ I ^mrlrft ITSTT'^tTT: 
f.inf. the falling of a falcon ; hence, to be destroyed 
suddenly, or (of a healthy man or beast) to be carried 
off by a sudden and violent illness. 

buhar' ^f ^ l »TfTf^^*T^^f^^^: f- a gunny-bag, 
a sack or bag of coarse material. 

buhur" ^^ I "^^tvt^^TTT m. a vendor of drugs, spices, 
herbs, groceries, etc. ; a druggist, spicer, grocer, etc. 

buh»r'-bay ^f^-^i^ i ^^^^if^'^f^xji^ f. a 

druggist's wife, -kot" -^ I ^^fv1%?lif?T^^: m. 
(f. -kUt*^ -^g, sg. dat. -kace -■^r^), a druggist's 
child, -phut^j** -^i^ I "^^^^^Zt^^f- a druggist's 
packet ; a packet of drugs made up as a medicine ; 
a dose or doses of medicine as it comes from the 
pharmacy, usually wrapped in a leaf or the like. 
-ton" -fftg I ^^^Vf^?lifilft%: m. the trade or 
profession of a druggist ; conduct like that of a 
druggist, -wan -^Tl I ^^^f^M<yi m. a druggist's 
shop, a pharmacy. 

baharun ^i^si; I ^w^fH^i»i: conj. 3 (2 p.p. baharyov 

^^^it^), to be brave, show courage, to stand up to 
a person, not to be cowed ; not to be dismayed in the 
face of difficulties or defeat. 

baharan-woP wiTI-^f i ^iH^l^ira^gw: m. 

(f. -wajen -^SU^), one who is naturally brave in 
the face of difficulty or danger. 

baharyo-mot" ^f^-jsig i ^^nro^ff^: perf. 

part. (f. baharye-miife^ ^f^-?i|[^), one who has 
become brave or capable in the face of difficulties, etc. 

baharawnn" WfTf 3 i ^^^T^H^I ni. (f. bahara- 
wiiii" wfx;^) = baharan-wol", v. the prec. 

bahs i-j-..=£r m. disputation, discussion, controversy, 
argument ; altercation, wrangling, dispute (El.) ; cf. 


For words containiug bh, see under b. See article b. 

be-hes tlTHl 

— 97 — 

boj" ^>^ 

be-hes ^IJ^ j^i-»- c=rJ ^^j. without sense, senseless 

(Siv. 164). 
behosh or be-bosb ^ftw ^y>c:H • f^'-^'- adj. e.g. 

unconscious, insensible, stupefied, delirious ; senseless, 
stupid; senseless, fainting (Siv. 1455, 1564), (from 
envy or jealousy, Siv. 498). — gafehun — 1W1 I 
f'T^^H^T^jT'i; m.inf. to become senseless, etc. 

behushi «!r^lft ^^^^—j l t5T:irirfTT f. unconsciousness, 
insensibility, stiipefaction ; delirium ; senselessness, 

bihisht <.::--^J m. the abode of the blessed, Paradise, 
Heaven (Gr.M.). 

bahusyamo ^^'^I'Hil' adj. one who says " Oh ! may 
I become many ", an epithet of the one God, with 
reference to his desire to create worlds (Siv. 1274). 
This word is the Sanskrit ba/iu st/dm, with the voc. part. 
6 suffixed. 

bihith f^ff^, see behun. 

bahathana ^fTHTT l 'it'T'itm'i: m. a cover for steam, 
hence, met. a device or means for concealing conduct, 
evasive action. — gafahun — 1W1 I <^<^^^^4: 
m.inf. a secret to be suddenly revealed or become 
generally known, to be unveiled, exposed, laid upon, 
revealed. — rdzuil — ''^^1. I TW^Jl^^^- m.inf. to 
be concealed, a secret to be kept. 

behHar =yf fl<, j2^_ adj. e.g. better, superior; good, 
excellent ; preferable, advisable (Siv. 722). 

bahafah wfTff I iifT^^^rnl^: f. (sg. dat. bahafei ^iTf^), 

a kind of large cargo-boat or barge carrying as much 
as 800 maunds. It has a straw covering, and carries 
grain or other goods down-stream from the villages to 
the city of Srinagar, progressing by means of a tow- 
rope ; the crew and family live on board (Gr.M. and 
El.). Cf. L. 313, 381, 458. 
bahatsi-hbnz" ^frf^fT^ I JTfT^^^fiT'nf^^: m. 

(f. -hanzan -^fT3^). a cargo-boatman, one of the 
crew of a cargo-boat (Gr.M., W. 115). The fem. 
indicates either his wife or a female who works as 
such a boatman. 

behwal, behawal =!if^T^, sec beha. 

bahawan ^fi^i; I ^^^'^i:, 3^:m5(i: f- the use 

of a vapour-bath, taking a vapour-bath, or the local use 
of medicated steam ; the steaming of cooked food which 
has got cold and congealed, to render it liquid again. 

bahawun ^^t^i: I g'T:Tn^r?fl«RT conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
bahow" ^^tj), to apply steam to cooked food (such 
as rice, etc.), which has become cold and a jelly, so as 
to liquefy it again ; similarly, to apply steam to melt 
any solidified substance ; to cleanse soiled clothes by 
steaming them. 

bahow^-mof^ ^^-^rg i q^:xnf^fT; perf. part. 
(f. ballOW"-mufe" ^st^-sr^ ), steamed, as ab. 
behawTin" ^fJJ or bihawnn" f^fj^ adj. (f. 

behawun" ««<J^c(^), one who sits, sitting, at rest 
(K.Pr. 31) (spelt Ijihehwani, f. sg. nom.). 
bahaway ^T^^^ card, all twelve, the whole twelve, 
emph. form of bah 1. Cf. Gr.Gr. 85. 

behaya or be-haya ^^f^T ^c=j i t'l^w: adj. e.g. 

(as subst., sg. dat. behayahas ^^rf^Tl^), shameless, 
immodest, bold, impudent ; as subst. a shameless person 
(K.Pr. 29, sg. dat.). 

bahyum" ^^ or bbhyum" ^T^9 i 1[T^' or<i- 
(f. bahim" ^ff^ or bbhim" ^iff^), twelfth (YZ. 
410, bahimis, ni. sg. dat.). 

behaybyi ^Tf^n^ ^^^=^. l f'l^'MflT f- shameless- 
ness, barefacedness, effrontery, impudence. 

baj ^TW — Ij I J^TT^i; ni. a share of anything ; tribute, 
tax, toll, duty, impost, cess taken from anything. 
-dar -^^TJ I »^Tt^^^: adj. e.g. one who pays such 
a cess, the person from whom it is due ; that on 
which such a cess is payable (e.g. a house, land, or 
the like). — lagun — ^J^ I T^fT^T »ni'5'9I^T'nfti: 
m.inf. cess to become payable (of some one who has 
not paid it before, or of something on which it has not 
hitherto been paid). 

baja-wol" ^TW-^g i ^^WTV^: m- (f- -wajen 

-■qjsini), he who is liable to pay cess, or that on 

which cess is payable. 
baja »nr> the Sanskrit imperative "worship thou" 

(Siv. 1383). 
baja \sr adj. e.g. in place, proper, suitable, fit, becoming ; 

right, just, true (K.Pr. 200). 
baja Wl^ I ^T^f^^: m. a musical instrument, esp. 

a wind instrument. 
baje 1 ^m, baji ^t%r (K.Pr. 24), etc., see bod'', 
baje 2 ^W, a word borrowed from Hindi to signify 

' o'clock ', as in aki baje "^it^fi ^55 at one o'clock ; 

aith baje tarn ^3 ^w rfm tUl eight o'clock ; dahi 
baje ^ff ^3ir at ten o'clock (Gr.M.). 

be-ja \=r<=^ adj. e.g. out of place, ill-placed, ill-timed; 
unbecoming, improper, amiss ; unreasonable, wrong, 

boje ^w, etc., see bodun. 

^oj" ^t^ I W>irn7!r: , ^IT'T: m. a partner (in business) ; 
a confederate (in gambling, etc.) ; an ally, suty-boj" 
1W-<itW m. a companion (Siv. 169). 

bbj'-bod" ^^-|[^ I ^in^f f%: m. want of respect 
to elders, impudence, -bod" -^T I ^TVTT'Jr'n m. 
partnership (Gr.Gr. 144, where the translation ' brother- 
hood ' is wrong), -bath -^3 I 4v^l ^l:^^^^^ f. (sg. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

buje ^5g 

— 98 

buka 2 ^^m 

dat. -bati -^fz), partnership (K.Pr. 127, spelt bdjbat), 
cf. Gr.Gr. 145. In K.Pr. 107 and 224 the word is 
spelt bdjwat. 
buje g^, buji ft^, etc., sec bud". 

buj" ^3r, etc., see bugun and bolun. 
buj" 4^ , see bol". 

Bij Bihara, v. Vij^bror". 

bajbat, see boj". 

bujagendrahar »J^5f^IT^ m. He whose necklace con- 
sists of serpent-kings, a N. of Siva (voc. Siv. 152). 

buj'^-mufe" ^^- 4^, see bugun and bolun. 

bajan W^i; l ^fW- m. devotional faith directed to a 
deity, the hhakti of India. 

bajun ^^i; conj. 3 (2 p.p. bajyov ^m\^) (borrowed 
from Hindi, the corresponding Kashmiri word being 
wazun ^^1,), to sound (of a bell or clock), kyab 
bajyov ^rrf ^WtW what o'clock is it ? (Gr.M., EL). 

be-jan {J^e=> ^.dj. e.g. lifeless, inanimate, faint, dead 

baj*r ^TWT; I «T^T f. haste, flurry, hurry. — p6n" 
— iq^ I ^N'Ttr^rf^: f.inf. haste or hurry to occur, e.g. 
in doing anything, or in completing anything after 
unnecessary dawdling, or in motion, or the like. 
— pawun" — TTT^ I ^^fjftPTT^'t finf- to cause 
haste or hurry, to urge a person to complete something 

bajer ^WT I TW^n m- greatness, abs. n. of bod" 
(q.v.) in all its senses (Siv. 1306, 1588, 1716) ; 
degree, rank (EL). 

bojer ^tw^ l 3|H44j|VlTri: m. the occurrence of a strong 
smell from the accumulation of filth, a stink. — anun 
— ^[^«^ I v(«|j|«^|^^: m.inf. the coming into existence 
of a stink, a stink to be produced. — yun" — f^ig I 
<<J»I*nf^*l^: m.inf. stinking to come, to begin to 
stink, e.g. of stale food mixed and left by or in 
mixing medicines or the like. 

bujer 55ir^ l f^^^^Ji: m. old age (Siv. 22, 1637, 1791 ; 
YZ. 519), abs. n. of bud" (q.v.) in all its meanings. 
— a%un — ^^"l. I ^^"RWriT: m.inf old age to 
enter, the beginning of old age. 

baj^rilad «iNr<^5 I ^^ffl^TW: adj. e.g. (when used as 
subst. f. baj^riladin ^rWf^^f^), one who is flurried 
or hurried ; one who is of an easily flurried nature or 

boj*ran ^TWT;1, l 1%>TT^3RT f- dividing out amongst 
people by one not of their number, partition ; sharing 
out amongst each other. 

bbj^run ^iw^i; i f^majsm conj. 1 (1 p.p. boj^r" 
«(l^^), to divide, partition, esp. to divide out family 
property or food at a dinner ; to share out mutually, 


to share amongst each other. bbj''r"-mot" ^T^^-'Tg I 
t^HTf^ra: perf. part. (f. bbj"r"-mufe" ^4^-»li9^), 

divided out (by another), or shared out (by mutual 
agreement) . 

bbj^rawun wt^t^i, I 1%Wapn^ conj. i (l p.p. 
bbj^row" ^-brft^), iq- bbj^^run, q.v. bbj^row"- 
mot" ^TW^^^-'ig I f^»^Tf^: perf. part. (f. bbj^rbw"- 
miife" ^TWjT^-fl\), iq- bbj°r"-mot", q.v. 

bajawun ^snfH ^onj. 1 (1 p.p. bajow" ^^W), to 
cause to sound, to play a musical instrument, to cause 
musical instruments to be played (Siv. 725). 

bojawun ^tsrrfi. conj. l (1 p.p. bojow" ^^ft^), to 
wipe out (EL). 

bajwat, see boj". 

bojyov wsift^, see bbdun, 

bojyov ^taift^, see bolun. 

bujyov W5ift^, see bugun. 

baka ^^, see bakh. 

baka ^t^, see bakh. 

baka ^twi m. a fop, beau, buck, dandy (K.Pr. 55). 
Prob. borrowed from Hindi. 

baki (L. 407), see bbk* and bakay. 

bika ^^B, see bikh 1. 

boka ^^^sf^, boki ^f^, see bokh. 

bbk* ^\j m. remainder, residue, surplus ; arrears of 
revenoe, etc. (cf. L. 407 and bakay). — thawun 
— «|c(»i^ I ^^u|<4U!'^ m.inf. to leave over and above ; 
(in distributing food, etc.) to leave people without 
their share, or to leave part undistributed. — rdzuu 
— T^l I ^'T^m^Tr^f^tTi: m.inf. to remain over 
and above, to be over, be left ; to remain unpaid or 
unadjusted, to be still due ; (in a distribution) to 
remain without getting one's share. 

bok" ^^ I M<ij*<fa f%^'q[: m. the hand with the fingers 
extended together, so as to hold grain, flour, or the 
like ; an open handful ; a claw (EL). — dyun" 
— t^l I •I^'^fl^'R*^, m.inf. to scratch with all the 
fingers (e.g. a person's face or at his eyes). 

bok* din^ ^^ f^^ l ^TW^^'n m. pi. inf. to render 
a person inwardly unhappy by the employment of 
abusive words, to abuse, objurgate. — lagan* 
— ^1^ I 1^51^^^: m. pi. inf. inward unhappiness 
to be produced by abuse, etc. ; to feel hurt by abuse ; 
the eyes to be scorched by a bright light. 

buka 1 ^efi I ^^-^m: m. foam, spray (as from a 
waterfall) ; water and spray dashed into a boat by 
a strong wind. 

buka 2 ^^ I ^qi^rat^ <U!**«f%^: a well-bucket; 
a bucket for lifting water from a canal or river in 
order to irrigate land ; cf. bukh. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 


— 99 — 

bokh ^[^3^ 

bukci (K.Pr. 37, W. 154), i.q. bokh^ca, q.v. 

be-koida i4XcUc=:> adj- e.g. without rule, unarranged, 
irregular ; without order or discipline (Gr.M.). 

bokidajjlj^b m. one who is in arrears, a debtor, 
esp. a debfor to the Government treasury (L. 448). 

bakh ^^ m. (sg. dat. bakas ^^^), prating, chattering. 
-bakh -^Tg I 5^:p^^^5n m. continuous prattle, 
prate, babble, chatter, talking nonsense. — d^nun 
— ^^•l. I ^f^nr^tr^w; ni.inf. to piate excessively, to 
threaten or inarticulately, to talk nonsense. 
— kanin — ^^i^ l ^trURT'J'ni; m.inf. to prate, to 
babble the same thing senselessly over and over again. 
— lagun — ^^•t. I ^TT^I ^T^H?^ m.inf. to rave, be 
delirious, talk nonsense so as to disturb others. 

baka-bakh ^^-^^^ I ^^wgisrr f. babbling ex- 
cessively ; bubbling with noise (of rice or the like 
being boiled), -bakh kariin*^ -^t^ ^^^ | ^^w^tnrTJK; 
f.inf. to babble, prate, to abuse in meaningless language. 

-bakh karawTin" -^^ sfi^c^j I in^ ^t^'WH: adj. 
(f. -bakh karawun"^ -^t^ ^t,'^ ), bubbling up with 
noise (of food being boiled). — d^nane — ^T^I 1 
^^WR^m: f. pi. inf. to rave, talk nonsense in anger, 
abuse with senseless language. — dine — f^^al I 
?r^^H<!m»IH f. pi. inf- to chatter in rage, to address 
or reproach a person inarticulately owing to anger. 
— d»nawun» — ^^^ I ^T^^iffJ^iwr^ii: adj. (f. 
— d^nawUn" — ^si^^), one who threatens or abuses 
another in raving or nonsensical language. — diwa- 

wun" — f^f J I ?ift^ Tm^^ adj. (f. — diwawiin" 

— f«(c(<*^ ), one who abuses another in such a rage that 
he talks nonsense, or speaks inarticulately, raving with 
bakan lagun ^^^i; ^ny^ i ^rft^i?tt;*rRW3T^fTT: 

m.inf. to start copious abuse owing to being in a rage. 
bakh ^"Pf I ^ Tt^f'l f- (sg- dat. baki ^rfti), lamen- 
tation with a loud voice, weeping aloud, a cry (YZ. 
178,Siv.828) ; pl.baka, loud lamentation (K.Pr. 28). 
-cikh -t^ t ^sjM^^frT: f. (sg. dat. baki-ciki 

^Tftl-f%f^), lamenting and crying out (for help or to 
excite commiseration), -cikh -^'^ I ^TRi"^: f. 

(sg. dat. baki-ciki ^if^-^f^), id. -cikh din** 

-'^^ i^^ I ^n^'^^t^'gm^H; f.inf. to cry aloud 
lamentably (for help, or to excite compas.sion, etc.). 
— layiin** — ^T^»f f.inf. to emit a loud cry of lamen- 
tation, etc. (YZ. 671). — thawiin" — ^^^ I ^f5[fT- 
fsrafrf: f.inf. to stop crying aloud, cease lamenting. 
— trawiin^ — Tf'^^ I "ft^ tt^^TR; f.inf. to start 
lamentations, to commence making loud lamentations 
(YZ. 19, 33, 130, 440, 484) ; esp. of the formal lamen- 
tations or mourning performed at stated fixed intervals 

after a death. — fehatun** — W^^ ' ?ff^«^l«ri 
^l«4)<^«IH f-inf. to burst out into lamentations after 
a period of silent grief or after recovery from fainting 
for grief. 
baka-bakh ^t^-^t^^ i ^TF^f^TiJ^ f. (sg. dat. as 

ab.), loud lamentation, -bukur'' -'^^ I ^t^*1^^«(iT- 
fifj: adj. (f. -bukur" -^^^), having a woeful or 
tearful countenance. -brur'' -|[^ I i^a^f^rn^Tft: 
adj. (f. -briir" -^^ or -brir** -wV^), one who cries 
readily and often, a cry-baby. -buth° -'^^ I 'Sf^TTT^- 
adj. (f. -bufeh** -^W)i having a woeful countenance. 

baki wadun ^f^ ^fi; I "^^ ?Bl5^?w; m.inf. to 
cry aloud, lament. 

bekh ^ f. foundation ; root (K.Pr. 157). — kadun* 
— ^ra'^ I fsriUJIH f.inf. to root up foundations, to 
destroy, ruin (physically or met.). — neriin** — ^"^ I 
fqilim'^f^: f.inf. destruction to occur, to be ruined, 
destroyed. -SUmbul J~-: i^o m. Convalhiria (EL), a 
kind of lily of the valley. -zafran ii)]/.cj X^, m. 
Aristotochia rotunda (El.), -zambakh ij^\ i^j m. 
Convallaria (El.). 

bikh 1 ^^ I fl^: m. (sg. dat. bikas ^?B^), marrow, 
lymph, fat. 

bika-bechawun" ^^-%^^5t i f^irsf»r^T^: m. 
(f. -bechawiin" -^^^^), a low mean beggar, who 
will beg for any scraps of food or rejected bits of fat, 
etc. -bata -^t! m. a dish consisting of rice, goat's fat, 
and water (EL), -chichur -tlf^'^ I Jr^JTTO^T!^?^ 
m. (sg. dat. -chicharas -Hf^T^), a piece of fat 
meat, -dar -^T'^ I ^^: adj. e.g. fat, corpulent ; 
(of a piece of meat) fat, fatty, -lala -5f^ I $^:^jrf^: 
f. exudation of lymph or matter from a wound. 
-nor" -''ft^ I ^^^WT Tr^ m. an intestine (of some 
animal slaughtered for food) surrounded by or em- 
bedded in fat. 

bikh 2 ^'^f. things given in charity, alms (K.Pr. 31). 

bikha f^ f. a question (EL). 

bokh ^^ I ^^ f . (sg. dat. boki ^f^ , pi. nom. boka 

^SB), the loin, the small of the back ; (pi.) the 
kidneys. -tara -<TT I JTiHli^f^^T?: m. the 
diaphragm, or muscle on which the kidneys lie, and 
which separates the thorax from the abdomen. 

boka h^nane ^^ f ^i^i i ^WT^l<*i*T8r: f. pL inf. 

to become joyful, to rejoice ; sometimes used of a 
swollen breast, lactation to commence, -tiir" -rf^ I 
^^1T^ f. the diaphragm, i.q. bakh-tara. -wiit" 
-■^g I ^^ f- (sg. dat. -wace -^^), a kidney, so 
called from the lobulated kidney of many animals. 
-wace-khot" -^^-xff^ l ^IET^t^JI. m. a piece of 
kidney, the split half of a kidney. Cf. khot". 

For words containing bh, see imdcr b. See article b. 

O 2 

bukh ^^ 

— 100 — 

bukh"r*i ^',^^ 

bukh ^^ m. a well-bucket ; a bucket for raising water 
for irrigation purposes ; i.q. buka 2. — layun — ^^1^ 
m.inf. to lower a bucket into a well (YZ. 113). 

bxikha ^^ I ^irf^: adj- e.g. hungry, ready for one's 
food at meal-time ; met. (of a field) thirsting for rain 
or (of a machine) in need of oiling. 

biikha W^ l ^fa^^jf^Tr: adj. e.g. hungry, hungered, 
starving, famished, ravenous (of one who has not had 
food for a long time). 

be-khabar^^ e_j adj. e.g. without knowledge, un- 
informed (kv. 984) ; thoughtless (El.). 

be-khabari ^j^ c=-J f- inattention, neglect, carelessness; 
ignorance (Siv. 1908). 

bakhe-buz ^igr-^Sl I f'lTr^f^^^: m. an oblation or 
offering made to deceased ancestors at a Hindu irdddha. 

bokh^ca W^ A^ I ^IfT^tzt^^ m. a bundle (as of 
clothes, etc.), wallet, knapsack (K.Pr. 37, W. 154). 
-baha -'^fT I ^5^% f^^nr;: m. sweating in a bundle, 
the rotting of clothes, (stc, left tied up in a bundle. 
— karun — ^i^l^ l '^•^T^f^^^> m.inf. to make a bundle, 
a method of tying up a criminal as a punishment. 

bakh^cun ^^^i I "Hlnm^iJi; conj. 1 (1 p.p. bakh^c" 

^?a^), to give as a reward, to grant a favour ; to give, 
preTent (YZ. 401, Siv. 704, 715, 1031, 1193); to 
forgive, pardon, excuse. In the Persian character 
this word is spelt bakhshun, (jAisr; . bakh°c"-mot" 
^j^^-'ig I "nfHPTf^fi: perf. part. (f. bakh"c"-mufe'' 

^Tsl'g-JT^ ), granted to anyone as a reward ; pardoned, 
forgiven . 
bakh°^can-har ^'l^'^-fTT: I '^Tt^^ft'si: one who gives, 
generous ; the Giver, God (K.Pr. 183) ; of a forgiving 
disposition (Siv. 3). 

bakli*can-w61° ^'a^i;-^^ adj. (f. -wajeii -Tr^JTsi), 

generous ; of a forgiving temperament. 
bakh^cish ^t^ll i>-i^ I tlTf?;ti1fH^^ f. a present, 
gift, donation, gratuity, reward. — kariin*^ — <^<y{ 
f.inf. to give, present. 

bakh^'cawun ^t^'^T^'ii; i Trf^jm^'iii; conj. 1 (i p.p. 

bakh^COW" W^^^), to give, present, make a present 

of. bakh*c6w"-mot" WTtj-'ig i Trf^mif^H: past 
part. (f. bakli*cbw"-niufe" ^IJ^T^-JJ^), given, 
presented, given in grant. 
bakh=^cawun'^ ^'l,'^^ i ^it^n^Trn adj. (f. bakh^- 

cawxin'^ ^^'^aj), one who pardons, of a forgiving 

bakhacbyisb ^'fqrl^^ (jijlAir i mRfftt^^i f- 

favour, bounty ; a present ; forgiveness, pardon. 
be-khod dy>- ,_j adj. e.g. beside oneself (with joy or 
grief), out of one's mind (YZ. 194) ; in ecstasy, 
transported, delirious (Gr.M.). 


bekhakh ^iir'a adj. e.g. poor (El.). 

bekhekh t^ia m. (sg. dat. bekhekas t%«»w:), a 

.suppliant (El.). 

bakhbl ^^i^ J-i< l ^^m'- adj. e.g. miserly, avaricious, 
stingy; a miser, K.Pr. 184 (spelt bakhail). 

bakhbli ^'^T^ , X-s^ I ^T^'Snfl f. niggardliness, 

bakhbl^gi ^tit^I'T^ I ^^^f?r: f- acting like a miser 
(not necessarily of a miser). 

bakhana ^Ulir adv. in the house, at home; aye 
bakhana, she returned home (Siv. 650). 

bakhanun ^T^l I fTT^^T ^Wi*l conj. 3 (2 p.p. 
bakhanyov ^I^Rfl'^), to have the intellect obscured 
or clouded (from .sickness, anger, etc.), to be mistaken 
(Gr.Gr.). bakhanyo-mot'' «rT^i^-^^ I -^^TFTwt^- 
t^rtw: perf. part. (f. bakhanye-muts^ ^ii^-;r^), 

having the intellect obscured, mistaken. 

bakhar jlir fog, vapour, mist (El.). 

bakhera ^%T: I ^^^^^^T'HT: m. a business or 
occupation involving much work ; a wide, extensive, 
or complicated business. — karun — ^i^'t, I etil«44||- 
TTTTIT''': m.inf. to apply oneself to sucli a business, to 
commence a troublesome or complicated piece of work. 
— lagun — ^^ I ^T^^nmT^ft^: m.inf. such 
a troublesome or complicated piece of work to fall 

to a person's lot. — waharun — ^iT^'i; I ^T^^rrm- 

T'^WTTWl ni.inf. to make complicated preparations 
for commencing any work. 
bikhbr^ 1%I3T^ I 'fH'«rr=fi: m- a beggar, a mendicant, 
esp. one who is importunate, dirty, mean, and ill- 
conducted. The f. is bikharen, q.v. -bay -^^^ i 
^^f^'^l^^t f. the wife of such a beggar. -kot° -mz I 

fi^'^T^i^T^^: m. (f. -kiit" -^z, .sg. dat. -kace -^r^), 

a beggar's brat, the son of such a beggar, or a boy 
who begs on his own account. -kath -WS I ^^tT- 
fj^^T^'^: m. (sg. dat. -katas -«BZ^), the son of such 
a beggar (without reference to the character of the son). 

bukhar ^xUTj^ I ^t'T^'m^T' °i- feverish heat, fever. 
— karun — ^li^'i; l ^^^rTf^: m.inf. fever to arise, 
an attack of fever to occur. — pyon" — 'BT^ I ^fsTmTT- 
^^TTTfi: m.inf. a severe and sudden attack of fever 
to occur. 

bukhbr' flT^ iSj^. ' '^f^^t^^^: f- a stove or 
fire-place with a chimney, for warming the house, not 
for cooking. Only wood is burnt in it, not dried 
cowdung (EL). It is found in the houses of the well- 
to-do (K.Pr. 37, 75 ; W. 141, 154 ; Siv. 973). 

bukh'^r" ^13^ I araHTTOT^: f • repetition of the same 
word over and o^'er again (as by a lunatic). — d*nun" 
— ^'''f I ^JlT^f W^tT'm f.inf. to repeat the same word 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bikhor'gi t^^iT^jft 

— 101 — 

bakol° wt4w 

over and over again, as above. - — kariin" — ^iT;3l I 
TTOT^ ^RCRJi: f.inf. id. — lagun'^ — ^^^\ ' T^^' 
^1 ^TWI'Pt f.inf. to gabble or prate nonsensically (of 
a lunatic) witb the object of distracting the attention 
of some one who is busy upon some work. 

bikhbr'gi t^^ltt'lV I ff»hrT^t%: f. the actions or 
profession of a mean beggar ; acting like such a beggar. 

bikhoril f^^arfr^ l f^raS^^^Pfi: f. the actions or pro- 
fession of a mean beggar. 

bakh^rilad wwlr^ i itht^ w^rr^: adj. (when used as 
subst., f. bakh^riladin W^f?;^f^'^), one who keeps 
continually repeating the same word (as a lunatic). 

bukhar4ad ^<siT\«!ff i ^-^Tvft^fi: adj. (as subst., 

f. bukhar4adin ^^ir^^f^), suffering from an 
attack of fever ; one who is still suffering from the 
sequelae of a previous attack of fever. 
bikharen f^lsHtja} I ^^TTf*r^^ f • a female beggar or 
mendicant, esp. one who is mean and importunate. 

Cf. bikhbr'. 
bakhshun ^^^i:, bakh^cun, q.v. 
bakhshen-har (K.Pr. 183), i.q. bakh^can-har, q.v. 
bakhshen-wol" (El.), i.q. bakh*can-w6l", q.v. 
bakhshaish ^LiisT, i.q. bakh^cbyish, q.v. (EL). 
bakhshewun" (EL), i.q. bakh^cawun", q.v. 
bakh^t' ^^t?' I *I^: 'idj. e.g. attached or devoted to, 

faithful, honouring ; (with regard to the Deity) full of 

devotional faith directed to Him, cf. bokt" and 

bakh^th 2. 
bakh^th 1 ^^^^, bakth 1 ^w^, bakt' 1 ^^, or bakti 

mS\ I ^f^: f. (For bakt^ 2 see bokt".) In Hindu 
works this word is often spelt with tj, in the Sanskrit 
fashion ; thus, J^^^ , ^W^ , *?t^ or »f^ . The following 
forms have been noted in Si v. : -bakth (Si v. 49, 103, 
625, 663, 715, 1031, 1219, 1262, 1517, 1593) ; bakt* 
(Siv. 494, 988, 995, 1041) ; bakti (Siv. 649, 663, 938, 
1005, 1511, 1520) ; sg. dat. bukh^fe^* ^4^ (Siv. 1199, 
1265, 1368, 1419, 1470, 1''~2, 1823) ; baktiye ^im^ 
(Siv. 739, 1372); bakti x ^twf (Siv. 1794); abl. 
bukh"1s« ^4^ (Siv. 1058, 1536, 1711); baktiyi 
^f3ff^ (Siv. 99, 992) ; bakti 1 ^fw (Siv. 749, 1012, 
1013, 1116, 1144, 1588, 1678, 1784). (For bakti 2 
see bokt".) Attachment, devotion, devotional faith 
rendered to the Deity ; abl. baktiyi bapath, for the 
sake of devotion, in order to produce devotion (Siv. 99). 
bakth bozUn" ^W^ ^^r^ f-'iif- («* a deity) to hear 
devotion, to accept a devotional prayer (Siv. 103). 

bakt^-bav ^^-^-r f. and m. (sg. dat. baktiye- 

bawas «rfl!f^-^^^), devotional faith and respect (Siv. 
^_ 188) ; bakti-bav ^fm-^T^ the sentiment of or dis- 
^B position towards devotional faith (Siv. 515, 525, 734, 


757, 1033, 1171, 1203, 1219, 1370, 1587), or bakti- 
bav (&iv. 1001, 1683), m. (sg. dat. bakti-bavas 
^fllf-^T^). bakti-bavana ^f^-WT^MT f. id. (Siv. 
144 ; cf. 1683). bakti- vatsal wf^-^<^^ m. one who 

loves, or is gracious to, devotion (Siv. 1036, 1535). 

bakhHh 2 ^^ or bakth 2 ^^ i mfi: adj. e.g., i.q. 
bakhHS q.v. bakta-vatsal ^"af-^T^r^ m. one who is 
kind or gracious to devotees (Siv. 1204, 1675). 

bakh^th 3 ^^^ t::,^ i ^^^^^ m. (sg. dat. bakhtas 

^^JT'H,, and so on), portion, lot, fortune ; luck, pros- 

Jo, W. 110). 


perity ; success (K.Pr. 
gafehun — ««,(K TW1 l HTTJrf^^^: m.inf. one's 
fortune to become wideawake, prosperity to come, 
a turn of good luck to occur. 

bakta-bod" ^w-^^ i »?fmT'?r: adj. (f. -biid"* 

-^^, sg. dat. -baje -^55), possessing great good 
fortune, very prosperous, -baganay -^T11^ I ^^- 
ITTI^^'^ f- fate, fortune, what is predestined, -bajer 
-^aiPC I ^^i^TJ^ ni- great good fortune, prosperity. 

-lopon" -^q^ I wJJT^^HlrnY adj. (f. -lopiin" 

-■^q^l), lit. a luck-jar, hence one who is comfortably 
prosperous on wealth not earned by his own exertions. 

bekhatakh ^^7fi3 1 ■^f^rf^fT: adj. e.g. (subst. sg. dat. 

bekhatakas siT'^fl^^), untaught, uneducated, un- 
skilled (of men or animals). 
bakh^tara ^^WKj^ 1 m^: m. iron armour, coat of 
mail, a cuirass. 

bakhHar^ ^^ci^ I ^f^: f. i.q- bakh^^tara, q.v. 
bakh^tari-bar^dar ^'atTf^-^^^TX: I ^f ^ m. one 

who carries armour, an armoured warrior. 

bokh-tara ^^- ht , sec bokh. 
bakhtawar (K\.), i.q. baktawar, q.v. 
biikh"fe" ^^ , see bakh^th 1. 

bakhwun'^ ^^5? adj: (f. bakhwiin" ^^^ ), com- 
passionate, forgiving (EL). 

be-khbwind JojL^ ^-j f. a ^vidow (EL). 

bakhay ^^^ <Ucsr 1 ^Inf^^^: f- a kind of sewing, 
sewing with long .stitches, basting, tacking. — hefi." 
— ^^ ' ^t^lf^^^^^TT f.inf. to tack, to baste. 

bukoki (?), f. Seirntula anthelminticn (EL). 

bakal ^^^ 1 'V{^^ adj. e.g. one (usually a lunatic) who 
barks like a dog ; met. of abusive language. 

bakal J lib m. a petty shopkeeper, esp. a Musalman 
huckster (L. 387). 

bakal ^^^ 1 Tt^'nfV^: adj. e.g. one who often cries 
aloud (esp. of children) ; a cry-baby. 

bakala TT^^ m. a bean (L. 458). 

bakol" WT^ I •fr^^^TB: adj. (f. bakiij^ ^^), a 

grown-up person who readily laments aloud for little 
cause ; a cry-baby. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

be-ak*l %^^ 

102 — 

baktar j:L> 

be-ak»l or bek*l ^^ ( = Jac ,_j) \ fsr^f^: adj. e.g. 

without sense, a fool (K.Pr. 29, 107). 
be-ak»li or bek»li ^^ ( = JJic^_.) i ^f^f^friT 

f. want of sense, silliness, folly. 

bikal ^^ii^ I ^'i: adj. e.g., i.q. bek4, q.v. 
bikul"^ ftff I ^1t: adj. (f. bikuj" ^^fi^), fat, fatty, 
covered or inspissated with fat (of meat or the like). 

bakalad w^w^ i ^¥HT^ adj. e.g. (as subst., f. baka- 
ladin ^^^f^^), a prater ; one who is ready to talk or 
abuse a great deal when meeting opposition, free with 
the tongue (Gr.Gr. 1.35). 

bek^loz ^BR^TT^ I ^H^^: f- want of sense, foolishness 
(either owing to some accidental occasion, or by nature). 

bakam *Kj adv. according to one's desire or object ; 
agreeably to one's wish. — watun — ^T^l. m.inf. 
to attain one's object (YZ. 228). 

bikam ^^JI; I f^^*n^: m- a miser, a niggard. 

bakun "^^ i st^tjiji;, ^jt'Ui; conj. 1 (1 p.p. bok'' 
^^, 2 p.p. bacyov ^'^^), to prate, chatter, jabber, 
bubble ; to rave ; to pour forth abuse, speak angrily 
(Gr.Gr.) ; to bark, growl (Gr.Gr.) ; to vomit. 

bakith trawun ^t^B'^ '^Tfi; I '^^'^ m.inf. to 
vomit. — bhunun — ^g^r^ i *t^t!n^TM«! I *tumTft- 
^x;t!IJ^^ m.inf. to pour forth angry abuse at a person. 

bakar ^^ m. a goat (K.Pr. 240). 

bakar .^j adj. e.g. useful, requisite, necessary, required 
for any purpose (K.Pr. 51) ; useful, of use, of any 
good (of a servant, YZ. 119). — yun" — f^^ m.inf. 
to be required, needed, necessary (K.Pr. 56). — yiwa- 
wun" — f^q^ I <*i4itM«J1'R adj. (f. — yiwawun" 
— t^«f^3i ), that which comes in as useful, useful, 
liandy ; that which comes into use. 

bekar or bekar ^(%)giT^ j'^gH ' '^tw«i: adj. e.g. 
without work or employment, idle, unemployed (K.Pr. 
29, Siv. 17, 96), not in office; useless, worthless, invalid. 
— gabhun — 1W1. I ^^5TO*Trw: m.inf. to become 
unserviceable, be of no avail, be nullified, invalidated. 

bekori ^^jrir^ l ^fV|i?I«qn[ f. the state of being un- 
employed, want of employment, idleness ; (of things) 
uselessness, worthlessness. 

bekor" sgsft^ i ^^q: adj. (bekbr*' ^^^), ugly, 
unpleasing, blameable (of appearance or acts). 

bukur" 5^ I ^i^r; m. (sg. ag. buk^r' ^^), the 
face, countenance ; met. rudeness, gruffness, K.Pr. 
252 (sg. dat.) ; cf. becha. — karun — ^i^s^ i 
5^?:fnf^^TWl m.inf. to speak in unfriendly tones ; 
to deny, refuse in an unfriendly way. 

buk*r'-dor" f«5t^-«[^ I ^f^^: adj. (f. -dUr^^ 

-13[^), stubborn, obstinate, perverse, persistent ; disso- 
lute (EL, who spells the word bukirdur) ; cruel. 



hard, pitiless (K.Pr. 167, spelt biihuri dar, {.). 

-khiind" -^'^ I ^m f (sg. dat. -khanje -^sg), 

insolence, obstinacy, stubbornness, wilfulness, effrontery, 
persistence. -wol" -^^ I VS: adj. (f. -wajen 
-<^l3*l3;| ), bold, daring, fearless, confident; obstinate, 
stubborn, wilful. -WOth" -^ I ^TOlTfT: adj. (f. 
■WUfeh*' -^W)' irreverent, bold, saucy. 

bukirdur, see s.v. bukur". 

bbkir-khbn' Trt%^-^T^ ^^jjl^ /\ I fxTB^I^^: f. 
crisp bread or cake (like pie-crust) made of butter, 
milk, and flour. 

bakrun, conj. 1, to divide (EL). 

be-karar jUj ^—j adj. e.g. unstable, unste.idy, vacillating ; 
uneasy, discomposed, disturbed in mind, anxious, dis- 
quieted, distracted (cf. Gr.M.). 

be-karbri ^S;'^ c=?J ^- restlessness, uneasiness, dis- 
composure. — kariin'i — wi^ f-inf. to disturb (EL). 

bakus" wgra or bokus" ^^^ i f|;*<y«liff?fT3Tftj m. 

tlie group of four outer dark-coloured calix leaves of 
the saffron flower. — karun — ^fi^si:^ | M^m t^iSfft- 
c*<,m*^ m.inf. to mix up and squeeze together flower 
petals, or the like, so that they are spoilt and cannot 
be sorted out again. 

be-kas ^j^ <~_j adj. e.g. friendless, forlorn, destitute 
(&iv. 190). 

biksha f%(fH)'5rT f. alms (Siv. 1473). 

bikshukh fw(fH)w m. (sg. dat. bikshukas 1%f ^i^), 

a beggar, a mendicant, one who asks for alms (Siv. 

bekasti ^^ra^ ( = ^^i) I t%i;T?nT<TT f. forlorn state, 
friendlessness, destitution. 

bekasth ^^^ ( = j_^ch) • t^:«WT^: '^^i- eg- (m. sg. 

dat. bekastas ssr^^ra;), iq. be-kas, q.v. 
bakta ^w, see bakhHh 2. 
bakti w^, see bakh^th 1. 
bakt' ^^, bakti ^Iw, see bakh^^th 1 and bokt". 

bokt" ^^ m., i.q. bakhHS q.v., attached or devoted to, 
faithful, honouring; (with regard to the Deity) full 
of devotional faith. Cf. bakh^t' and bakhHh 2. 
With suff. of indef. art. we have baktah ^WTf (Siv. 
1038) ; sg. dat. baktis ^fw^ (Siv. 857j ; abl. 
bakti 2 ^fw; pL nom. bakt' 2 ^^ (Siv. 507, 
522, 663, 1257, 1525, 1888, 1893); dat. bakten 
snrai: (Siv. 14, 103, 199, 663, 981, 988, 1007, 1058, 

bokut" ff g I ^T^: m. (f. b6k*fe" ^JR's), a child (of 
a human being) ; a whelp (of a dog). 

bakth, bakHh ^^^, ^^ see bakhHh 1, 2. 

baktah ^aiTf , see bokt". 

baktar ^ , see bakhHar. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 


— 103 

bal 1 ^m 

boktara, incorr. for bokh-tara, see bokh. 
baktawar WliTWT^ ^,^l::i< l 5g*rrJ?i: adj. e.g. (as subst., 

f. baktawaren ^mi^T^'ST), fortunate, lucky (Siv. 35) ; 

a fortunate or lucky man. 
baktawbri ^WRTT^ I «^»^Tni?{; f. good fortune, good 

luck, prosperity. 

b6k"fe" ^gj^ , see bokut". 

bakawun" W^f^ i ^^T^:, ^JT^f^JRTTffri: adj. (f. 

bakawiin" ^ehcf^l), one who talks nonsense, or 
jabbers (like a lunatic) ; one who pours forth abuse ; 
one who vomits. 

bakawas ^^^l^ l ^Fir^*1T m. prating, jabbering ; 
loquacity (Gr.M.). — gafehun — TW'i: I f^Traixi^ffT: 
m.inf. mutual abuse or mutual rude language to occur. 
— karun — qr^'i; l 'f'TT^^:F^WI'l m.inf. to prate, 
jabber, gabble ; mutually to pour forth abuse. 
— lagun — ^J'^ I ^^tTTjf^: m.inf. to start prating, 
so as to inconvenience another, to start talking 

bakawos' ^JB^Tt% l ^T^^^^Rtn^fi: adj. e.g. talkative, 
garrulous, a chatterer, prater. 

bakay arr^ ( = ^lj) l flj^: adj. e.g. a remaining 
portion, remainder, residue ; left, passed over ; surplus, 
excess ; arrears of revenue, etc. (L. 407, spelt baki), 
i.q. bok', q.v. 

bbkiy ^rf^^ { = i>S1j) I t?"^ adv. and conj. moreover, 
but, nay, nay but, nay rather, on the contrary. 

bal 1 ^^1 'i^ii m. power, strength, might, vigour, force 
(Siv. 6, 1026, 1200, 1303, 1841) ; strength, stoutness 
(of men or things) ; power, influence (e.g. of an unlucky 
planet) (Siv. 489). 

bala-rost" W5r-T^ i fsr^^: adj. (f. -riilsh" -T^), 
without strength, weak, feeble (whether of mind "or 
body, of things, actions, or conduct) ; incompetent, 
unable (EL), -rafehar -TWT l ^^rTN<n m. weakness, 
feebleness, as in the preceding. -SOSt° -^^ I W^'- 
adj. (f. -subh." -flW)> possessing strength, strong (in 
mmd or body, or of things, actions, conduct, etc.). 
-SOV"' -^1 I ^wrsr: adj. (f. -sbv* ■^\), rich in 
strength, strong, efficacious (usually of medicines or 
the like), -vir -^"^ I '^f?1^f^H: m. bold, brave, 
courageous, a hero ; not afraid of undertaking any 
difficult work ; a strong, mighty man (K.Pr. 249, 
Siv. 1675). -viri -<ftO ^- bravery, courage (Gr.M.). 

bal 2 ^^ I ^f%: m. an offering or propitiatory oblation 
of portions of food, such as grain, rice, etc., offered to 
gods, to semi-divine beings such as fairies, ghosts, etc., 
or to ndffas (snake-gods), dogs, or crows, etc., to secure 
the cessation of any natural or supernatural impediment, 
disease, or the like (cf. awara) ; met. food given 




under force majeure to some animal (K.Pr. 150). 
— dyun" — t^ I ^f^^T'W; m.inf. to make such an 
offering, -prbpyun" -TTTftf^ I ^^Hi^g^^as^ m. the 
ceremonies connected with the offering of such a 
propitiatory oblation. 
bal 3 ^^ I ^^<S(H*( 'n. a suffix forming nouns of place, 
either proper or common, as in Hazrat-bal, N. of 
a place (RT.Tr. II, 457) ; saba-bal, the place where 
a wedding dinner party is carried on ; wura-bal, the 
place for the cooking-fires of a bridegroom's party ; 
kdda-bal, a brick-kiln or a potter's kiln ; grata-bal 
(K.Pr. 71), the site of a Persian wheel, a mill-house. 
The word is esp. used to indicate the presence of water 
or a place sacred to a minor deity or spirit ; thus, 
Ganesh-bal, N. of place (RT.Tr. II, 340) ; Sharada- 
bal, N. of a place (ib. 279) ; Ganga-bal, N. of 
a famous bathing-place at the source of the Kashmir 
Gangu (ib. 407, Siv. 1684) ; vetha-bal, any bathing- 
place on the River Veth or Jehlam ; Mbr"-bal, a 
bathing-place on the River Miir (RT.Tr. II, 416); 
Fbkhari-bal, N. of a well-known bathing-place 
(Pmhkara-ndga of ib. 476) ; krir'-bal, a well ; yaxa- 
bal, a bathing-place, a landing-place, quay (Siv. 178, 
1683, 1686) ; awarene-bal, a place where a funeral 
pyre is set up ; shim^shana-bal, a burning ghat; 
raza-bal, a burning ghat. The last three are always 
on the bank of a river. Cf. Gr.Gr. 165. 
bal 1 ^^ I H^TT; m. a mountain range, a mountain, 
hiU (K.Pr. 240, Siv. 701, 820, 1162, 1165, 1222, 1240, 
1456, 1687, 1854) ; — « mount so and so, as in Har- 
mdkha-bal, Mount Haramukha (so Siv. 1680, 1681, 
1890) ; (in boatmen's language) the high embankment 
along the edge of a river to confine the current, 
a 'bund' (Siv. 1834). -bache -^m I f'lfT'l^T^:, 
^trai^T fpl- (the singular would be -buth**, cf. both"), 
a mountain range forming a boundary between two 
countries, a mountain frontier ; sloping land at the 
foot of a mountain. -bache lagun -^WI ^ft^ I 
f4jS|4^|%l4)H^<fH ii^f- to reach the mountain-foot; 
met. to reach a secure position ; to become established 
in prosperity ; to become settled after a roaming life ; 
to become expert or well-taught, -bache lagun 
-^f^ ^rrjl I t^TT^*ft<*<U!H m.inf. to make a person 
established; to set him up in life, to put him in 
a secure position ; to settle a person in a fixed home ; 
to cause a person to become expert or well-instructed. 
-peth hawun -ws ^5*1; i ^rf?!^AiM*iM*i m.inf. 
to show the top of the embankment ; hence met. to 
abscond openly ; to leave home openly and go to 
a far country, like a person out of disgust at the 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bal 2 W[^ 

104 — 


world taking up his abode on a mountain-top. -tal 
hawun -a^ fTJi: I f^T^TWT^II m.inf. to show the 
bottom of the embaukinent ; hence met. to run along 
the foot of an embankment, to abscond secretly, to 
run away secretly to a distant land. — ratun — ^^1 I 
T^Vftf 'ft^WW: m.inf. to moor a boat along the 
bank ; met. to come to close quarters, to answer abuse 
with abuse. — rozun — ''Ctfi: I '?fl"^^'«I*T m.inf. 
to remain on the mountain-top ; met. to exhibit 
indifference, apathy, disregard. — thawun — T^*^ ' 
^^ft^^fft m.inf. to moor a boat to the bank. 

bala-bala Wl^-^^ adv. through mountains ; hence, 
through woods and forests, through wild country (Siv. 
660, 1253). -pethuk" -Tg^gi i ^tVw^: adj. (f. 

-pethiic" -'013^), of or belonging to mouu tain-tops ; 
met. beyond the reach of vision, non-existent. 

bbl'-bol' ^t^-^t^ I ^ffWtf: adv. in mountainous 
countries (Siv. 889) ; round about, outside, externally, 
esp. when unnecessarily distant (u.w. vbs. of perambu- 
lating, looking at, or the like), -bol' pherun -^^ 
^^•t. I f'TT^^^TT- m-iiif- to go round, move, or act 
at an unnecessary distance from anything. — ratun 
— T^l I TtVtTT'ffi: *|-«IKUiH m.inf. to move a boat 
along the bank of a river. — thawun — ^"^^ 1 
■^^T^t^^lT m.inf. to moor a boat to the bank ; to 
abscond secretly, -wath -^^ I trroTfft'ITr'l: f. (sg. 
dat. -wati -^ffl), a mountain track or path ; the 
highest amongst several roads; the high path along 
the top of a river bank, a towpath. 

bal 2 Tr5f m. a child, used in the following : bal-bacha 
^T^-^^ the children of a family, wife and 
children, family (Gr.M.); dat. bal-bachen (Siv. 1051). 

bal 3^^ I Trf^^ f- (dat. ball ^Tf%l, written bBlih in 
YZ. 36, 258; voc. ball TTf^, K.Pr. 25), a girl, 
a maiden, approaching maturity, between sixteen and 
twenty years of age (Siv. 1834, where it is met. used 
for ' desire'). The m. is bala 1, q.v. 

bal 4 ^T^ m. the forehead. Used in the following 
compounds : -mokh hawun -1^<3^ ITfl. I t^T^^- 
M^sImH ni.inf . lit. to show the forehead and the face ; 
hence (of a relation or friend) to show oneself or pay 
a visit after a long absence. bala-feand*r ^^T-^*?"^ 
m. (voc. -Isandra -^^), having the moon on the fore- 
head, a N. of the god Ganesh (Ganesa), Siv. 9. 

bal 5 ^T^ in bal-tang, ^T^T-cIJI m. a belly-band (EL). 

bala 1 ^^ I ^^^: m. a boy or youth, between sixteen 
and twenty years of age (the f. is bal 3, q.v.) (Siv. 943, 
1353, 1383, 1470, 1887, etc.) ; (of sheep) a wether, 
(L. 363, 464, see below) ; a N. of Siva (Siv. 965, 
1106, 1557, 1577, 1680) ; as adj. e.g. young (W. 21) ; 

young, feeble (Siv. 1253 (f.), 1684 (f.)). -kur^* 
-gr^ f. a beloved daughter (K.Pr. 25). -kath 
-^ 1 ^T^^^: m. (sg. dat. -katas -^iZ^), a castrated 
ram, a wether, -muj" -^|^ I ^t%^f%^:, ^^<J<51^*{^ 
f. a carrot {Baucus carota). El. spells this word halmuj. 
-pan -tni I ^^"^fTnrraiOT m. youth, the time or 
condition of youth (esp. used by old people talking 
of their young days) (&iv. 660, 1106, 1444, 1834,1843). 
-feer -^ I xfi^rf^^^: f . a kind of apricot, -yar -^T^ I 
^^^HsIT m- a friend of youth, a youthful friend 
(K.Pr. 250), or one who has been a friend from youth, 
a dear friend (K.Pr. 187, Siv. 1616). 

bala 2 ^^ i ^^; m. a cook. 

bala 3 TT^r m. a sjjear (EL). 

bala 1 ^T^T f- N. of the goddess Devi (Siv. 1180). 

bala 2 ^b m. top, upper part ; adj. and adv. high 
(YZ. 64), lofty, elevated, exalted ; before-mentioned ; 
prep, on, upon, above ; bala-e-takh iUs^l) upon the 
window (K.Pr. 4). 

balae, balai, i.q. balay, q.v. 

ball 1 Wf%f m. an oblation, cf . bal 2 ; used in the 
following compounds. -dan -^l^ I tfT^^TT: m. to 
offer an animal sacrifice, to make a sacrificial offering 
of a ram, goat, or other animal, -vcdan -3l^«t^ | 
«(r'?I^Ht%t>ii: m. the ceremony of offering such 
a sacrifice. 

ball 2 ^f% ni. N. of a celebrated demon [Daiti/a or 
Ddnava) who was humiliated by Visnu (Siv. 859). 
-danav -^r^^m. id. (Siv. 704). 

bal' ^t% I "^^P^ITfi;, t'lWrT'T'l. adv. for no reason, without 
cause (K.Pr. 72, 111); suddenly, violently; nolens 
volens (ib. 203). -kenas -*|^fj^ I fsR ^^^ t^fi; adv. 
(u.w. vbs. of being or doing) whether, or whether. 

ball WTf%, see bal 3. 

bel s!i^ or bil t^^ ra. the wood-apple or hel, ^gle 
iiKinnelos (Siv. 1501) ; the leaf of the tree, used in 
the ceremonial worship of Siva (Siv. 187, 191, 1401). 
bela-path^r =3^-4^^ l f^^TT^TfW a collection 
of it'^-leaves, used as above. 

bel 1 %^ J-j I ^^^f^^ii: m. a mattock, spade, shovel. 

bel 2 ^^ I n«f^f«f5Jy: m. embroidery, flowered tissue ; 
(on paper or the like) gilt and painted pattern-work 
or flower-work. -halkbr^ -fi^ntT ljJ^^ i-Uf ' 
nxqf^^Tjfef^^^: f. a kind of gilt or plaited pattern 
flower-border round a picture or the like. 

bel^ ^t^, beli ^1%, see byol". 
bil fg^, see bel. 

biol (L. 463), i.q. byol", q.v. 

bila L prep, without, devoid of (W. 99). 

bilau (EL), i.q. bilav, q.v. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bol 1 ^5T 

— 105 

balel ^%?T 

bol 1 ^^^^ J^ I ^5^ m. urine. — yun" 1 — f^^ I VW{- 
«n'l*l»IH m.inf. urine to come, to commence to urinate. 
bola-mil 'rt^-'ft^ I ^T^t^'^: f. a kind of ink, 
usually employed for writing in the Persian character. 
It is made up with burnt rice, beeswax, and other 

bol 2 ^^ I TWT^: m. a mistake, blunder, slip of the hand, 
mistakenly doing something or touching something 
with the hand which should not be done or touched ; 
heedlessness, fickleness (Gr.Gr. 23). — yun" 2 ^f^l I 
inTT<^^*(: m.inf. such a slip of the hand to occur. 

bol 3 ^^^ m. speech, speaking word, talk, conversation, 
cf. bul^ ; used in the following compounds : -baja 
anun -^W\ ^i: l '^^T^^^^JTTtn^TH m.inf. to 
bring one's word aright ; hence, to curry out one's 
wishes against those of another, to have one's way. 
-bosh -^^ m. or -bosh*' -^T^ f. I nf^HT^T!F»i; the 
song of birds, -bashe -Tnf (Siv. 502, 1783) ; the 
similar sound made by an infant in anns or the sounds 
made b}' a dumb man (K.Pr. 93). 

bola-pafeh wt^-^ I ^fkt^^TH: f- (sg- dat. 
-pafehi -irfw)» heHef in a word, accepting a verbal 
statement or promise made by a person in whom one 
has confidence. 

bolas amot" ^"t^r^^UTg l ^^^^^ perf. part. (f. 
— amiib" — "^HT^), obstinately intent on attempting 
something which is left undone and whicli shoidd not 
be done ; acting perversely. — on"-mot" — '^^"l^ ' 
?m?frf^r!: perf. part. (f. — im^-mub" — ^"^"''^)' 
incited to carry out any abandoned work. — anun 
— '^•I*^ I 'd<<n'3l<IH m.inf. to incite or persuade a 
person to pei-form a work which he has abandoned. 
— layena yun" — ^^^i f^5 I ^^fan^wf^VTTJl 
m.inf. obstinately to perform or refrain from any act, 
in spite of entreaties ; to act perversely. — yun'^ 
— f'l'J I ^'31'^T: m.inf. to be obstinately intent on 
doing anything, esp. something wrong or objectionable. 

bole ^"t^ , see bul'. 

bol' ^^^, see bal i. 

bol" ^^ adj. (f. biij" ^^), convalescent, recovered in 
liealth (Gr.Gr. 9). 

bul ^^ f. a mistake (Gr.M., El. also has bul m.). 
— gafehun" — 1W^ ' '^'ftS^: f.inf. a mistake to occur. 

bula oT'H I f«t^V: adj. e.g. heedless, forgetful, inattentive, 

stupid. — bath — ^ (sg. dat. — batas — ^z^). 
" Mr. Silly," a little image of a man, horse, etc., with 
which cliildren play, a sugar toy (K.Pr. 18). -phrot" 
-^^ I fW^Tpi^g': adj. (f. -phrbb" -^T^). forgetful, 
absent-minded, one who even forgets his duties, or to 
eat, or to put on his clothes. 

bul' W^ , see bulun. 

bul' ^j^ I Vjm f. (sg. dat. bole ^^), speech, language, 
dialect, idiom ; song or note (of birds), chirrup (Siv. 
1721), (of frogs) (Siv. 1827). 

bul"^ ^5T, see bolun. 

bil-bicur" 1 f%^-f^^ l ^^frrgf^^^: m. a fringe of 
hair hanging over the forehead, worn by boys and 

prostitutes. Cf. bicur" 1. 

bil-bicur" 2 f%^-tW^^ l ^imz: m. the skylark, cf. 

bicur" 2; (according to El.) -the nightingale, which 

in Kashmir corresponds to the hulbul. 
bola-buli ^'sJT-^^fl' I ^>ilf f- emulation, rivalry. 
bula-bal ^^-^^ adj. e.g. of a guileless or sincere 

nature; N. of Siva (Siv. 660, 819, 887, 891, 1258, 

bulbul 1 5^f^^ Jt^ I T^l^f^^^:, I^TIT^R^ m. (in 

Persia and Arabia) the nightingale ; (in India) the 

fork-tailed shrike, Lanius houlboul ; (in Kashmir) the 

white - cheeked crested bulbul, Otocompsa lettcogenys 

(L. 154, K.Pr. 161, Siv. 181, 1025, 1046). 
bulbul 2 5^^ I fW'f t^^ltz; ni. a water-bubble. 
belci or bilci ijf^ ni. a small mattock or spade 

(K.Pr. 71), cf. bk. 
bal-chir ^^-I^T m. Nardostachys jatamansi (?) (El.). 
baladar' ^rai^t^ ^j'^'^'^- ^* ^ mansion, a palace 

(Siv. 965, 1068, 1825). 
balgam *xb m. phlegm — one of the humours of the 

body (EL). 
bulgar jangli (? spelling) (El.) m. Boletus igniarius. 
bblih (YZ. 36, 258), see bal 3. 
balki i^ adv. and conj. Moreover, but, nay but, on 

the contrary (W. 100). Cf. bokiy. 
bolbk' ^^Tt^ ( = -J^j) I TT€TJJ^trrt%^^: f. a kind of 

nose-ring worn mostly by children and suspended from 

the septum ; usually set with a pearl or other gem. 

bolaki-brod" ^"^^t^-wf I TTflT^Wt^^f^fi: , 

'T^T^fTTr^T^*^ ni- a septum of the nose (i.e. a nose) 
to which such a ring is attached ; adj. (f. -briid" -W^), 
(a child) wearing a nose-ring, -necyuv" -Slf^^ I 
•rr^H^W^^^' m. a boy who wears a nose-ring ; hence, 
a boy of about nine years of age or less. 
balukh ^Tf^ I ^T^^: m. (sg. dat. balakas ^T^^i^; 

abl. balaka ^T5l«fi , Siv. 887, 1379, 1876 ; pi. nom. 

balakh ^^'i, Siv. 805; dat. balakan ^t^t^i;, 
Siv. 705, 1055, 1322, 1876), a male child, a boy not 
more than ten years of age, with suff. ah indicating 
indef. art. balukhah ^^^Tf (Siv. 711). (El. has 
both halalc and hdluk.) 

bilkul JilU adv. entirely, completely (K.Pr. lll.W. 144). 

balel «l^^ ( = ""ii^j)' ™- Coriaria nepalensis (EL). 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

boHad ^^5 

106 — 

bam ^T»l 

boHad ^^^^ I Tmr^^: adj. (as subst., f. boWadifi 

^^^if^s^), one who by mistake does some improper 
or unaccustomed work, one who acts under a wrong 

balmuj, SCO under bala 1. 

bul"-mot" ?[^-?Tg, see boltm. 

balun ^^ I ^Tft'^fn: conj. 3 (2 p.p. balyov ^^^), 
to be convalescent, recover, get well (YZ. 184, Siv. 
1541, 1572) ; (of a disease) to get better, be cured 
(K.Pr. 109) ; (of a wound or the like) to heal ; to be 

well (EL), balyo-mot" ^^-nn i ^wr^: adj. (f. 

balye-mufe*^ ^^-?r^), recovered, well, convalescent. 

bel^na ^«5^ I mg^T^TSr^Prst^^^: m. (in preparing 
bread, etc.) a rolling-pin. 

bolun cn^«l I H"RT!r*l conj. 1 (1 p.p. bul" ^^, 2 p.p. 
bojyov ^5ift^; conj. part, bulith ^f^^ ; freq. part. 
bul' bul' ^^ ^t%), to speak, talk, tell, say, utter, 
pronounce (Siv. 439, 555, 599, 1052, 1797) ; to give 
forth sound, e.g. (of a bird) to sing, chirp, and so on 
according to tlie sound of the animal (Siv. 181 (of 
birds), 1360, 1814). bul"-mot" W^-^-^ I HTf^rT: adj. 
(f. buj^'-mub**'^^ -?I^ ), sjjoken, said, etc. ; (in narrative, 
etc.) a person jjreviously referred to, the said, the 
above-mentioned, bolan-wol" ^^fl^-Tt^ I ^l^'IT 
W^JTTir: m. (f. bolan-wajen ^^5i;-^T5ir'3;),onewho 
speaks, esji. one who speaks impudently or impertinently. 

bulun =[^ I t^^lw: conj. 3 (2 p.p. bulyov 5^^), to 

be forgotten ; to be led away, be misled, be deceived ; 
to forget, err, go astray, stray, mistake, go wrong, 

blunder, bul'-bul^ phorun" ^^-^t^ ^■'N I 

^^t=irT5T^t%: f.inf. to be eager, longing, or agitated 
in the perfonnance of anything. bulyo-mot" '^^t- 
?T^ I HT?W»t: adj. (f . bulye-mufe'i^ ^^■''1^)' forgotten, 
lost, astray ; forgetful, erring. 

balang ^^»I 1 '^TVlTTt^^: m. the scaffolding used as 
a support in building the upper part of a doorway or 
the like, the centering of an arch. 

bolanath ^(^)?rnTr«T m. (sg. dat. bolanathas ^^- 

^tra;), Bholiinatha, a N. of Siva (Siv. 168). 

bolanawun ^^riTjl. 1 »n^% ti^tNii: conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
bolanow" ^^nftj), to teach to speak (e.g. a child 
or a parrot) (Siv. 1376). bolan6w"-mot" ^wsft^- 

^iH I *iT^% H^TTlairi: perf. part. (f. bolanbw''-mufe" 

^'Sri'R -'T^). taught to speak (as a child or a parrot) ; 
enabled to speak (as of a dumb person cured) . 
bilor (L. 65), white crystal. 

bal^ran ^^^^j; 1 ^rr<t»5"RT^'T?i: f. curing, successful 

medical treatment of a sick person. 
bal»run 4'a^'t: 1 '»««im<nqiTT!Pi conj. 1 (1 p.p. bal°r" 
^^), to cure, to treat medically with success. 

bal^rawun ^^Tf'T I ^HT»?-q\^TT!!»l conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
barrow" ^^l^f ) , i q baPrun, qv. baPr6w"-mot" 
i^^tj-^rg I ^Wft^^: perf. part. (f. baProw**- 

mnte*^^^^TTf -JT^). cured. 

belis ^t^^, see byoP. 

balut [.«>]..? gend., the acorn of the Quercus incmm (El.). 
balatkar ^^iTc^TT: m. violence. _ga%hun — Tfi: I 

^^jjT^rf^^ ^fTT:"Sa-inf- to happen suddenly and violently 

(e.sp. of misfortunes, ^tc). 
bal^wa W^ 1 ^wiaiT^'^'J^™- '''"t' tumult, disturbance, 

insurrection, rebellion, muting'- 

bUav T^^^ 1 ^^^rsTfti^iTf^^iEi: in.-, ^ whetstone. — dith 

bihun —f^\ X^W^ I ^f^'^JT^'^'W, mbif. having 
applied the whetstone to sit ; hence,- to set ready tor 
action (e.g. for a battle, for gambling'^ for setting out 
on a journey), to wait equipped. — dyt,*^" '^^ ' 
%3T^WTT> m.inf. to apply the whetstone ;i- iiGnce, to 
bo hiiudsomel}' dressed, well equipped. ^ 

bolawun" ^^^g 1 ht^jitut: m- (f- bolawun" ^"^v^^"?^)' 

one who speaks ; (adj.) talkative, loquacious, garru.^^^- 
bal^Wbyi ^^it^ 1 ^^fyi<«ft«^ e.g. a rioter, one wlV" 
joins in an insurreclion, etc., cf. bal^wa ; in the pL, 
a mob of rioters. 

balay ■^^^^ (=L) I '^^^^'^ f. (sg. dat. balaye ^^a^ 

K.Pr. 237 ; pi. dat. balayen ^«rr^l), trial, affliction, 
misfortune (YZ. 64), calumity, evil, ill. This word is 
often spelt balae, balai, etc., as K.Pr. 2, 4, 84, 134, 
183, 207, and El. — yiii" —f^\ I ^T^^mTfi: f.inf. 
calamity, etc., to come or befall. 

balaye dyun'^ w^T^ f^5 I ■Rf?>t%"«f qfTWI minf- 

to make an offering, or offer a substitute, in order to 
avert a calamity or pestilence. — lagun — W^{^ I 
^'J^TT^'l^'iT. u^- to become an offering or substitute 
in order to avert a calamitv, to be devoted on behalf 
of another ; cf. balay lagi ^^T^ ^f'l, may thy 
misfortune be upon me ! (W. 101). 
bam 1 Wl I f%^: ni. an obstacle, impediment, hindrance, 
interruption (Gr.Gr. 148), something which causes 
disappointment. — pyon" — 'ci^ I fsf^imci: m.inf. 
an impediment to happen or he caused ; a disapjioint- 
ment to happen ; (of a member of a social gathering) 
to have one's enjoyment stopped. Cf. bamal and 

bamalad. — fehunun — ^sj; 1 f^^ rn i ^^u^ m.inf. 

to interrujot or impede anj^one by making him angry, 

saying vmpleasant things to him, or the like. 
bam 2 ^T( *j m. a kind of deep-toned drum, a bass drum 

(Siv. 1455). -zira -^H { = f^.;J.\)'''^- ^ pair of small 

kettle-drums (Siv. 1455). 
bam "^Jfi *b I ViZ'^i^ m. the roof of a house (Siv. 1108, 

1671). — dyun" — f^ I PZ^f^t^fTT: m.inf. to build 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bamai ^ 

107 — 

bumb 1 

,a roof, to roof a house. — tarun — <TT^1 I 'RZ^T- 
^ifft m.inf. to put the roof on a new house or to 
renew it in an old one. 

bama-zang ^tjt-bjjt I tjz^TVTT^n^: m. the 

sloping beams which support a roof ; presents given 
for luck to priests and to the carpenters and masons 
when the building of a roof is commenced. 

bbm^-chokh ^t^-'^ti I ^Ht^^^: m. (sg. dat. 
-cbokas "1^^^), a species of gambling, in which 
co-RTies are thrown upon the ground. -piit" -^Z I 
^IZ^Pr^«l>l f- (sg- dat. -pace -TT^), one of the boards 
which form the roof of a house ; a board suitable for 
such a purpose. 

bamai ^ j*/«j adv. and prep, together with, along with. 
As prep, it is used with the nom. case (Siv. 676, 810). 

baum ^h^ see bom 2. 

bema %*I l >lf^n^tlfri: m. a sister's husband, a brother- 
in-law (K.Pr. 30). -dar -TT^ I irf'I^qffT: m. a sister's 
husband (generally employed as a term of abuse). 

bim ^J^ *-j I ^^^^ m. fear, terror, dread ; re\'erence, 
respect ; danger, risk ; buna-SUtin, through fear 
(Siv. 128). — hawun — IT^I l H^H^-RJI: m.inf. to 
exhibit fear, i.e. to threaten, intimidate, frighten. 
— hyon" — ^5T I jq'JTVTTTSIJi; m.inf. to take fear, 
i.e. from previous experience to be afraid beforehand of 
any person, animal, action, or the like. — khyon" 
— ^g I H'TT'IH^' m.inf. to experience fear, to be 
afraid, terrified, panic-stricken. — rozun — T^^l • 
M^TsfTP^H^fl m.inf. to be timid, shy, of a fearful 
disposition ; to be abashed. — thawun — ^'l I 
H<<T^ I'tft^K^^l m.inf. to place fear, i.e. to intimidate, 

buna <u-j m. (sg. gen. byumuk"^ ^f)' insurance, 
money paid for the insurance of goods (Gr.M.). 

bom 1 Wti: m. anger, cf. bom". Used in the following 
compounds: — pyon^ — '^ I Tt^t%^Tm<T'. m.inf. 
anger to fall; hence, an outburst of anger against one's 
own people so as to spoil a holiday or the like ; the 
occurrence of some anger-causing impediment on such 
an occasion (cf. bam 1). --fealun— ^^ I ft^^^T'tl 
m.inf. anger to flee, anger to be appeased, esp. of the 
calming of some one usually of an angry disposition. 

boma-bukur'' ^t^^-f^ i Tt^f^: m. (f. -buk"r*i 

-^^■^), anger-faced, of one of such an angry dis- 
position that his face habitually shows the fact, -dev 

-'an I frilm t^^^rqr^^: m. (f. -deviii -?rf^), one 

wliose anger causes impediments, e.g. a passionate 
child who spoils a social gathering or a game, -bol" 
-^^ I -er^rf^a: adj. (f. -l50j" -if), full of silent 
rage, raging inwardly. 



bom 2 ^»^ or baum ^l"?^ I tj\V. m. the planet Mars ; 
voc. bauma (Siv. 477). -war -WT^ f. Tuesday (El., 
who makes it m.). 

bom" ^TT I ^^^HT^: (f. biim" ^»T), of an angry dis- 
position, passionate, wrathful, esp. when the fact 
causes annoyance to others. Cf. bom 1 and bam 1. 

bum 1 ■^^,, bum'-posh ft?^-^^, see bumb 1. 

bum 2 jii; (pi. buma ^»t), i.q. bumb 2, q.v. 

bum 3 ^ or bum ^ *jj, f. land, ground, soil 
(Siv. 1213, abl. bumi) ; foundation, base, root. 
— kadun*^ — ^^\ I -KctJIflrtilT ^TV^^T: finf. to drag 
out the foundation ; hence, met., to destroy down to 
the root, to cause to waste away ; in the hope of 
receiving further favours, to persistently cling to and 
worry a person from whom one has once before 
received a favour. — neriifi" — %T"3T I 'frat^Tni: 
f .inf . the foundation to come out ; hence, to be de- 
stroyed down to the root, to waste away. 

buma -sin W^-ftli;. I ftj^ m. an earthworm 
(K.Pr. 38), cf. bima-syun". -sin bah -1%^ Wf^ I 
m^gW^T^'jf^ f. (sg- tlat. -sin bosh" -t%'i;^^T^), the 
name of the twelfth lunar day of the light half of the 
month Mug (January-February), on which the fast of 
the eleventh day of that month is broken, -sin daham 
-t%i; ^W^ I »I7rf^lf%^: f- the name of the tenth 
day of the light half of Milg, on which a fast (con- 
sisting of only one meal in the day) is performed. 

-sin kah --ftri; ^f I m^^Sr^«[^ f- (sg- dat. 

-sin kbsh" -tIf'l.'imT), the name of the eleventh day 
of the light half of Mag, on which Hindiis fast, -sina 
kadane -'ftjT WS^ I '^l^^l^Trrr f - pi- iuf - to pull up earth- 
worms ; hence, met. , to stand idle and lazy, doing nothing. 

bumi-path f j??-xto I f^^finmi: m. (sg. dat. 

-pathas -ti?l^), a wide, level plain. 

bumai ^Ir, see bumb 2. 

bumb 1 51^ or bum 1 ^i^ 1 ^i^WfiJ^T^'i; f ■ the long 

stalk of the Nyinphcea stellata, see bel. 

bumbi kur*' «rti^-gi^ 1 ^ms^rraTfe^r^: f- a 

handful or bundle of such stalks, which are intended 
to be dried and eaten. -Ifit" -^^ I 3i5R«[<TI^€'ErTfT: f- 
(sg. dat. -l6ce -^'^), a bundle of such stalks when 

dried, -posh -xft^or bum^-posh ^^ -^t^ I fw^w^i; 

m. the Nympluea stellata or water chestnut. It is a lily- 
like plant, growing in water with a very long thin 
stem, which is said to have heating qualities and is 
dried and eaten as a vegetable in winter. A pleasant 
sherbet is made from the fragrant white flowers (cf. 
L. 72, 345, EL, and Siv. 1809). -feiir^* -'g^ I ^i^^TT- 
^^f^<lf^|^^: f. a bundle of NymplMu stalks, partly 
dried, and put by for consumption in winter. 

l''or words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

P 2 

buiub 2 ^W 

108 — 

bembr' 5ijt||i[ 

bumb 2 ^Jg^ or bum 2 ^^i l ^^ f. (usually in pi. 
bumba%^ or buma Wf{, YZ. 6, 51, 78, 208, 449), 
an eyebrow ; pi. mth emph. //, bumay or bumai, 
even eyebrows (Gr.Gr. 22). 

buma-ciriin'^ ^?T-'q^T;5r i ^wifz: f.inf. to contract 

the eyebrows, to frown, bumi-ruh ^ft-^ I f^T^PTr 
m. quick movement of the brows, not indicating anger. 

bamb^r ^?g^, etc., see bSb*r. 

bambur w^ I ^^fr: m. (sg. dat. bambaras ^jscxm^), 

flurry, agitation (mostly used in pi.). 

bambar pen' ^f^\ vii^ \ ^»;rjn^f%: m. pi. inf. 

agitation or flurry to occur. — tulan^ — 9^'^ I 
^TTpft^lT m. pi. inf. to flurry a person by hurrying 
him in the completion of any work. — WOthan^ 
— WJI5 I '^^13l^fTf%: m. pi. inf. sudden pain to 
arise, a start (from pain) to occur, as from pricking 
oneself with a thorn, tasting something unexpectedly 
pungent, accidentally touching fire, or the like. 

bombur ^ifr i fn;: m- (sg- dat. bomburas ^jg^^), 

a drone-bee (EL), a humble-bee (Siv. 1007, 1008, 
1035); in phrases such as haputh bombur, a black 
bear (L. 458), the word means black-bee coloured. 

bombura-god'' 4^-'i^ I V*»Tl>'ITi: m. a bees' 
nest, a beehive, -glta -^cTT f- the name of a famous 
song of the herdmaidens in honour of Krsna, in which 
his dark complexion is compared to the colour of 
a humble-bee (Siv. 1007). In Sanskrit this song is 
called the Bhramara-gUa, and forms part of the 47th 
chapter of the 10th book of the Bhagavata Pwaria. It 
is a favourite subject of translation into modern Indian 
vernaculars, -par -tn; I '^TT^T^- ni- bee's-wing, the 
name given to the buckle of a jegd or turban ornament. 

bambarlad ^?^^ i ^H'^T'?: adj. e.g. (as subst., f. 

bambarladin «(fc|<,^f^3j^), one who is flurried or 
agitated ; of a flurried or agitated disposition. 
bemudl «51W^ l ^TTF^t f- the act of reviling, abusing, 
insulting a person in loubUc. — gafehun'^ — T^^ I 
tSJ^HTTT^TTh: f.inf. reviling to take place, to be 
pubhcly insulted or reviled. 

bemud" sro^ i ■^RT^TTf: adj. (f. bemud** ^^nr?), 

worthy of being reviled or abused, despicable. 

bamujib ^^.^y^_ prep, on account (of), in pursuance 
(of); by means (of) (W. 99). 

bumika ^(^)t*l^ f. the earth (El.) ; soil, ground 
(K.Pr. 187*^ Siv. 1235, 1476) ; (in Ydga philosophy) 
one of the stages in the acquisition of divine knowledge, 
of which there are seven (Siv. 1654). 

bamal ^*?^ I f^^lff^; adj. e.g. one who interrupts or 
puts a stop to anything (e.g. an angry man at a dinner- 
party or the like), a spoil-sport ; cf. bam'r. 

bembl ^mi^ J:^* e=-J I ^f%f^: adj. e.g. not hungry, 

without appetite (K.Pr. 30). 
be-amal i_U^ c^ adj. e.g. unused, not put to use 

(K.Pr. 88). 
bamalad ^^^ i ft^f^?«T: adj. e.g. (as subst., f. 

bamaladiii ^H^if^'^), one who is subject to an 

impediment, esp. one who, at a dinner-party, finds 

himself prevented, owing to anger, from enjoying 

bomalad ^ji^^ i Tt^^i^: adj. e.g. (as subst., f. 

bomaladin Wt'T'5ff?[3f), filled with inward wrath (on 

experiencing opposition, or something disliked occurring, 

etc.), sulky. 
bamamoth ^^11^4 I ft^^*l^: f- the occurrence of an 

impediment in any work, owing to some person 

becoming angry. 
bamun ^W^ I "^(WK'- m. (pi. nom. baman ^?T^), 

a sprout, shoot, leaf-bud, blade (Siv. 1848). — yun'* 

— f^«I I '^l^'OS''^* ni.inf. buds to sprout, esp. from 

a burnt or dried-uiJ tree or from withered seeds. Met. 

offspring to be born to one who has hitherto been 

be-mane ^J-j<^ c=-J ^^\- ^S- unmeaning, senseless ; 

without meaning, conveying no meaning or impression 

to the mind (K.Pr. 30). 
be-iman J^\ ,—j, see be-yiman. 
bemandacb 5m«^^ I fsT^w: adj. e.g. (as subst., 

m. sg. dat. bemandachas sztT^^^), without shame, 
bemandoch'^ ^''^^ I f'l^^: adj. (f. bemandiich** 

«!TJl«^^), shameless; esp. wanting in reverence, 

bam^r ^j^;'^ i f^wtwr^^: adj. (as subst., f. bamaren 

^1R^'5() , one who interrupts, impedes, or spoils a social 
gathering by a display of anger, cf . bamal (Gr.Gr. 148). 

bemar sztot^^U-j I ■'^TransiT: adj. e.g. sick, ailing, ill, 
unwell, indisposed (K.Pr. 29, YZ. 40) ; a sick person, 
a patient (K.Pr. 251, YZ. 184). Voe. bemaro (K.Pr. 
30). -dori -^f^ I ^fJ|^<m f. attendance on the sick, 

bembr* ^»TTt5! ojW^ ' T^l- f- sickness, illness, disease 
(Gr.M., where it is spelt be"). • — pSn** — ^'^ I 
Tt^ri'd'^' f-inf- sickness to occur or arise, esj). of a long 
illness. . 

bemari-bud" cgjnfr;-^^ 1 ^^xl^ij: f. a severe, 

long-continued illness, a chronic illness, -drav -d\<A I 
''C\'n'fa''5?f: adj. e.g. (as subst., f. -draye -'^T^), issued 
from illness, convalescent, -hot" -fg I '^if^w: adj. 
(f . -hiib" -^3 ) , smitten by illness, an invalid, weak after 
illness. — wotb" — 15 1 0'l*J*ft: adj. (f. — wofeh" 

Fur words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bemarilad g>»TT f< <i j 

— 109 — 

bana l 5^71 

— WW )> risen from sickness, one who has just recovered 
from a long illness. — WOthun — WT't, I Ttlf'T^fw: 
m.inf. to rise from sickness, to recover from a long 

bemarilad ^jmifx:^ 1 "^Tgrr: adj. e.g. (as subst., f. 
bemariladin ^JWlf^^f^'^). suffering from a long 
illness, an invalid. 

bamaren w?r^, see bam*r. 

be-murawath ci-V-» c=-^ ^'^i- ^-g- wanting in manliness, 

without fortitude or virility (K.Pr. 30). 
be-mis4 W-fi?^^ Ji.^ cH adj. e.g. incomparable, be- 

mis*lu-manand ^-tfl?i;^-?i'Ri5" jcJU j Ji-« ,_j, 

without compare and parallel, incomparable and un- 
paralleled (Siv. 775). 

bimasen ^rt'T^'t, m. N. of a famous hero in the 
Mahabharata, one of the five PSndava brothers 
(Siv. 1164). 

bimasyun" f^flrj I it^t?^: m. (sg. dat. bimasinis 

t^^t^t^^; f- bimasin" fW'rf^'sr), an earthworm, 
i.q. buma-sin, see bum 3. The f. is a smaller, or 
female, worm. 

bim-tol" f^-zt^ I M<*<Hf>ii: m. the extreme limit of 
a person's resources. 

bam-feuth" '^-?t3 l J^^nS^l^ m. the quince fruit, 
Pyrtis cydonia (L. 76, 348). According to El. there 
are two varieties of quince growing in Kashmir : 

feok'^ bam-bflth"^ and modur" bam-bath", the sour 

quince and the sweet quince. The quince is ripe in 
the month of October and is of sujierior quality. 

-bath^-hyuh" -f|-ff| i tYt^^^T^t iftfT^: adj. 

(f. -feath'^-hish" -Wf-tf^), quince-like, quince- 
coloured, pallid as a result of illness. 

bam-feath'-byol'^ ^1-fj?-^f i ^T^i^gnt^ m. 

a collection or mass of quince-seeds. -buth'-hut*' 

-Wt?-f^ I ??3rqi5r-gw^^»i:. ^rre ^ f- (sg. dat. 

-bath'-bace -'#^-1'^), dried slices of quince ; the 

wood of the quince-vine, -bath'-kuj'^ "^l^'3'l, ' 

'I'lra*!! f. a quince-vine, a quince- tree, -buth'-kul" 

-^^-^^if m. a quince-tree (EL). 
bemaza Wf{^ !>}^,=r^. I f^lT^T^: adj. e.g. tasteless, 

insipid ; unpleasant, displeasing. 
bumazuv" ^Iff l '^"'^^llt^^^: m. the name of a village 

near the famous ruins of Martanda, usually called 

' Bamzu ' by Europeans, the ancient Bhlmadvlpa 

(RT.Tr. ii, 465). 
ban ^^ I ^z»i f. (sg- dat. bani ^f^r, Gr.Gr. 70), 

a heap, a pile, a stack (K.Pr. 64, 144, 207). Cf. b6n" 

and banna. 

bana-gasa ^^-1T« I ^2fT![Ji; m. a hayrick, 

a straw stack; the hay or straw composing a rick. 


-zyun" -fsjg I efi^s^TTTj; m. a stack or pile of firewood ; 
the wood which composes such a stack, or a piece of 
wood drawn therefrom. 
ban 1 W\^ m. an arrow (El.) ; Onosma macrocephala (El.) ; 
Zizyphus flexiiosa (El.) ; Rhus cotinus (written bhdn) 

(El.), see bana. 

ban 2 ^T1 c^V m. a sec. sufp. signifying 'keeper', 'man', 
etc., as in ratha-ban ■^^-■^TI;, a charioteer (Siv. 1734). 

bana ^t m., i.q. banna, q.v. (El.) ; likus cotinus (El.), 
cf. ban 1. 

bana adv. perhaps (El.). Cf. bona. 

bana 1 ^TT I VT^J{^ m. a vessel (for any purpose), basin, 
plate, dish, water-jar, pitcher (K.Pr. 4, 17, 25, 29, 50, 
75, 87, 114, 171, 216, 221, 252, W. 132, 144, Siv. 473, 
1149, 1216 ;■ with emph. i, bdni, K.Pr. 138). -bah 
-^Tf I ^T'^^T m. the sweating of grain, etc., 
confined in a jar. -bah^ -^^ I Tn"^qii: adj. e.g. 
sweating, fermented (of grain, friut, etc., confined in 

a jar), -bah' anun -^^ ^^i; I m% tjt^wt^tji; 

m.inf. to cause or bring on such fermentation, -bah' 
yun^ -^tl ^J^ I ^T^ PfT'^l?^»r^'TJl m.inf. such 
fermentation to occur, -batha -^3 I ^T"^€*T?: 
a general term for dishes, vessels, etc. -gor" -^i^ I 
in'^'Elprrf^^fafil^ m. a maker of vessels, a potter, 
a coppersmith ; a seller of vessels of all kinds, -garath 
-1T^ 1 m'^TSff^I^Jf^ m. (sg. dat. -garatas -^rW;), 
the shaping of earthen vessels, -ban -f "t, f • a small 
vessel, a cup (YZ. 421). -k§da -^^ I f^-ra^flf: f. 
a potter's furnace, the pile of combustible materials 
in which he bakes his earthen vessels. -kSdnr 
-^^I^ I ^T?*T^5f^5n:f%§^: m. (sg. dat. -kSdaras 

-^f^^),a large kind of jar, wrapped round -with 
twigs cased in mud, kept in kitchens as a receptacle 
for articles frequently required ; a eliina merchant 
(EL). -khbr^ -^^^ l TPfTf^^f: f. the weiglit of 
carrying on a household ; esp. living as a householder 
when one's means are narrow and one has to make 
a good outward show, and in such a way that out- 
siders do not realize the state of affairs, -khor""^ 

phutariin*' -^^ S-^T^ i 5?ft%^Tf hM'TJi; f.inf. to 
break, i.e. to give up, such a struggle for appearances 
owing to one's poverty becoming known, -khot" 
-^^ I ^Bt'T^^: m. a pot-cui)board, a cupboard for 
holding pots and pans, -kuth" -gtZ I HTX^TTTI 
m. a dish-room, a larder, a room reserved for storing 
food and condiments in separate bowls, a store-room. 
-mandul" -«in^^ i *?T'isf%wrTWT^^iwr'r*i: m. a 
place in a kitchen for laying out dishes separately. 
— phutani 1 — ^Z^ m. pi. inf. (for 2 see bana 3), 
crockery to be smashed. — tburan' — WK^ I ^T'W^IJ'W 

For words cuntaining bh, see under b. See article b. 

bana 2 ^TT 


band 1 ^^^ 

m. pi. inf. to shape earthen vessels on the potter's wheel. 
-tunz*' -fist I tJT^^t^: f. a pile of dishes or plates, 
one on the%op of the other. — thasan' — ZT^^ I 
trnrfWH^''T m. pi. inf. to break dishes ; met. to exhibit 
anger, be in a rage. -woP 1 -^f I ^^TT^f^%«!T 
m. (f. -wajen --^159^) (for 2 see bana 3), a maker 
of earthen vessels, a potter ; a seller of earthen vessels. 
.yut<i -^Zl ^TS^^M^: f- (sg. dat. -yace -Vr^), 
a kind of large wicker or cane basket in which potters 
carry about their wares for sale. 
bana 2 ^TT I T^I^TZ: m. (connected -with bana 1), the 

womb. — wasan' — ^^ I li^ziT'^n^t^iifa: 

m. pi. inf. the womb to fall, or be displaced, prolapsus 
uteri to occur. 
bana 3 ^TI I ^TTRni; m. (connected with bana 1) , fate, 
luck, fortune (good or bad), as the result of a person's 
character or conduct ; wortliiness to have good fortune, 
the possession of many virtues (Siv. 431). — barana 
yin^ — ■^TTf t^l5 I M«!Jdl«H^: m. pi. inf. good luck to 
be fulfilled, to get plenty, to become very prosperous. 
— phutan* 2 — ^it^ I f^tvt^^: m. pi. inf. (for 
1 see bana 1) luck to be broken ; hence, friendship 
to be broken. -rost" -^^ adj. (f. -riifeh^ -'^%)' 
luckless, miserable, of no worth (Siv. 1216, 1475, 1550, 

1554). -wol" 2 -^^ I vrn^fT^Jift m. (f. -wajen 

-^3jr^) (for 1 see bana 1), one who is referred to as 
experiencing fate (good or bad) as the result of his 

conduct. — zanun — ?ngi; I i^T"^^! ^'tff^^^H^ii?; 
m.inf . fortune to be recognized as the result of conduct. 

ben ^P^ I 5^^: m. difference, distinction (most often 
found in a negative sentence, as in timan chhuna 
ben klh, there is no difference between them) ; 
apartness, distinction, non-unity (Siv. 55, 543). 

bena-ben s^H-'Sni^ l tira'fTT f. separateness, apart- 
ness, aloofness. 

ben^ ssr^ etc., see byon". 

beni, see bene. 

be-bin j-jI,_j adj. e.g. unlawful, against the law 

bin, see bin. 

bin 1 ^51; i ^^ffgrrw^t%^: f. (sg. dat. bin" ^^), 

the ornamented flange or wooden strip covering the 
crack between the two halves of a double door or 
window- shutters when shut. 

bin 2 "^^ f. a reed-pipe, pipe, flute, fife (Siv. 1455). 

bina f%^ bj ra. foundation, ground, motive, beginning. 
Used in the following : — karun — ^i^'t. I ^'HT- 
r<i«n»i*i m.inf. to make a beginning ; hence, to consider 
the means of accomplishing some work, such as the 
collection of materials, etc. 


bini ^^ f. the wrist (EL). 

bon ^'t, I '^^ii: adj. e.g. low, not lofty (as a room or the 
like) (Gr.M.). More usually as adv., below, beneath 
(Siv. 966, 985, 1412, 1879). — anun — ^^l, m-inf- 
to bring down (El. ; K.Pr. 43, spelt bun; YZ. 257). 
-bon -'^\ I ^\ift5>ii: adv. gradually lower, lower and 
lower (u.w. vbs. of motion, descent, etc.). — gafehun 
— JIIf»^ m.inf. to go down, descend (El.), -kun -oji«^^ | 
■^\ft-*fT5f adv. towards tlie lower part of anything, in 
a lower direction, downwards (Grr.Gr. 161, K.Pr. 38). 

— ^ta hyor" gafehun — fi li^ ifi: m.inf. to go down 
and up, to be tossed up and down (Gr.M.). — febunun 
— W^'i. m.inf. to lower, let down (e.g. a bucket into a 
well) . — wasun — ^§1, m.inf. to descend (K.Pr. 158) . 
bona-hyor" sR-^i^ I '^^ ^"^^ adv. up and down, 
from top to bottom ; one above and the other below ; 
upside down, topsy-turvy, -hyur" -IT^ I ^tJ ^^»i; 
adv. id. -kani -qrf'T I ^^raifi;. adv. down, on the 
ground (u.w. vbs. of putting, etc.). -kanyuk" -^'5^1 
^V^iT: adj. (f. -kanic*^ -cfif^^), lower, nether, under, 
below, -petha -WS I "^^ "^T}^ adv. from below, 
from beneath, commencing from the bottom, -shuth 
-^^ 1 ''HV ^TT»9 adv. id. 

bon^-kin^ ^^-fcfi^ I ^va'^ri; adv. below, along the 
bottom, along the foot (of) (u.w: vbs. of going, etc.). 

bona ^TT I ^ adv. like, as if, as in suh bona, as if 
it were he ; korun bona, as if lie had done it. 

bonai 1 ^^ adv. from below (Gr.Gr. 22). 

bonai 2 ^^ 2, see boh. 

bon" ^5 or bon" 1 ^5 1 TTfsi: m. a heap, a pile (Siv. 126, 
sg. dat. ; 1 199, sg. nom. ; 1287, pi. dat.) . Cf . ban, banna. 

ban* gafehan' ^^ Tst^ ' 't^Ttftn^'W: m. pi. inf. 

piles to be made, a large pile or heap to grow, heap to 

be heaped uj)on heaj). 
bon" 2 «[1 m. a chisel for cleaving wood (El.) . 
bun' '^^ f . handsel ; first sale for ready money early in 

the day (considered as a good omen and as determining 

the luck of the day). — kariin" — ^T!^ 1 R^^T- 

TWJI1 f .inf . to make such a sale. 
buni, buni, see bun", 
buncaka ^g^^ 1 •lE^fTf: m. a man who acts or conducts 

himself ridiculously, a buffoon, a comic actor. 
band 1 W^ 1 ^*^: m. a kinsman, relation, esp. a near 

relation, such as father, mother, wife, or sister 

(K.Pr. 25, Siv. 43, 624, 1526, 1790). Cf. bandav. 

-bandav -^"P^^ 1 ^^?Wf: kinsmen and 

relations, both near and distant (cf. Siv. 43). 

banda-wol" 1 ^?^^g 1 ^:f^'*i^: ni. (f. -wajen 
-e(|3tj3j) (for 2 see band 3), ha\'ing many relations, 
belonging to a well-known and high family. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

band 2 ^^^ 

— Ill — 

bandela ^^^r 

band 2 ^'^ Joj I «|^: adj. e.g. fastened, tied up, tound 
(YZ. 40, Siv. 1035) ; shut, closed, stopjjed, cut off 
prevented, hindered, barred, cheeked (Siv. 1801) 
imprisoned, caged (K.Pr. 167, 218). — gandan' 
— A^^ I ^f'SrfW^^'f'ltJT'fTj: ni- pi. inf. a kind of knot 
twisted up from gold, silver, or silk thread embroidered, 
as an ornament, upon dresses, etc. — gafehun — 1W1 I 
f'T^^H^T'R; m.inf. to be stopped, impeded ; to become 
stopped by one's own slackness or laziness ; to be shut 
up, confined, locked up. — karun — ^51; I fHIg^^'^TSJ^ , 
^iq»T^^ m.inf. to stop, to impede ; to shut, close ; to 
delay a work by slackness ; to shut up, confine, lock up. 

band 3 ^"^ jcj I ^tO^T^H "i. a limb, joint, of the 
body or of any jointed article. The pi. is used to 
mean the whole body, as in bandau nishe, from the 
whole body (K.Pr. 255). 

banda-banda karun ^^-^^^ ^^sj; I ^f^ift t^HT- 
WTJ^ m.inf. to separate Unib from Hmb, dissect, take 
to pieces (of anything jointed together), -dar -^TK. ' 
tmrt^: adj. e.g. anything (esp. an ornament or the 
Kke) complete in its various sections, limbs, or parts. 
— kadun — W^^, I "^J^gTft f^^^^*!?^ m.inf. to take to 
pieces, dismember. -phut" -'PiZ 1 'T^^: adj. (f. 
-phut" "5?^, f. sg. dat. -phuce -'5'^), having a limb 
or joint broken (of anythingpossessing joints). -w61°2 

-■^^ I ^m^^T^: adj. (f. -wajen -^Tsq^) (for 

1 see band 1), jointed, made up of separate parts 
jointed together, -wath -^^^'S 1 '^^^fv: m. (sg. dat. 
-"watas -^TZ^), a joint, a place where two limbs or 
sections are united. 
band 4 ^^ Joj I ^Tjrr^q'UT^r^^l'^ m. a pledge given 
as security for a loan (K.Pr. 181). -rand -t;«5[ I 
^^^T'B^WTf^: m. anything offered as security, such 
as a pledge, a surety, or a Avritten document, -rand 
karun -T^ «R^1 l Hrd«l*JI«*T*l»t*l m.inf. to give such 
in security. — thawun — ^(^^ I ^T!n4w^f^'«rra: 
m.inf. id. 

banda-pafeh ^^-•qiP I f^^T^Wrn f. (sg. dat. 

-pabhi -trf^), confidence, trust, reposed in, or credit 
given to, a person possessed of immovable property, 
though sliort of ready money. -wasth -^^ I 
^GrT^q<((Tfl<4M m. (sg. dat. -wastas -^RT5Et), any- 
thing given as a pledge. 

banduk" ^^ i ^w«ri: adj. (f. bandiic" ^^), 
that which is pledged. 

band ^T^, see bSd. 

band acnis, see bad. 

banda 1 ^a^j , in the following compounds (for other 
compounds beginning with this word see band 1, 3, 
and 4). -kath -^ I ^i^nn^TP^ f- (sg. dat. -kathi 



-«15t^), a prudent, trustworthy reply, decision, or piece 
of advice, banda wanun ^^ w^^ i ^jjfrfu: 

m.inf. to make such a reply, etc. 

banda 2 a^ m. a bondman, slave, servant (K.Pr. 
89, 250). 

bande WT%, see bade. 

band^ 1 ^1^ I ftTTtlSff^^^: f. a kind of turban made 
of cloth woven from silken threads and covered with 
gold or silver {kaldbaUu), worn by the bride or bride- 
groom at a wedding. 

band' 2 ^^ I '^^Sf^^^ m. a pledge, a deposit. 
— hyon" —1^5 I J^lTflTarTt ^TWrsfft^irJl m.inf. to 
take possession of a house in exchange for a loan, 
to take on mortgage \vith possession. — ratun 
— T^l I •*JT^T^T«m m.inf. to receive or accept 
a pledge or deposit. — thawun — ^^^ I ^TUT^^- 
^•ITTO: m.inf. to give in pledge. 

bandi ^tI^ , see bidi. 

bend 5l^ or bind fai^ or bindu f^«^ m. a drop, 
a spot ; esp. the dot which fonus the nasal symbol or 
aimsvdra in the Silradii or Nagarl character (Siv. 774). 
bindu-nad f^^-TT^ (Siv. 452) or nada-bend it^- 
S!l^ (Siv. 669, 1320, 1336, 1594, 1602), a term in 
the Yoga j)hilosophy (see Bhdgnvata Pnrdna, VII, xv, 
54) for the nasal sound represented by this dot, 
employed in mystical formidas, as representing a 
phase of the Supreme ; hence, met., the Supreme 

bond' ^Ttl[, see bbdi. 

bandi-bajan ^T'^-^^'t m. Segeretia hramh-ethiana (EL). 

bandobast L::^-ajjji:j m. plan, organization, manage- 
ment, administration ; method, order, system ; a 
settlement (of rev&nue) (EL). 

bandagl ^S'^ f- servitude, service (YZ. 380) ; com- 
pliment, salutation, farewell. — karuii" — ^^^T f.inf . 
to comi^Ument, salute, say farewell (EL). 

bandakh ^'^[Ti I ^^ffTT^lffi; adj. e.g. (as subst., m. sg. 
dat. bandakas ^•^^^), anything which impedes or 
is an obstacle. 

bandukh ^^^"3^ j^-^ • ^t^Ti^xr^smgvJi: m. (sg. dat. 
bandukas qs^**^), a gun, musket (K.Pr. 14; W. 18 
for gender). — dyun" — f^J I ^rf^^^JT ITTWl 
m.inf. to aim a gun, to hit the mark \vith a gun. 
— yun" — 1^5 1 ^'fvi?l«^'Rnf f»T: m.inf. to be hit by 
the bullet of a gun. 

banduka-khar ^^qj-T^TT i ^f^iT^Tj^ji^^T^: m. 

a gun-maker. 
bandela ^^?f l ^i^^: m. a man whose duty is to 
arrest and confine criminals, a thief -catcher, a jailer. 
— thawan' — ^rsftT I f^Tt^r ^s^sj-nr t^P^5ii;ifl3H»i: 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bondil ^Tf^ 


banga ^t[ 

m. pi. inf. to appoint thief-catchers, to order the 
arrest of an offender. 

bondil «(iri^^, see bodil. 

bandan 1 ^^^_ I W1"T^^ffi: m. respect, reverence ; 
obeisance, homage, adoration. — ga^bun — 1W1 I 
^^^^T^f^: m.inf. reverence, etc., to occur or be 
shown. — pyon" — Wg I I^^WfWvninxrrrT: m.inf. 
an occasion for showing reverence or welcome to occur. 
bandana- wol" «r^iT-^5r i ^^^[TrsR: adj. (f. 
-"wajen -^5JI^), one who is in the habit of showing 
reverence, of a reverential disposition ; one who 
receives reverence, of higli dignity. 

bandan 2 ^^^si; (Siv. 973) or bandana «n^in 
(Siv. 1435), m. a bond, tie, fetter. In Siv. 1435 the 
final a is prob. m.c. 

bandar ^^5^ I '^T!n^»IT?I^ft' m. one who is in the 
habit of taking pledges in return for loans, a pawn- 

bandar ^?^jJcj l ^fl"?:T!jni^»i: m. a city street usually 
crowded wth many jmssengers ; a harbour, trading- 
town, emporium (YZ. 160, 548). 

bandara 'ITS^TT; I ^^F^JT^i^U^^T- ™- t^e arrangements 
for or carrying out of the cooking and preparation 
of a great feast given to mendicants, etc., on the 
occasion of a religious festival or the like ; the giving 
of such a feast. — karun — oR^'l, I ^T'^^ ^^^- 
^gjT^Tefijft^ "I ^ f% : m.inf. to make such a great feast. 

bandbr* ^xssT^ I ^F^RT^ii^a^: m. (f. bandor" 
^T^T^)> the manager of such a feast. 

binder f^^ I ^J^TiSfrf^^rf^^: f. a kind of spangle 
or ornament for the forehead, worn by young married 

bindur" f^'^'^ I ^'3T"R; m- the stomach, belly, abdomen. 
— alun — "^^ I sBTF^'ftH^'W; m.inf. the belly to 
tremble, to be agitated, terrified. — natun — •T^ll I 
Wr^^ffTT'Tl^: m.inf. id. 

bindraban t^^T^«l, m. N. of a wood (Sanskrit, Vmda- 
vana) near the town of Gdkula in the District of 
Mathurii on the left bank of the Yamuna (Jumna) . It 
is celebrated as the place where Krsna (Krishna), in 
the character of Gopiila, passed his youth, associating 
with the cowherds and herd-maidens employed in 
tending cattle (Siv. 997, 1053, 1327, 1367, 1409, 1423). 

bindaren fsr^^^I I ^^TT f . a deceitful woman skilled 
in treachery, a treacherous Siren, a Circe. 

bandish ^t^^ iJ"^ ' t'TT^^^: f. the act, or state, of 
tying, binding, or imprisoning. 

bandutb ^f( I =r*^m m. (sg. dat. bandatas ^?^^), 

connexion, relationship, afiinity (Gr.Gr. 144) ; the 
affection existing between kinsfolk. — gafehun 

— iTW*l I ^"^fft^^; m.inf. kinship-affection to come 
into being (of two unrelated persons becoming close 

friends). — karun — ^i^«i: I ^T^tw Tftl7nT^w«n- 
f^f^: m.inf. (of persons not related) to entertain 
mutual affection, like that between kinsfolk. 
bandav ^l*^^ I ^•^- "i- ^ relation by blood, or a 
connexion by marriage (Siv. 43, 624 ; K.Pr. 201) ; 
cf. band 1. -bay -'mv l ^'^■^ f. the wife of a kins- 
man ; a kinswoman (such as a sister or maternal or 
paternal aunt). 

bbndVay ^^^^, see bSd'way. 

bandeza ^^sj i ^ s^^tsij^; , m^f^^: m. tying firmly, 
shutting np tightly, enclosing securely in a cage or 
the like ; a certain medicine for rhermiatism or the 
like, made up of pepper, ginger, etc. 

banafshe AjUcj f. Vio/a serpens, also called nfaia-posh or 
salt flowers, as they used to be exchanged for their 
weight in salt (L. 74). 

bang ^1 m. breaking ; breaking of the voice, stammering, 
broken articulation (Siv. 107, 450, 974, 1103, 1203, 

bang ^fT ,_/jlj , see big. 

banga ^ u-^ l ^^ f. Indian hemp, hliang, Cannnbis 
iriilica (L. 67), either the entire plant or its leaves, 
dust, or stalks used for intoxicating purposes ; also 
Cannabis saliva (L. 68), cultivated mainly for its fibre 
(K.Pr. 80) ; a species of millet, cf. bazar-banga. 
— din'^ — f^^T I 1'^^T'UI f.inf. to gi^e bhang for 
consumption, to intoxicate with bhang ; met. to delude 
a person into hostility to anyone. — galuii" — JIM^j^ I 
f^T^^^Tir •mrfl f.inf. to melt bhang ; met. entirely to 
remove, utterly destroy. — tulun" — ^^^ I fll^'^TTf 
'BTm'f^ f.inf. to lift bhang ; met. entirely to consmne 
or use up (stored food or the like). — wudawun" 
— ■^TT^ I f'TI^^^i^lTW^ f.inf. to cause bhang 
to fly ; met. to take away entirely and destroy. 
— WOthiin^ — W^ I t'i:^^*l^T»^ f.inf. bhang to 
arise ; met. to be entirely consumed, used up. -yar 
-■TR; I 'l^^^ ™- '1 fellow - consimier of bluing, 
a bhang boon companion, -yar^z -'?rr^^ I H^T^^ 
f. bhang boon companionshij). 

bangi-bobus" ^t^-^tf^ I ^TfTjf%^f^^: m. 

a kind of firework, a kind of bomb which bursts in 
the air. -boda -Wt^ I 'Tfl^'^: m- fuddled or 
intoxicated with bhang, -dar -^TT I T^^'^'i; m. 
a piece of land (generally on the bank of a river) 
on which bhang grows wild, -dus -^^ I JT^T^Rf J^ 
m. a pestle for pounding bhang, -dyol" -31^ I 
)T^tqeR m. the bark of the stalk of hemp, -deli- 

wath -^f^-^3 I -^q^TF^rmrarr ^^^j^rrrw: m- 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bang! ^ 

— 113 

banun ^g^j. 

(sg. dat. -deli-watas -^rf%-^TZ^), roping up with 
hemp-bark ; met. commencing any work with in- 
complete or improper materials (cf. K.Pr. 80). -dev 
-^^ I ^^iH^wfl" m. one who is a slave to the bJiang 
habit, -manz nalsun -ti^ '^'^ I f'JT^ri^rra: m.inf. 
to dance amidst Indian hemp plants (where one's 
dancing cannot be seen) ; met. to labour in vain. 
-ras -■^^ I JT^TT^: ni. bhang juice, an intoxicating 
drink prepared by pounding bhang leaves in water. 
-raz -'^^ I T^Hfl^**"^ X;^: f. a rope made of hemp 
bark. -shoda -'?ft^ I *I^I<*l<H«ft m. a bhang sot. 
-shira -if^T l H^iym?;^: m. an intoxicating drink 
made by pounding female bhang blossoms in water. 
-thul-3^ I iTf lyiqj^, ^f TT^^f%^^: m. a small 
egg-shaped section of the female bhang blossom ; a sort 
of firework, a kind of bomb, -tup" -'Z^ I T^TMUji^ 
m. the male bhang blossom. -tiryuv" -fZ'5^ or 
-fztr^ I '^^•TT^ITt' m- the female bhang blossom. 

bang! ^aft f., i.q. banga (EL). 

bong' ^tt?l . see bbg'. 

bangal ^i?T^ m. the province of Bengal (Gr.M.). 
bangaluk" ^1^ (gen. sg.), adj. of or belonging to 
Bengal (Gr.Gr. 94). 

bangala ^J^'M l llTOl^f^^^: m. a terrace room, a terrace 
summer-house, a room open on four sides on the top 
of a house (Siv. 784, 96-5, 1247, 1696). Cf. bong^la. 

bangbl' ^^Ilt^ l ^f'^lft^^: adj. e.g. of or belonging 
to Bengal, a Bengali ; as subst. f. the Bengali 
language (Gr.M.). 

bong4a ^Jj^r i irrm^: m., i.q. bangala, q.v. 

banger ^jt^ or bangur" ^3n| i Jif^qfcii^^l adj. (f. 
bang^ren ^*i4^ or banger*' ^'i^), one who deals 

in bhimg ; one who is accustomed to eat or drink it, 
a bhang-sot (Gr.Gr. 148, and (for f.) 35, 39). 

bong^r ^JIT; I •BT^^r^'III f- a certain ornament, a glass 
armlet, bracelet, bangle, worn by Musalman women 
(El,) ; El. s.v. biingir (q.v. for varieties of bracelets) 
says they are made of different shapes, and of various 
materials, such as gold, silver, brass, copper, tin, or a 
fine kind of clay. 

bong^ri-gul" f '^fr-^f l ^T'g^TU^x^^TF: m. an 
arm covered with many glass bangles, -gor" -1^ I 
^^^Z^fll^ m. (f. -giir*' -jf^, but his wife is 
-gar'-bay -Ht^^-^TI), a glass bangle-maker, a bracelet- 
maker (EL), -won" -^^ 1 ^T^^i^Tut^^^ m. 
(-wanen -^tsj'^), a seller of glass bangles, a bracelet- 
seller (K.Pr. 154). 

bong^rel j'l^^I l ^fT^T^cS'^Tjj-j f. a woman on whose 
arms there are many glass bangles. 

bangis (K.Pr. 25), i.q. bogis, sg. dat. of bBgS q.v. 

I benih, see bene. 

banj ^W I ^Tftl'5'^ m. traffic, trade, commerce. 
— karnn — ?B^»t^ i ^ftn^ viT^l'^ m.inf. to do 
trading, to trade, to earn money by trading. 

banjer ^WK l '^W^«n *Tfi: m. waste-land, land unfit 
for cultivation or whicli has never been cultivated. 
— tnlun — g^l. I ■^ITf rl^^TII?^ m.inf. to bring such 
land under cultivation. — batun — ^^1, I ^1lf<T- 
^■qHTTi; m.inf. id. 

ban-jiru Wt_-^^m. Artemisia indica and restita (EL). 

banka, see baka. 

bankh ^T| m. (sg. dat. bankas ^^^), a bank (the 

counting-house), (borrowed from English) (Gr.M.). 
ban-keinti (?), ni. Edwanlsia mollis (EL). 

bbni-kar WT^-^T"^ j^ ij^. ' ^^fTfr^R: m. the 

assistant of a merchant, a salesman. 

bana-leng ^IT-^l' l WTlUf^l^'l m. a Banalihga, or liiiga- 
shaped pebble brought from the bed of the River 
Narmadii in India, and worshipped in Kashmir, as in 
other parts of India, as a form of Siva (RT.Tr. ii, 67 
and 283). 

banlas "Sl'^'sn^ m. a cloud (EL). 

bana-mas ^ti-»ti^ i i^t^hto: , »t^?tt€: the solar 
month in which an intercalary lunar month occurs ; 
an intercalary lunar month, a lunar month in 
which the sun does not move to a new sign of the 

bana-mbs' ^T*r-?iT^ i JiT^m^^ii^Tsn^^fff adj. e.g. 
one who foUows the prescribed rites and obligations 
of the solar month in which an intercalary lunar 
month occurs, and not those of the intercalary month. 

bana-mos" ^TT-?ftf i »iig?n?tT'^T'0 , t^^ ^ adj. 
(f. -mbs" -?rrH),of or belonging to the solar month 
in whicli an intercalary lunar month occurs ; one who 
follows the iirescribed rites and obligations of such 
a month. 

banna ^a l cRZI^ f. a heap, pile, cf. ban and bon°. 

banani ^•r'fl' adj. e.g. that which can be made, possible, 
l^robable (Gr.M.). 

banun ^^s^^ i h^^*1, "HTtF: conj. 3 (2 p.p. banyov 
^JJJt^), to be made, constructed, built ; to be created, 
formed, fashioned, produced (Siv. 649, 689) ; to come 
into being, to be jiroduced (of crops) ; to be prepared, 
got ready, be done, finished, completed ; to be 
managed, executed, effected ; to be felt, experienced 
(of pain) (K.Pr. 30, YZ. 196) ; to be composed ; to 
be mended, repaired ; to be established, set up ; to be, 
become (Siv. 490, 529, 544, 559, etc.) ; to happen, 
befaU (Siv. 91, 674, 829; H. \-ii, 22), betide (YZ. 37, 
128) ; to be possible (Siv. 907) ; to fit, come right, to 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

benn* ^^ 


banyul'^ ^"3^ 

be suitable (Siv. 1228) ; to succeed, do well, prosper, 
to be made, acquired, gained, panani banana, from 
my own being, i.e. because I am wliat I am (K.Pr. 
163). banyov kath, of what is it made ? (Siv. 763) ; 
fut. pass. part, banun ^f «(,, that which is to be, the 
future, destiny (YZ. 215) ; banana-rost°, free from 
fate (as in ' no one can escape from fate ') (H. -vdi, 23). 
Witli the infinitive of another verb, banun has a 
potential force, as in me cbhuna banan parun, 

I cannot read (W. 86). In poetry the pres. part, is 
often banan, instead of banan, e.g. Siv. 1003, 1007. 
banith gabbun ^f?!^ rl^^ \ ^^t%T^t^nif%; 
m.inf. suddenly or unexpectedly to be made, accom- 
plished, completed, etc. — yun° — f^^ I ^srfrT^^- 
im: m.inf. to succeed, turn out well, be fortunate, to 
prosper, banyo-mof^ W^qt-'ig I ^f^'- perf. part. 
(f. banye-mub*^ ^^-?t^), produced, come into being 
(Siv. 447, 618) ; completed, finished, executed, etc. ; 
successful, prosperous. 

benn' sg^ etc., see byon"^. 

benun ^i; i firw^jr^sin conj. 3 (2 p.p. benyov 
«!n?ft'W), to be apart, separate, separated ; to be 
separated, pulled to pieces, cut to pieces, cut off. 
This verb is often spelt bennun ^ra»i;. 

benyo-mot" szpift-^TH l ftri^'^ljrf: perf. part. (f. 
benye-miif 531^-^^ ) , separated, separate, apart ; 
separated, in pieces, cut to bits. 

benanga ^jit (= i_^ ^:) 1 fsiTT'^T^sj: adj. e.g. 
shameless, without shame ; naked. 

bennun ^w^, see bentm ^sc^. 

banana wun ^^sngsi; conj. 1 (1 p.p. bananow" 
^1«fl^), to cause to be, to make, bring into existence 
(Siv. 1005). This verb is caus. of banun in all its 
senses. Cf. banawun. 

benun"-p6n" ^^^-ift^ 1 »?f3pft^t%: m. sisterly con- 
duct, mutual affection of two women, as between 
sisters, -ton^ -fft^ l Ht^HT^: m. sisterhood, the 
sisterly relation (including the relationsliip between 
a woman and her female cousin). 

be-nur^y ,;_j adj. e.g. without light, dark (K.Pr. 221). 

ban-raihan ^[sr^ ^^ m. Melkm mpeta (EL). 

banaras ^^T:^m. the city of Benares (Siv. 673). 

bbns, i.q. bbs, q.v. 

be-insbfi ^ UjI ^r-J see be-yinsofi. 

be-nishan ^^UJ ,_j adj. e.g. without mark or sign ; 
without distinguishing mark; incapable of compre- 
hension (of the Deity) (Siv. 1599). 

binsbin ^^^r^' interj. go and sit down ! (K.Pr. 4). 

banbt' ^^^^ 1 HZf^^i^jr^: adj. e.g. composed of wooUen 
cloth; a loom-woven shawl (L.377,where it is spelt fonoc^). 

banot" ^T'Tf I f^'WT^PT'f'^, ^^tJT m. a confidant, 
one to whom a person confides j^rixate affairs ; one 
who is cognisant of a person's private affairs. 

bont (L. 460) for b§th, see brSth. 

banath ^^t^ I ^zf^^^: m- (sg. dat. banatas ^itti^), 

wooUen cloth, broad-cloth, usually made of camel's 

be-anth ^-■'^r^sT adj. e.g. (as subst., m. sg. dat. -antas 

-■^rl^), endless, illimitable (Grr.M.). 
be-intiha L.:Jl ^-j , see be-yintiba. 
bonth ^^ , see b8th and broth, 
benath-nosh ^h^-^^ I *lTfl%^^ f- the wife of a 

sister's son. 
benath^r ^TT^ I *lTfT'f^: m- a nephew, a sister's son. 

Cf . ben^za. 
banatuk" ^'tth^ I ^ref^^^^^^ adj. (f. banatuc" 

^•TTH^ ) , of or belonging to woollen cloth ; composed 

of such cloth. The word is really the genitive of 

banath, (i-v. 
buntakl ^^r^ f. Solanum DwloHfjena (EL). 
bonta-kani (W. 97), for bStha-kani, see brbth. 

ban-til WI^-fH^^ m. balsam, Balmndna impatieiis (EL). 

banatuv" ^iT^^ I ^zf^^^^l^: adj. (f. banatiiv^ 

Wn<TW ), composed of woollen cloth. 
benow" sjmtw I iT^Tftf: adj. (f. benbw*^ 3HT|^), 
without name, nameless, unnamed. 

banawun ^ttt^i; i ^m^^w; conj. l (l p.p. banow* 

^•Vt^), to cause to be or become (Siv. 25, 705, 712) ; 
to make, form, fashion, shape, create, prepare, 
manufacture, construct, build, compose, invent (Siv. 
904, 914, 937, 960, etc.) ; do, perform; finish, 
complete ; arrange (a sacrifice) (Siv. 70) ; ban6w"than 
^•ft^^'i;, thou madest liim (rich) (Siv. 703, so 1879). 
ban6w°-mot" ^^J-'ig i %mn(d: perf. part, 
(f. banbw^-mub" ^^n^-^^), nmde, completed, etc. 
(Siv. 751) ; artificial, not natural. 

banawun"^ ^^f3 1 ^»i^1 ^'^i- (*• banawun* ^'nf^), 
that which happens or is self -produced ; that which 
results, the fruits of exertion. 

banawanawun ^^^TT^'i; conj. 1 (double cans.) (1 p.p. 
banawanow" sfTR'TtW), to cause to be made (EL). 

banawath ^1T^ 1 ^^f^^^^: m. (sg. dat. 

banawatas Wn^fl^), tlie sudden or unexpected 
occurrence or result of anything (usually of loss or 
the like). — gabhun — 1^1, I ^^f^^lT5?ITTrfT: 
m.inf. sudden or unexpected loss or damage to occur. 

bun^yad jL:j f. a foundation, basis, base, groundwork 
(Siv. 448). 

banyul" ^^^ m. a howl. — karun — ^i^'l. m.inf. to 
howl (El.)".'* 

For words containing bb, ses under b. See article b. 


bonyum" ^^? 

115 — 



bonyum" ^^^ i ^v^si: adj. (f. bonim'^ I^'S,)- lower, 

of or belonging to below (Gr.Gr. 161). 
banayor" ^TW^ I f^if^^: f. a laxge artificial 

canal issiiing from a lake ; esp. N. of an important 

canal issuing from the Wolur Lake. 
ben*za «^^^ l Jlfifftg'^ f . a sister's daughter, a niece on 

the sister's side. Of. benath^r. -zamatur" -3iT*rfre i 

»lf»I^5'^>Trrt in. the husband of a sister's daughter, 
a niece's husband, -pon" -ift^ I ^llf'M^wf^: m. 
the relationship between a niece and her maternal 
uncle or aunt ; met. a similar imaginary relationship 
between two women of different ages who are fond of 
each other. 
be-nazir^-JaJ ^—j adj. e.g. incomparable (Grr.M.). 

banz^ran W^r^^l i T^^^t^^: , l^^rrsRT f. the selling 

of any valued property owing to the requirement of 
money for necessary expenditure, the selling cheaply 
or at a sacrifice (Gr.Gr.) ; the di%asion or partition of 
one's own or joint property amongst kinsfolk. 

banz*run ^^^^^ or banz^rawun ^5r?;Tf5i; I f^^^- 
t^^:, '3TTf%ff<ft^ir»i; conj. l (l p.p. banz"r" 
iiaj^ or banz*r6w"^ ^snftf), to sell valued property 
" under urgent necessity for money, to sell for small 
value or at a sacrifice (Gr.Gr.) ; to pledge such 
property for a similar purpose ; to di\'ide or make 
partition of joint family property amongst the 
kinsfolk (Gr.Gr.). 

banz''r°-mot'* ^sj^-^th or banz^row" - mot'^ 
H^TtJ-'rg I fwV<T: , ^tHT^: perf. part. (f. banz"!**- 
miib" ^^-?T!5 or banz^rbw"-mufe" ^axj^-»i'3), 
sold or pledged at a sacrifice or below value ; divided, 
subjected to partition. 

bene ^"^ l Hf'T'ft' f. a fuU-sister, a sister. This word 
being written ^ or <Hij in the Persian character is 
often wrongly 'transliterated beni, binih, or benih 
(cf. K.Pr. 34, 70, 132, 182, 236; W. 16, 18; Siv. 1445). 
-dinal -f^'^ l *rf*l«n*il'l1' m. one who has incestuous 
intercourse with his sister; a term of abuse (Gr.Gr. 107). 

-dil -t^ nrfJi'fhnJT^ m. id. (Gr.Gr. 107). -dawal 

-^^^ m. id. (Gr.Gr. 107). -wol" -Tt^ I "HH^^^- 
?TfiT«ftcB: adj. (f. --wajefi -^75555), one who has a good 
or noble sister ; one who has many sisters (Gr.Gr. 134). 

ben" ^r^ , see byon*. 

bin t^=5 or bin" l^^r interj. a term of address used to 
a woman of moderate age, or of an age equal to that 
of the speaker (Gr.Gr. 98). Cf. ada and aban. 
W. 101 writes the word bin. 

bone ^^^^, boni ^"^f^, see buii". 

bon** 1 ^i^ I HI<«jfsf%^^: f. a stick or pole with slings 
at each end for carrying boxes, baskets, etc., across 

the shoulder, a ' bangy ' ; a suspended rail for hanging 
clothes or the like. Cf. ala-boii'^ and Siv. 1531. 

baiie-wol" ^T^-^^ I HTT^rf^TTft m. (f. -wajen 
-■^ssfsj), a person who carries baggage, etc., on such 
a pole. 

bbn" 2 ^T^ I TT^^ f. a large masonry well. 

bbn" 3 W\^ I 'ff'Il^Wf : f. the whole collection of pots, 
pans, dishes, etc., in a kitchen or the like. Cf. bana 1. 

bon" 4 ^T^ I ^3\il^^^«Ttrr'^*i; f. a large vessel in which 
cowkeepers collect and store their milk, bane-ddd 
^sT-i;^ I ^'TTf^rT^f^ na. sour milk, made by collecting 
and storing raw and unboiled milk till it turns sour. 

bun" w^ I WT'^Tf^f^^^: f. (sg. dat. bone ^>^), the 
' chinar ' or Oriental plane-tree, Platauus orientalis. 
(Cf. Siv. 1285, 1819 ; El. s.v. bitin ; buni or hunl 
of K.Pr. 7, 82, 102, 162, 173 ; and boin of L. 79, 81.) 
Its caj)sules are used internally as a remedy for 
ophtlialmia (L. 75) . 

bone-muhul" tarun ^t^-^^gr rTT^i: 1 iTrfq^i!*iflC 

m.inf . to ferry over a pestle of plane-wood ; hence, met. 
with great efforts to induce some obstinate or stupid 
person to enter any place, -del -^^ I IfT^T^^- 
<^l<^<<4^ m. the bark of the plane-tree. This is 
sometimes subject to a mild hypertrophy, which has 
manj', if not all, the properties of cork (EL). 
Powdered it is used as a remedy for skin diseases. 
-Shebul" -ir^^ I WT^Tf^^^T, %W^ ^T m. the 
grateful coolness under a plane-tree ; the shadow 
thrown by it. -wath'^r -"k^ I ^T^T^^iT^^ m. the 
leaf of the plane-tree (cf.. Gr.Gr. 74), where we have 
b5ni-wath*r ^tfsf-^^ . 

boni-dun" ^t^-^u 1 ifpafT^'^qrafi^ m. the seed 
of the plane-tre^; a kind of ear-stud, made of gold, 
and worn by boys. According to El. the tree never 
bears seed in Kashmir ; but see contra, L. 82. 
-hawah -^TTf I Sf T^^'^^ft a^^T'g: m. the cool breeze 
wafted from plane-trees. 

benel ^"^M 1 t'P^wf'r'ftgTB: m- one who has an 
immoral sister ; one who has incestuous connexion 
with his sister (Gr.Gr. 134) ; used as a term of abuse. 

benul" sq^iwf I JTf'T^^TO^: m- a sisters' darling, usually 
of one petted brother among a number of sisters. 

bunul" ^[»r«T 1 Hefirq; m. an earthquake, see El. s.v. 

buiiil'-dev wt%lt^-^ ' ^J^'TTT^re: m. an earth- 
quake-demon, i.e. a long succession of earthquake 
shocks as destructive as a demon, -fcur -t|J^ I ^^^iq: 
m. an earthquake-thief, i.e. a violent earthquake which 
destroys one's house and property. -yeth -'?I^ 1 
T^R^'nrtT^^I'l f • a single, solitary, earthquake-shock. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 


bener s^nn; 

— 116 — 

bar 1 ^TT 

bener «g>IT l t'TWfrr m. distinction, difference (-manz = 
between) (Gr.M.). — bozun — ^f1 I M^^'W; 
in .inf. to know the difference, to be able to distinguish 
between things of the same kind or nature. 

banerun ^-^n: or bafierawun ^ojjrj'i: eonj. 1 
(1 p.p. ban°r" ^% or bafierow" ^=H<tf), to cause 
to be, to bring into being, produce (Gr.Gr. 173, 175). 

ben«ran aii^ ^ j ; ^ , l ^J^ f . the act of separating, dividing, 
or opening out. 

ben^un ^il^'S'^i; or ben«rawun ^■^n'W't, I fH^^iT'sr'i: 
conj. 1 (1 p.p. benT'' ^sj^ or benerow" ^i^-^t^), 
to separate, divide, open out (Gr.Grr.) any thing or 
action which is naturally closely united. ben°r"-mot" 
cg^-jij or ben«r6w"-mot" ^^X^f-^in i f*iwt?frT: 
l)erf . part, (f . ben^r^-miife" «*i4%. -TT^ or beii^rbw^- 
miib'^ o^i^Tr^-'fS), divided, separated, opened out. 

bephikir ^rfqif^^ ^ ^i \ tM^: adj- e.g. free from 
care or anxiety; without solicitude, unconcerned, tranquil. 

bephikiri sgftrf^T^ ^j/^ --j i tM^^m f. freedom 

from care, anxiety, or solicitude. 

bepok" ^nfY^ I f^T^: adj. (f. bepoc" ^tri^), not 

cooked, not sufficiently^ cooked, underdone. 

bapar 1 ^TTITT l Trftl5!n^ m. traffic, trade, commerce. 

bapar 2 ^TTTT l ^'IfT^^t^i: the behavioui- natural to 
a person, natural conduct. 

bapor^ ^xril^: i ^ftsi^ m. (sg. abl. bapari ^TmlT. 
gen. irreg. baparytlk" ^TTT'S^i K.Pr. 26), a merchant, 
tradesman (Gr.M.). 

be-pir^ ^ adj. e.g. one who has no spiritual guide 
or pir; vicious, wicked (K.Pr. 189). With emph. y 
be-pir"y (K.Pr. 170, 196, W. 22). 

be-parwa \jji^ ,~.j adj. and adv. heedless, careless, 
unconcerned (K.Pr. 133) ; careless, wanting in respect. 
(Siv. 536) ; fearless, bold, fearlesslj', boldly (Siv. 891, 
1232, 1236 ; Rilm. 844, 1388, be-parwah). 

bapath WT^ (= t-^^^V) • U^postpos. governing abl. or 
abl. of gen. (K.Pr. 217) ; owing to, on account of 
(K.Pr. 63) ; about, concerning, for the sake of (Siv. 583, 
1448, 1487, 1862). taway bapath, for the sake of 
that very business (Siv. 709) ; for the sake of, in order 
to produce (Siv. 99) ; for the sake of, in order to obtain 
(Siv. 101) ; frequentlj^ forming an inf. of purpose with 
abl. of inf., as in wuchana bapath, in order to see. 

bapath-nosh ^m^-^^r i j^t^h^i^ f. the wife of 

a nephew on the brother's side. 
bapath^r WTW^ I 'TT'^^t: m. a nephew on the brother's 

bepafeh ^nr^ l ■^rf^'gi^: adj. e.g. (as subst., m. sg. 

dat. bepabhas =!nWH;), without trust, not trusting 

in another; not trusted by another; (of a thing or 


action) not considered Hkely to be of use or to succeed. 
— karun — ^i^i: i ^rf^'ai*rt^TW*l m.inf. to show 
distrust in a person, to have no confidence in a person, 
not to confide in him. 
bepofeh^ ^^W I ^t%^^: adj. (f. bepiiteh" ^v^), 

distrustful ;" not trusted, distrusted. 

bre, see bray. 

bair, see biir". 

bar 1 ^ 1 ^TnZI m- fi door (K.Pr. 36, 105, 135, 
Siv. 1450, 1646, 1747) ; (of a mountain) the com- 
mencement of the ascent (Siv. 1176, baras tal). 
-tal hufi*^ or -peth hun", a bitch at tlie door 
(K.Pr. 7, 65, 102) ; barau kin*, (looking) through 
the doors (Siv. 953). — djrun" — f^ I ^^nztxraTTR; 
m.inf. to shut a door (K.Pr. 26, W. 147). — dith 

ach> tovariin^ — t^ ^11^ f^t^T^ i ^^ trf^^il'^ 

f.inf. to close the door, and threaten ; to get into 
a hidden place for safety, and then to abuse a person 
or brag of one's superiority to him. -hakh -?T'3 I 
yTTtlT^%^^T^»l f. (sg. dat. -haki -fTt^), a doorpost, 
the side-post of a door, -hang -f^T I ^Tt^^^W: 
m. the upper beam of a doorway, the lintel of a door 
(Siv. 1075). -nyas -arre; I ^TTTRTr the beam of 
wood projecting over a door, the lintel. Cf. the 
proverb Dai ay diyi ta bar-nyasa-y, if God will 
give, then (He \viU give) even at tlie lintel. In W. 129 
and K.Pr. 45 this is written bara nyasai, and is 
apparently wrongly translated, -pot" -tf^ | ^xnZTTf : 
m. a plank of a door, the leaf of a double door. 
-baran -^3T^ i ^tTTZtw?*!: f- (sg- dat. -1s*run" -^J^), 

a chink in a door, or between the two leaves of a double 

door. -Is^riin" nasth gafehiin" -^T^ T^ fWI, i 
^ (irr^T«»f1'*{ =( •! H f.inf. the nose to go into the chink 
of a door ; met. to be absolutely under a person's 
thumb or at his beck and caU. 

bara 1 ^ abl. at the door (K.Pr. 45). — afenn 
— ^^Efi; m.inf. to enter by a door (Siv. 448, 1132). 
— nerun — ^^T m.inf. to go out by the door 
(K.Pr. 10), .so bari nerun (Siv. 1367). 

baras gSth dyun" ^"^ ^if^ ^ m.inf. to apply 
a knot to a door, to fasten up a door and go away 
leaving the house empty of people (K.Pr. 76). 

bar 2 ^ , a prefix indicating fullness or completion. 
See under the separate words. 

bar 3 J prep, on, in, at (W. 99, YZ. 39). 

bar 4 ^■^ , a suffix used with measures of value, weight, 
etc., indicating ajiproximateness, as in har-bax, (worth) 
iibout a cowry, (worth) a mere cowry (Siv. 1795). 

bar 1 ^TTj^ I WC: ni. a burden, load (YZ. 420, Siv. 1254, 
1791) ; the amount being weighed, or to be weighed. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bar 2 ^tt 

117 — 

biru ^^ 

in a scales. Cf. bor and bor" 1 ; see also kar bar 
under kar. ya bar Sahibo (K.Pr. 210) = Persian 
har-e Ilah, great God ! -dar -^"^ j^JiV I itHTif^ 
f . a pregnant woman. — gafehun — lift, I "^t'JWn 
■JI^^J^ , a burden to liaj^pen ; an un\vished for, 
difficult, or impossible task to be imposed upon 

a person. — hen' — ij'^ I trrxwTt'rfnTTf^: m. pi. inf. 

to take loads; to incur, without cause, a share in 
another's loss ; to become a partner in some unlawful 
or criminal act. — hyon" — ^^ I t'TWTlW^^t^: 
m.inf. to take a burden, to undertake a task or 
responsibility, to accept responsibility. — Ishunnn 
— ■^^5^ m.inf. to impose a burden (YZ. 551). 

bara-wol" ^tt-^^,i wK^: adj. (f. -wajen 1 

-^ajfaj ) , endowed with heaviness, overloaded (of 

a camel, etc.) ; difficult, or impossible to carry out 

(of an action). 
bar 2 ^TT i^- m- ''• time, a turn, bar bar ^tt ^"n^, 

time after time, again and again (K.Pr. 184). yekh. 

bar ^1 ^TT )V (— ^-l 3<lv. at the same time, at once, 

simultaneously (Siv. 781, 912). 
bara 2 ^ s^j l ^^^: m. a lamb (K.Pr. 180, W. 155) 

(for 1 see bar 1), a thin half -fed sheep. 
bara 3 ^^ m. leanness, an emaciated condition, of a man 

or beast from sorrow, illness, etc. (Eam. 645, 686, 1020) ; 

witheredness, flaccidity, of a tree, flower, or the like 

(YZ. 153). Cf. bara 2. — go-mot^ — jft-ii^ I 

(^TT)wt4frrg^'nT: adj. (f. — gb-mub*^ — tt-jt^), 

reduced to leanness, or witheredness (of a man, tree, 
etc.). —gafehun — Tfi: I ('^'^'^)^T5if^T!fF»T^«TJi; 

m.inf. to be reduced to leanness (of a mau or animal), 
to be withered (of a tree or flower) (YZ. 152, Siv. 168). 
— karun — ^r^sr; l wtT!ft"<*<<J!*l m.inf. to reduce to 
leanness, to allow to become lean or withered by 
neglect (Siv. 304, Earn. 1606). 

bara 1 ^TT • fT^5Tt%^^: f- a kind of rice, small in grain 
and white, mainly produced in the hill-country of 
Western Kashmir, on the borders of the State of Punch. 

bara 2 ^TT l 'S^'f^^: f- the fruit of a certain small 
thorny shrub, in appearance like a small jujube-fruit, 
growing wild on the mountain slopes. -doph -1[^ I 
^sC^^dt'^ti: m. (sg. dat. -dopas -1[^), the shrub 
on which the biira-fruit grows. -kond'^ -^1!3 I 
Mdll<4^<4<liU^e(i: m. the long sharp thorn of the 
biira-doph (Eiim. 1633). .thur"* ->q^ I '^^^Tt^fTT 
f. N. of a certain shrub, i.q. bara-doph. -wajen 2 
-efjirtjof^ I ^r^q^^fif a} M fe|^ ■^l f. a woman who collects 
bara-fruit and sells it in the streets, -zal -STTiSr I 
^rqf^^^t^^rfH; m. a spot covered with these bara-doph 
bushes, usually on the hill-slopes. 


bara 3 WTT l ^Pf-?^-^: adj. e.g. heavy, weighty. — pyon" 
— TZTJ I '^m^TBTVI^fl^^JRT^T: m.inf. to fall heavy, 
of some impossible or difficult task, which a person 
finds himself compelled to undertake. — tatun 

. flrf^ 1 f«t<vMl^dT m.inf. the load to be hot ; hence, 

(of some work which was undertaken hastily and must 
now be comj)leted) to be without resource, to be at one's 
wits' end. 

bara 4 =(TT ™- ^ parching-pan, see barbuz". 

barae .^\jJ prep, for the sake of, on account of (W. 99). 
barae Khuda Ijo- JIj , for God's sake, the cry of 
a beggar (K.Pr. 5, W.' 152). 

barau, see barav. 

bar' ^It: , see bor" and barun 1. 

bari, see bor" and bbr". 

baria, i.q. bbr'ya, q.v. 

be-ar ,1= ^ adj. e.g. pitiless, merciless (El.). 

ber W'?; I ^f^cira'H f- a fence, hedge, paling, railing, low 
wair(Gr.GrT21); the edge of a field (K.Pr. 58, 121, 
Siv. 1028, 1681) ; a partition in a granary or the like. 

Cf. bera. -biith" -^^ i ^f^^fTf^: f. (sg. dat. 

-bache -'^W), an elevated piece of uncultivated 
ground between two fields. 

bera ^'^ l ^^I^^Ji; f. an edge, a border (El.) ; a road- 
fence, hedge, paling, railing, boundary mark, partition. 
Cf. ber. -gagur -H^ l %"^5R'^'^: m. a field-mouse or 
field-rat. -gand -^T|^ I ^JH^!^: m. a low boundary 
bank between fields or gardens. -muj' -lt?f ^■ 
a kind of plant, an TJmbellifer, eaten by the poor in 
time of famine (L. 71). -mosta -?ft^ I ^'^f^W^: 
f. a kind of grass (the Indian mothd), Ci/penis rotundns. 
It grows on field banks, and its root is used in 
medicine and as a perfume. 

bir «Rt I ^^i^afT^nRT^: f- a crowd, throng, concourse. 
bira-bir wtT-^^ l ^I^T^^fTT f. crowding, 
thronging, pressing. — kariin" — ^"^^ "^ — lagun" 
— '^TT'i^ I ^^^rlT'n^t^: f.inf. to crowd, throng, 

bira ^T I ^^^t%^^: , fI<^«Tt%^^:) m. a hockey- 
ball ; the game of hockey. -gOgul -JtfJ^ I sBt^T^- 
'ft^^f^^^: m. a hockey-ball. -\/3iY-t^W -^^-Z^ I 
Tl^tJI^ii: m. a position in the middle, when the right 
position is to one side (like a hockey -ball which is 
knocked from one side to another). 

biru ^^ m. N. of a village about 13 miles south-west 
of Srinagar, the ancient Bahiiritpa, near which is 
a cave, into which, according to tradition, the 
celebrated Saiva teacher Abhinava-gupta entered with 
twelve hundred disciples, and was thence translated in 
bodily form to Siva's heaven (Siv. 1894). 

For words containing bh, see iinilpr b. See article b. 

bor 1 ^ 

118 — 

bir-bal' ^t:-^^ 

bor 1 ^tr I ^nr: m. a burden, load (Eilm. 846) . Cf . bar 

and bor" 1, and Gr.Gr. 22. 
bor 2 ^T I Tre?R: m. the plaster on a wall, usually of 

mud mixed with hemp, chafE, etc. Cf. bor'^ 2. 
bbri ^t^ adj. e.g. in loti-bbri, possessing a light weight 

(Siv. 1048). 
bor° 1 «i^ I cRfT'l ^^- (foi" ^01"" 2 and 3, see under 

barun 1 and 2 ; of. also bor"-dus" under bordus), 
a large crack or fissure in a wall or the like ; a hole 
in a wall permitting entrance (Grr.Gr. 9) ; a mine in 
a wall cut by a housebreaker. Cf. bur". — karun 
— gr'5'l. I <^<^^l<i*lH m-inf- to make a hole in the 
wall ; met. to pry about and as the result reveal 
another's secrets. — tukun — "^^^ ' ^"^TTin 
^T^f^^fl- m.inf. to bore (like a rat) a hole in a wall ; 
met. to spoil or impede another's work by calumny or 
backbiting him or it to his associates or helpers. 
— featun — ^Tl't. I t'lfTTil^^^ m.inf. to cut hole in 
a wall, to dig a mine through a wall in order to 
commit housebreaking. — trukun — 'J^'l I ^^•5«Ii^ 
m.inf., i.q. — tukun. 

bor" 1 ^^ I ^nr: "1- (dat. bbris ^fr^, abl. bari), 

a bundle carried on the head or slioulders, load, 
burden (K.Pr. 34, 104, &iv. 199, 1027, 1810, 1849, 
1896) ; the cargo of a ship (Gr.M.). Cf. bar, bor 1, 
and bor", and Gr.Gr. 143. — khasun — ^Wi; m.inf. 
a burden to mount, a burden to be imposed (upon 
a person) (Siv. 1637). — thawun — W^'J. m.inf. to 
place weight, to lean upon (Gr.M.). — tulun ^rl^«t. 
conj. 1, to load, carry (EL). — tulanwol" — 5^*15^^ 
m. (f. — tulanwajen — g^r^^Siioi ), a porter (of 
burdens) (EL). — walun — '^T^fi; m.inf. to cause 
a burden to descend, to relieve a person of a burden, 
to lighten his load (Siv. 1506). 

bor' kharan' ^\^ ^ni^ I »TTTTft^T'!l»T m. pi. inf. 

to cause burdens to mount, to lay or transfer a burden 
or (fig.) a responsibility upon anyone ; esp. when doing 
any work, to throw the whole responsibility on someone 
else, under the pretence that it is undertaken on his 
behalf or that he is a fellow-worker or accomplice. 
Cf. bor" kharan^ — khasan' — ^^a^ I ^flftjjTV- 
»T^»II^ m. pi. inf. a burden or responsibility to be trans- 
ferred to, or laid upon, any person ; esp. as above. 
— ladan' — ^^^ I »TTTT"<^tiT!I»i: m. pi. inf. to load 
burdens, to put or transfer a burden or responsibility 
upon another ; esp. to msike a show of complying with 
another, apparently only acting under his orders, in 
some work which one wishes to do oneself, and thus to 
throw the responsibility upon him. Cf. bbr" ladan*, 
s.v. bbr". — rozan* — Tfr^^ I ^ftrift'mT^^^T^'m;, 

'HfTT m. pi. inf. burdens to remain, a 
responsibility to be incurred or shared ; esp. for 
a crime or its punishment. — thawan' — ^^^ I 
giX^^I^e(<|»n^ m. pi. inf. to place loads ; to pretend 
compliance with any order, but to leave the work to 
be done, or the responsibility to be undertaken, by the 
giver of the order. 

bor" 2 ^''1 I 3S%trf^^i^: m. the plaster on a wall, etc., 
made up of lime, mud, etc. (Ram. 568). Cf. bor 2. 

bbr" ^i^ m. a load. Cf. bor" 1. By some spelt 
bari (e.g. K.Pr. 147, 166). Used in the following 
compounds : — -gur" -1^ I "^^T^: m. a pack-horse. 
-khar -^ 1 <sl<,«<4K«<Tf1^ m. a pack-ass ; met. one 
who works like a pack-ass, one who, in return for the 
necessities of life, works entirely for another's profit, 
i.e. who makes over all his earnings to his master. 

—khar an' — i^tt^ i tn::f^^»T^T!iT m. pi. inf. to 

cause loads to mount, to pretend to undertake a task, 
which one really wants done oneself, at the instigation 
of another, and to lay the whole responsibility on him ; 
i.q. bbr* kharan', see bor" 1. — ladan* — ^^fl I 
^fl^-rtJlOMUll , 'TTTITt^TWI m.j)!. inf. to load burdens, 
to pretend to undertake some work at the instance of 
another, to throw the whole burden and responsibility 
(in case of failure) upon another, while ready to claim the 
credit in case of success ; i.q. bbr' ladan', see bor" 1. 
-Sbr" -^^ I *rTT^?' f- loading, the act of making 
up loads, and transferring them from place to place. 
-wol" -^^ I ^(WTT: m- (f- -wajeii -^TW^I ), a man 
or beast actually employed in carrying a load, a porter 
or pack-animal, -way -^'?T f. the wages of a porter 
(Gr.Gr. 143). Cf. bbr^way. -zyun" -f3i^ 1 htT'^IT'^ 
m. firewood collected in the forest and brought in 
bundles for sale, as distinct from chopped logs. 

bur ^T I ^^TW^T- f • the hoof of a cloven-hoofed animal, 
such as a sheep or a goat. 

bura 1 ^T I ■^gi^^fTIT^TT m. coarse white sugar. 

bura 2 ^T I ■^'n^^ftlT^: m. a kind of wooUen garment 
or gown ma<le of coarse black and white yarn. 

bur" 4^ I ^^=fifT*^ f- ^ crack or fissure in wood, 
a stone, wall, door, etc., a spy-hole. El. spells this bair. 
Cf. bor" 1 and Gr.Gr. 10. — galshun" — ^W\ i 
■nf^^lfff: f.inf. such a hole to occur ; met. a secret 
plan or the like to be revealed, as if by means of a spy. 

barbad or bar^bad jU^j adj. e.g. given to the wind, 
wasted, ruined, destroyed (K.Pr. 48). 

barabad WTTW^, a cornqition of barabar, q.v., seeati. 

bir-bal' ^r-^t^ 1 efix^^Tijf^^^: f. a small kind of ear- 
ring passing through the centre of the ear, usually of 
gold, and ornamented with bosses. It is worn by boys. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

b*r-b=T ^-^x: 


bardari ^J^'^y 

bir-bali-hor" ^V^-^f^-?^ i ^T§?ji(Tt%^^g7»ui m. 

a pair of such ear-rings, -kan -"Sfi^ \ ^RxtT^^f^^- 
^cfin m. a single one of such ear-rings ; an ear adorned 
with such an ear-ring, -posh -xft^ I =R'§*I^Tt%^^^^J^ 
m. a boss on one of such ear-rings. 

b^r-b^r ^t-WT I if^^rf'nl'TMf^: m. a rapidly repeated 
sound, a whirr, buzz, like the noise of a number of 
birds suddenly rising at once. 

bar-biir^WT-^^ l ^t^'ftfTT f- filled full (of beauty) ; 
hence, a woman beautiful in every respect. 

bara-bar ^-^ I •^Mnl'^TTSI'l f- the act of filKng to 
the brim. 

barabar or barobar jAji adj. e.g. equal, coinciding, 
alike, aU one {K.v/. 18, 64, 79, 81, 163) ; of equal 
value (Siv. 900) ; flat, level (K.Pr. 136, of the beam 
of a pair of scales) ; equal (to) (governing dat., 
K.Pr. 163, W. 121); (of opinions) agreeing, coinciding 
(Gr.M.) ; full, complete (Siv. 1348) ; as prep, according 
to (EL, K.Pr. 257) ; as adv. continually, regularly, 
without intermission (Rilm. 746). 

bara-bara ^-^r l ■■MfdNjXd: adj. e.g. filled to the brim. 

birbisb trf^ l ^n»ITf^'^reTf : m. a mixed mess of 
fried grain of various sorts, eaten as a snack in the 
afternoon of the long days of summer. 

b^rbatan ^^ttt: - burbatan g^fit, b^rbatan w^ffST , or 

burbatan ^^fpr^ l ■*l^«l<«r^lilM: f- a certain toy, 
a disc (of stone, metal, or wood) with two holes passing 
through it, through each of which a string is passed. 
It is made to revolve by twisting the double string, 
the ends of which are held apart, one in each hand, 
etc. ; these are tlien pulled against each other. 

bara-bbfe" ^tT-hV3 I <^*Md\ a married couple, 
husband and wife. 

barbuz" '^^^ l JT^«il^<fl m. one who Kves by parching 
grain ; a grain-parcher (usually of maize). 

barbuz'-bara Br^t^-^TT l ^T^^J^Tt^i: m. a 
grain-pareher's parching-pan (filled with hot sand). 
-bay -'^T^ I H^efi^ f . a grain-parcher's wife, -gasa 
karun -i\m ^^si. I ^■firo^infTT^^T'lni.inf. to throw 
into disorder, scatter widely something which should 
be kept in an orderly manner (as a person's hair, the 
threads in a loom, or the leaves of a book) (like the 
confused pile of leaves and grass kept by a grain- 
parcher for fuel), -pother -^rhr^ l 'fRl'T^^R^^'I'l 
m. acting or conducting oneself like a grain-parcher, 
the habits of a grain-parcher ; met. of a fellow who 
handles dirty and disorderly things, such as piles of dry 
leaves and grass, smoke, etc. -wan -"Wm^ I JT^NfT'fl' 
m. a grain-parcher's shop or stand where he parches 

barbuzigi Wft^'f^ I VT^Tf^T^^T^rrxnT:: f- the pro- 
fession, or trade, of a grain-parcher. 

bariic" ^T^, see banik". 

bruc^-miife^ W^ -?T^ , see brakun. 

brad WT^" I ^fTT^TT^: m. a clumsy, ugly-looking fool, 
who speaks and listens without intelligence, and whose 
one object is to fill his belly ; an idiot. 

brSd wff or brand 3T^ I irrT^T^T^^Tra^: m. the 

platform or landing in front of the main door of 
a house, the doorstep, threshold (K.Pr. 39, abl. written 
hardndah ; Siv. 1098, ag. brandan). -phash -xjnj I 
^I^^TT: m. the plastering of tlie threshold with cow- 
dung plaster, done every morning by strict Hindus. 

brida-khot" ^f^-^J l ^f^^S»l m. a room by 
the platform of a doorway, a door-keeper's room. 
-kiin" -^'31 I ^^^ f- the stone step in front of the 
main door of a house, the threshold, -pow" -ift^ I 
^l^Wtm'W m. a single step leading up to a door. 
brod" 1 ^^ I •TRTT^i; m. the septum of the nose. 

brad'^ kadan' w(^ ^^ i 5r^t1'«^'^^^: 

m. pi. inf. to drag the septa (i.e. the septum of the nose 
and other parts of the face, the nose itself, Hps, eyes, 
forehead, etc.), to suddenly screw up the face, to have 
the visage suddenly contorted, as when at the point of 
death, or as when a suckHng child is in pain or 
sufi^ering from hunger, or as in disgust ; so "WTlthan 
brad^ kadith, drugging the nostrils to the Hps, 
screwing up the face to show disgust (Siv. 830). 

brod"^ 2 W^ I ■^^^H^tg^'i; m. the bitming end of 
a lighted wick. 

bradagl ^T^'f^ I tI^STH f- the condition of, or acting 
Hke, a greedy, ugly, incompetent fool. 

burdam '^z^, or burdama ^^jt i ^:f^?^»i; m. (sg.dat. 

burdamas ^^?ra!,), a mass, or collection, of wealth or 
of many valuable things ; wealth earned and collected. 

brad'mar ?f'^'?\ I ll^f^^^: m. the N. of a quarter 
of the city of Srinagar, occupying the right bank of 
the river between the fourth and the fifth bridges. 
The ancient Bhattiirakamatha. See RT.Tr. II, 448. 

bradun ^ff. conj. 3 (2 p.p. bradyov ^T^ft^), to 
become powerful, i.q. badun, q.v. 

bardar .ItV adj. e.g. and subst. m. holding or raising 
up ; a bearer, supporter, carrier ; -* as in cheri- 
bardar, a wand -beaver (Siv. 1153) ; kharca-b°, 
a man responsible for, or in charge of, expenditure, 
a head steward (Siv. 1154) ; murachala-b", a fan (or 
whisk) bearer (Siv. 1148). 

bardari ^J^-^j in the following : bardari bardari din' 
^^rtt ^^^rtr f^ I ^^T^T^^THT^fT: m. pi. inf. to 
pull a person or thing towards oneself and beat him 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

baradar jO^^j 

— 120 — 

brahm wfT 

Ij^j m. endurance, patience ; taking goods 

or it. — bardari kadun — ^^^fr ^f ^l i f?;T^'^¥T- 

■^Tpi; ni.inf . to pull a person out of his place and drive 
liini away.' 
baradar ,j1y m. a brother (Riim. 330, 811). 

bordus ^i^, burdus ^t^, or bor"-dus" ^^-l| I 

^^ftV'Ti^ m. fighting, coming to blows (of people 

gathered logether in a house or at an assembl}-) 

(K.Pr. 85 

bardasht i^ 

on credit, a credit transaction. — khanin — ^T^'T. 
m.inf. to give goods on credit (Ram. 1312). 

baraf* ^j , see baraph'. 

brag Wif (poet, sometimes spelt brugu ^j) I ^^: m. 
(f. bragiii wt'T^), the blue heron, Ardca cinerea, 
L. 126 (hrei/). See also Elmslie s.v. brdff for 
particulars as to this bird. The feathers are worn by 
Pandits on marriage days and by soldiers when 
visiting the Mahilriija (K.Pr. 34, Siv. 1815). — tulan^ 
— »t4^ I ^f?I<f^^T m. pi. inf. (lit.) to raise herons ; 
met. to cause the down of the body to rise and fall 
rapidly, like a flight of herons ; hence, to scold violently 
(e.g. a pupil scolded by his master). — wotban' 
— Wi^ I ^ffT^ftH^TOig^T^: m- ph i'lf- (lit.) herons to 
rise ; met. to have the down of the body rising and 
falling rapidly like a flight of herons ; hence, to feel 
extreme cold, to sliiver from cold. 

braga-phamb ^'i-'q^ I ^^fiftrCt^T'sit^^ti: m. 

heron-cotton, i.e. tlie head-down of a heron, worn on 
the caps of the children of the well-to-do. -pos"^ -tjg I 
■^^rf^irf^^'^: m. a certain wild medicinal creeper, said 
to resemble a lieron, and to have white leaves, -tir*^ 
-<f^^l ^^T^tl[^t(: f. a heron-feather ; (pi.) the plume 
feathers growing on a heron's head, worn by kings 
and chiefs (Siv. 1012). 
brug 1 ^nr or brugu l ^ m. N. of a celebrated 
legendary saint, in Sanskrit Bhrgu. Sg. gen. 
brugun^ f. brugiin" (Siv. 797). 

brugu-latta ^^T-^tIT m. kicked by Bhrgu, a N. of 
Visnu, who was so treated by the saint, and expressed 
himself as honoured by the blow (Siv. 797). 

brug 2 iji[ or brugu 2 *r^, i.q. brag, q.v. 

barg 1 or bar*g (__f.j m. a leaf (of a tree or paper) 
(Siv. 983, see barg 2, and El.) -hana -f^T f. a small 
piece of paper (Gr.M.). -paiwand X>^j t_f.j m. 
grafting, budding (L. 458). Cf. pana-barg (Siv. 994). 

barg 2 *{^ m. radiance ; N. of Siva (Siv. 983, with 
double meaning, referring to barg 1). -shikha 
-ftpUT f. N. of a mountain sacred to Siva. 

bargol* ^^if^ l ^q^T^T^lfir small bits of the skin 
of the body of a living animal, such as those rubbed 




off by galHng, or the top of a blister, etc. — ^tulan* 
— g^^ I ^t?I5l^?qT^^m; m. pi. inf. to raise bits of 
skin, utterly to wear a person out with carrying 
burdens or the like, so that his body becomes raw and 
blistered. — wothan' — W^^ 1 ^t?l'ft^gTfH: ni. pi. inf. 
bits of skin to rise, to be worn out with excessive 
carrying of burdens or the like. 

bragin wt^r^, see brag. 

bargav HT'IW m. a descendant of Bhrgu, see brug 1. 
bargava-ram ^IT^-T'R m. Riima, the descendant of 
Bhrgu, Parasu-rama, who is said to have wiped the 
Ksatriya tribe out of existence, the sixth avatar, or 
incarnation, of Visnu (Siv. 860). 

brah Wlf I ^MT m. a flame (of fire). Cf. breh. 

breb Wf I ^^^T f- (sg. dat. brish" i(\\), a flame, the 
flame of fire, cf. brah. — tulun" -^^^N^ I WT^- 
f^t^X;T!l5F( f.inf. to raise a flame (by blowing a fire or 
the like). — ^wothiifi*' — wi^l WralW^: finf. flame 
to arise, to burst into flame, or, of a fire nearly out, to 
flame up on the addition of wood, oil, or the like. 

brub |ff adv. in front, bruh bruh pakun wf f f P^'t, 
m.inf. to keep walking in front, to precede, to go along 
in front of a person (II. iii, 2 ; cf. iii, 1 and viii, 9). 

brahm ?f^ m. Brahma, the one self-existent, impersonal 
spirit, the Absolute, the Pantheos (Siv. 1051, 1458, 
1593, 1766, 1850) (voc. brahmo W#, Siv. 1415, 
1424) ; »- a Briihraan, a man of the Brahman caste ; 
"- the god Bralunii, the Creator. 

brahma-bav wir-^T^ i ^W^'T- 31^1! ffa: the 

state of identification with Brahma, (according to 
Pantheists) final sahation ; conduct like that of a pious 
Briilunan. -gand -Jf^ I WW^'^'I- ™- t'^^ knot which 
ties together the three threads forming the sacred cord 
worn by Brahmans ; any similar knot tied on things 
ceremoniall}' worn, -hatya -^(UT I WT^'il^'t'lH. f- 
murder of a Brahman ; anj' equally lieinous crime. 
-hat'yor'^ -^^^>^ I WW^: m- (f- -hat^yaren -f ^- 
^T^sf) , one who is guilty of the murder of a Brahman 
or of any equally heinous crime. -hat^ybr^gi 
-I'^^T'^'ft I 3^^^t%: f. the conduct of one who 
murders Bralimans, or commits equally heinous crimes, 
-hiifc" -i^ f., i.q. brahma-hatya (K.Pr. 102). 
-lokh -^*t^^ m. (sg. dat. -lokas -^Hli^), N. of 
a certain division of the universe, the world, or heaven, 
of Brahmil. -muhurta -T^jf m. a particular hour of 
the day, just before daybreak. A term used only by 
educated Hindus ; Musalmiins use the term f/azal 
(K.Pr. 176). -nishth -t^^^ (Siv. 1859) or -nisbtha 
-f'lBT (Siv. 1770), f. absorption in the contemplation 
of Brahma, -rakhesi -TTl'SI'B^ I W^TTT^^^f^: f. the 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

brahma w^TT 




condition or conduct of a brahma-rakhyus'', q.v., or 
of a man who acts like one. -rakhesgi -TTF^^'ft I 
WWrT^^^qT^Ti: f.,iq- brahma-rakhesi. -rakhyus" 
-TTf^f I WfTTT'^^: m. (sg. dat. -rakhisis -TTf^fftra;; 
f. -rakhesan -<l*#|^^), a kind of very terrible 
demon, the worst kind of demon, believed to have 
attained his fearful powers owing to his having 
managed to become a Brahman, -randr -X'S' or -xy9 
m. the Brahmarandhra , ' Brahma's crevice,' the suture 
or aperture in the crown of the head through which 
the soul is said to escape at death (Siv. 1654). -riiph 
-■^JS m. the form of Brahma ; abl. -rupa -'^q , under 
the form of B., (acting) under the condition of B. 
(of Siva, Siv. 851, 977). -resh" -'^ij m. a Brahmarsi, 
a brahmanical sage, one of a class of sages supposed 
to belong to the Brahman caste, -sar -^ or -saras 
-^■^^ m. N. of a lake in Kashmir passed by pilgrims on 
the route to the sacred Gangabal (Siv. 1176) ; also used 
met. as equivalent to brahma-randr, q.v. (Siv. 1891). 
-ton" -<fr5 I s<T^U!<«(»i; m. brahmanhood. -febri -wif^ 
or -febri -^T^ m. a Brahmaciirin, a Brahman devoted 
to the study of the Vedas and preserving the vow of 
chastity ; a young one (Siv. 1353) ; an older un- 
married Brahman versed in the Vedas (Siv. 1047, 
1507, 1523, 1887) ; a name of Visnu (Siv. 1377, 1838). 
-zan -'W[\ f. (sg. dat. -zbn^ -^"^) = Sanskrit 
Bmhmajmna, divine or sacred knowledge, esp. know- 
ledge of the universal permeation of the one Spirit as 
taught by the Vedanta philosophy (Siv. 451 , 1 738, 1891 ) . 
-zanm -3l^ m. birth as a Brahman, the condition or 
fact of one's being a Brahman by birth (Siv. 1593, 1670, 
1748). Cf. brbhmana-zanm, under brohmun. 
brabma w^ m. (sg. ag. brahman ^^'i, Siv. 131 ; 
gen. brahma-sond° W^-^, Siv. 32, 1200), N. of 
a Hindi! god, a member of the triad of Brahma, 
Visnu, and Siva. He created the imiverse and uttered 
the Vedas, at the bidding of Visnu (Siv. 31, 1115, etc). 
Cf. brahm. -ji -^ m. (dat. -jiyes -fai^TBC. ^i^- ^1''' 
718; ag. -jiyen -f^Ri'i:, Siv. 679; voc. -jiye -liRI, 
Siv. 485), or -juv -^ (Siv. 802, 1116, 1142) (sg. dat. 
-juwas -^^^, Siv. 697, 848), a respectful N.of Brahma, 
brahmi WT^ f • Taxus haccata (El.) . 
brabam ^^\*i Sorghum halejjense (EL), the Johnson grass, 

Cuba grass, etc. 
barham j^ adj. e.g. confused, jumbled together, 
turned upside down, entangled, spoiled, barham- 
darbam *j6^j *a^ or darham-barham *J6j ^^jJ 

adj. e.g. confused, entangled, topsy-turvy (Eiim. 229). 
barhami Wf^ \^s*'^yi ' t^Tni: f. confusion, trouble, 
anarchy ; utter destruction. — gafebun'' — TW'T I 

*i<?«ll'il^H^-* f-inf- utter destruction to occur, to be 
utterly destroyed or driven to destitution owing to 
the destruction of house, land, livelihood, wealth, 
protectors, friends, etc. 

»=~-j <__j adj. e.g. unmerciful, inhuman (Gt.M.). 



brahmld w^Ti^ or brabmand w^^is; I si^m^H m. 

the mundane egg from which all things were created ; 
hence, the universe (Siv. 32, 1660, 1727) ; the suture 
in the crown of the human head, i.q. brahm-randr, 
see brahm (Siv. 1909). 

brahmakar WWT'fiTT m- the form, condition, or state of 
Brahma, i.q. brahma-rtiph, see brahm (Siv. 1864). 

brohmun w^^«i; I WT^pir: m. (sg. dat. brbhmanas 
WTWT^, Siv. 1630, 1737 ; pi. nom. brbhman WT^i;, 
Siv. 1101. As »- this word takes the form brbhman 
WT^t, see, however, brahm. A female Brahman is 
brohmun" WT^T^, q.v., but a Brahman's wife is 
brbhman-bav WTWl^-^T^), a man of the Brahman 
caste (Siv. 1118) ; esp. the family priest of any 
particular person. 

brbhman-bav wiwi-TR I WT^rnT^ f • a Brahman's 
wife, see ab. -kur" -^^ I WT^Ujc|i*<(| f . a young girl 
(married or immarried) of the Brahman caste. — karan' 
— ^t? I ^^*!!*J^ff«T»T'T^»ft^1H^T1Ji; m. pi. inf., 
lit. to do Brahmans; hence, to invite a number of 
Brahmans to a feast on the occasion of holidays, 
religious ceremonies, or the like. -kot" -qtZ I 
^W^^T^'fi' 111- ^ ^oy of the Brahman caste, esp. the 
son of a poor Brahman who has not yet been invested 
with the sacred cord ; a boy-Briihman, i.e. a boy who 
is already, in his boyhood, familiar with the duties of 
a Brahman, -kut" -^2 I WT^m^Rsqi f. (sg. dat. 
-kace -^^), a Biiihman girl, esp. a young unmarried 
Briihman girl of poor parentage. -ton" -<ft5 I 

WTUWY^' ™- l^iiiliDianhood. -zanm -51^ or -zarm 

-SR^. I WT^'SJ^'JT , WT^m^li; m. birth as a Brahman ; the 
property of a Brahman, consisting mainly of the few 
utensils and books used by him in religious ceremonies, 
see brbhmana-zanm, bel. 
brbhmana-zanm srrw'l?'^ m- l^irth as a 

Briihman, Brahmanhood, i.q. brbhman-zanm ab. 

and brahma-zanm, see brahm (Siv. 1754, 1879, 

brabmand WWT^. see brahmld. 
brahmanand WWnf«5[ m. the rapture of Brahma, 

i.e. the rapture of absorption into the one seU-existent 

Spirit, Siv. 23, 1757 (with ah of indef. art.), 1782. 
brbhmanbz" W1W^T?t I WTWWWt%: f. the profession or 

duties of a Brahman ; met. the sacred books used by 

him as textbooks for such duties. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

brbhmun" WTlN' 


barkari w^'K 

brohmiin" ?rT(|N I sTT^lWt f. a woman of the Brahman 
caste, see brolimun. 

brahas-kath w?^-^^ i '^^i^T'JH;!!!'?: f- (sg- dat. 
-kathi -■5|if^), a sudden, violent, or unnatural death, 
caused by drowning, burning, falling down a precipice, 
an earthquake, or the like, -kath gafehun" -qw 
1?f ^ I ^^i^T'JlT^'RTf!: f-inf- such a sudden death to 
occur ; met. of any sudden calamity as grievous as 

brahaspath Wf^t^^ I ff^rfrr: m. (sg. dat. brahas- 
patas ^f^^tra:), the planet Jupiter. 

braj W5l m. N. of the district surrounding Agra and 
Mathura, the scene of Krsna's juvenile adventures. 
braja-wosi W5J-Tra\ ni. N. of Krsna (Siv. 1435, voc. 
brajawbsiye w^WTftR). 

barj 'Wl^ f. Zizyphus flexuosa (EL). 

burj _ J or burja '^^ m. a bastion, tower, turret 
(Kara. 742, 1770) ; any sign of the Zodiac (Siv. 523). 
(The Arabic plural of this word is buruj. Hence 
Eam. 579 has pi. dat. burujen.) 

bruk"^ ^^ I ^fz^^fTT m. bending or sagging of some- 
thing perpendicular owing to having to sujiport a too 
heavy weight ; esp. the bending or twisting of the 
backbone from such a cause. — kadun — ^'^'t, I 
^fE^sfirn^T^JT m.inf. to cause sagging or twisting, 
owing to the superimposition of an excessive burden, 
as in the case of a man's waist, of the trunk of a tree, 
a pillar, or the like. — nerun — ij^i; I ^fz^^^^lHTT- 
irt^: m.inf. such bending or sagging to occur. 

b*r*ka W^^ ^-i';J I '^^T^Mt%^^: m. a kind of veiling 
dress worn by respectable women outside their houses. 
It is a long strip of cloth, concealing the wliole of the 
face of the woman wearing it, except the eyes, and 
reaching to the feet. — baban — ^T^^ I '^'^fr- 
iSfTf^^^ <i< y •( lf\^T f. a respectable woman accustomed 
to wear a b*r*ka in public. 

baruk" ^^^ i ^inz^^^ adj. (f. bariic" ^^), of, or 

belonging to, a door. Prop. gen. of bar 1, q.v. 
berbk' tT;T^ (= j^-j) l ^T!^t%^^: f. a kind of 

walking-stick with a handle across the top, like that 

of a crutch. 
brakh w^ i '?n^T?T: m. (sg. dat. brakas w^ii;), a 

crushing blow, a blow with a heavy weight ealcidated 
to break anything. — ^khyon'^ — ^J I »Tf=T^fTf: 
m.inf. lit. to eat such a blow ; to be broken by a 
crushing blow. — lagun — ^^fs^ | ^^rTTJ^rw: m.inf. 
such a blow to occur ; to suffer from a crushing blow ; 
met. of a man, to be a wreck after a severe illness. 

braka-drav w^-^^ i f^jjrr: adj. (f. -draye 
-■^T^), lit. issued from crushing blows; hence (of animate 


or inanimate objects), hardened by experiencing or 
making a practice of undergoing blows; inured, case- 
hardened, trained. — kadun — ^^•l. 1 'ft'^^T'JII 
m.inf. to harden by blows, inure, train. — nerun 
— %^i(^ I W?rr€?€t*R'T'i: m.inf. to be hardened by 
blows ; to be inured, case-hardened, trained. 
brikh fW'a f- (sg- dat. brikhi f^f'sl), any acute pain of 
the eye, accompanied by watering, swelling, and 
redness. The word is generally employed as a 
compound, as In the follo\ving : — lagun" — ^1^ > 

— wothun*^ — wW^, or — wasUn'* ~~^^1C' f'"f- 
such a disease to occur. — lagiin" — ^1'^ is the 
equivalent of the Hindi 2^a1i jdnd, and is used, not 
only of the eye swelling, but also of fruit, etc., 

barkhl (?), f. a Kashmiri custom, the celebration of the 
day of a person's death (L. 258). 

bbrikh ^tO^^ I "^fwir: adj. c g. (m. sg. dat. bbrikas 

^T^^^), very heavy, very difficult. 

brikhilad twf'a^ I %'^Tl'ITsirRT: adj. e.g. sufPering 
from eye disease, in which the eyes water and are 

barkhilaf i_Jlri-v adj. e.g. contradictory. Inconsistent. 
— hawun — ^TWl, ni.inf. to show the reverse, to 
misrepresent (Gr.M.). 

barkhurdar .L\.riyj adj. e.g. prosperous, successful, 
happy, enjoying long life and prosperity (K.Pr. 248). 

barkhast L::-wjUi. j adj. e.g. rising, broken up, dismissed 
(of a meeting or court) (Gr.M.) ; removed from office, 

b^r^kal ^^^^'^ I ^l5«ll^I^Tt%t^T^Tf^^ f • a woman 
who wears a b^r^'ka, q.v. ; esp. a woman who deceit- 
fully wears such to disguise herself, in order to give 
the impression that she does so habitually. 

brakalad W«li^5 l ^^rnTgu: adj. e.g. broken by a 
crushing blow ; met. reduced to a wreck by severe 

brakun w^ii: I ^fi'JJl conj. 1 (1 p.p. brok" wf , f. 
briic" sf'g ; 2 p.p. bracyov w^^), to crush, 
pound, esp. to crush grain with a pestle, or to crunch 
it with the teeth ; to masticate ; met. to confound 
a man mth angry abuse, brakana ytin" W^i^ f?nT I 
^Tf|<f^*l^»W; m. inf. pass, to be crushed, pounded, 
esp. of the hand, foot, finger, or toe ; to be crushed 
between two hard substances. 

brok°-mot" sf^-^g I ^T^: adj. (f. briic^-mufe'^ 
W^-fl^), crushed, pounded; crunched by the teeth, 
masticated ; met. crushed by angry abuse. 

barkari ^^fT> in the foUo^ving : — dyun" — t^g i 
5^ t'l^'?; m.inf. to set a person in front (for almost 


For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

brak^^ran srari; 

123 — 

bar-mandeu ^-jt^tt 

certain death, as in a sudden attack in battle or 
in a sudden calamity), to dispatch on a forlorn hope. 
— lagun — ^^i; l ^m^f^^^igRftf: m.inf. to be set 
in front (for almost certain death, as in a sudden 
attack in battle or in any great disaster). — lagun 

— ^TT^i ^m^^^ ^w^ m.inf., i.q. barkari dyun". 

brak^ran W^X;'l, I <=i||MI<T: f- crushing, pounding (as 
hard grains in a mortar or by crunching with the 
teeth) ; met. crushing a man by abuse. 

brak*run ^^b^'t: i sn^ncfw; conj. 1 (1 p.p. brak^r" 
W^), i.q. brakun, qv. 

barkarar .JrS/ adj. e.g. fixed, established, firm, un- 
changeable (Gr.M.). 

barkath ij^^ m. (sg. dat. barkatas ^■^^fre;), in- 
crease, abundance, prosperity, blessing (K.Pr. 79, 150) ; 
Kashmiri Musalmans use this word for ' one ' in 
counting, instead of akh, by way of asking God's 
blessing on tlie whole transaction. 

brakawun 9(^w^ i ^f'f'T*!; conj. 1 (1 p.p. brakow" 
^gfi^), i.q. brakun, q.v. brakow"-mot" w%-»TW I 
lirTfpT: adj. (f. brakuw"-muts" ^^-»r^), i^q. 
brok"-mot", see brakun. 

b*r*kawun g-^cRr^^ I ^5iT^5a:'n^xri!jii; conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

b^r^kow" ^'?^^^), to force violently into an orifice, 
e.g. a nail ; obsc. (f.inf.), to violate, have violent 
intercourse with a woman. 
bram sf^ I frf^:, ^sy»m m. wandering, roaming, 
travelling (with suff. of indef. art. YZ. 190, bramah ; 
K.Pr. 6, ag. braman) ; an error, mistake ; error, 
delusion (Siv. 1762, 1769, 1835, 18-14) ; an illusion, 
a delusive thing (Siv. 1049, 1570, 1578, 1754, 1788-92, 
1799); swindling, cheating; giddiness, dizziness. -<> mis- 
taking for something, as in sarpa-bram, mistaking 
(a rope) for a snake (Siv. 1818). — dyun° — f^ 1 
«(y«t»l m.inf. to cause to wander (YZ. 190) ; to 
swindle, cheat, defraud ; esp. u.w. reference to children. 
— dinawol" — f^T^g adj. (f. — dinawajen — f^- 
^TW^), false, deceptive, deceitful (El.). — gabhun 
— 1^1. I fT'TH^: m.inf. to be in error, mistaken. 
—lagun — ^nr^ l ^f^fft'^lf^l'l m.inf. to be swindled, 
cheated, -tam -TT'l I ^^11 m. swindling, cheating. 
— yun° — t^ll ^IfT^^: m.inf. to become giddy, dizzy. 

bram* nyun" w1»T f^ i ^fM^'^^'TJi m.inf. to be 

swindled, cheated. 
brim in brim-posh, m. the water-lily, Nymjyhcea alba (El.) . 
barm ^^ l t^'^W: m. trust, confidence (in a person), 

esp. general trust reposed in a man of good repute ; 

credit, good repute. — tulun — g^si. I f^^TO'lM'W; 

m.inf. to destroy credit (e.g. by making public a 

person's bad conduct, or by spreading a report as to 


his poverty). — w6thun — I^«T. I HfftfTTTHr: ni.inf. 

credit or good repute to be lost (owing to a person 
becoming bankrupt or the like). — wdthith gafchun 

— wt%^ If II ^ftT^t%^T^rrf^' R «) I vi I m d : m.f. id. 

barma ^^ I ^<MiYd^ m. (11. vii, 24, bar»m), an auger, 
drill, a kind of gimlet or borer worked with a string. 
— karun — ^^'i; m.inf. to bore holes (H. vii, 24). 
-tuj* -g^ or -tuj" -g^l '^WtZ^^t^^T f. the metal 
point of an auger, a drill-j^oint. — tarun — WT^t I 
■41 1 ♦JhtZ'SIT ^Vfl m.inf. to bore with an auger. 
-trop" --i^ I ^TWtZ'l\t'q?[TTT ¥?ft3I^ m. joining 
together by auger-holes, as when two pieces of metal 
or leather have holes drilled along the edges, through 
which string or wire is jiassed to fasten them together. 
-tropal -^TT^ I ^T+hTi i-Tl^^iniYfairi: e.g. sewed 
through drill holes (of shoes or the like, in which 
holes for the thread are first drilled with an auger) . 

bar^m ^i^ , see barma. 

beram ^TT^l (=J^^^) I "'ftiTsirpfi: adj. e.g. sick, ill, 
ailing, unwell, indisposed ; a sick person, a patient. 
— gafehun — If i; l ^ITf^'g^i^^'m m.inf. to fall ill. 

berbmi ^XJflY l Tti: f. sickness, illness. 

brimdu, see brimij. 

bramah w*iTf (YZ. 190) = bram (q.v.) with suffix of 

indefinite article. 

brimij tlrf'T^ l ^Tt^^: , ^f^r^: f. a certain tree, 
Celtin atistra/is, usually found in Musalmiln graveyards 
and in the vicinity of shrines (L. 68, 79, 81 ; K.Pr. 35). 
Hindus look upon it as unclean and as inhabited by 
the Kali Yuga or evil genius of the present age. 
El. gives the following variants of the name of this 
tree, brimdu, brimla, and brumij, and calls it 
Celtis caucasica. 

brimiji-chot" Mflfw-wf? I ^f^Tf^^^'^i^J'l m. 
the small fruit of this tree. 

briimij, see brimij. 

brimla, see brimij. 

baramula, see warahmul. 

braman wi1, see bram. 

bramun wn'l, I wrr^fTi: conj. 3 (2 p.p. bramyov 
W?ft^), to wander, roam ; to go round in circles, to 
revolve ; to be in error, mistaken, to make a mistake. 

bramyo-mot" s^ft-^g i »rrt'fl'ni?w: perf. part. (f. 

bramye-miife" W^-»ra ), in error, mistaken. 

bar-manden ^-tc^'^ or -mandin -irt^^^ i ?t«7T^<*t<!I: 

m. midday. 

bar-mandenuk" ^'^-T^^i I T^i^^Tt^^: adj. 

(f. -mandeniic" -^I'^ar^), of or belonging to midday. 

bar - mandenen ^ - JT'^n-ii; or - mandinen 

-flf'^'I't^ I It^n^ adv. at midday (Siv. 1756). 

For words containing bh, sec under b. See article b. 


bram^r WRX 

124 — 

brang 1 w'l 

-mandenen bSg^ (or bbgin) -^T'^nii: ^T^ (wit'T'T:) I 

y U iT ^ l <=mT fidv. at about midday. 

bar-mandenes ^-?i»?l^ra: i 'R'STT^^^T adv. at 
midday, -mandenes bog^ (or bbgin) -??-.gr3Ri: ^^ 
(^rf'Ti:) I 'TWrjT^^ffT^ adv. at about midday. 
bram^r W'tT l ^^^: '»• a swindler, a cheat (Gr.Gr. 149). 

bramur^ wW^ i ^^^'- adj. (f. bram^r^^ ^^), a 

swindler, a cheat. 
bramaracokh ^JJTT^'i I 'Jflt^^: m. (sg. dat. 

bramaracokas WITN^^^)' a certain kind of 
demon or ghost, wlio dwells in waste places and 
misleads travellers by pretending to be a light, a 
will-o'-the-wisp. Of. brahma-rakhyus", under 

bram^run ^^^ I »^?TTin^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. bramor" 
^j?^), to mislead, lead into error, delude. 

bramT^-mot" #5rf^-»Tg I '^fim: perf. part. (f. 
bram'^r^-miife" w*n|;-Tra), misled. 

bram^rawun ^J^TTfT. I »rr»i'!i»^ conj. i (1 p.p. bram*- 

row" if^-^), i.q. bram»run, q.v. (YZ. 339, Siv. 530). 

bram»r6w"-mot"^flXtf-'if I »rr^TT: peif. part. (f. 

brain*rbw"-mufe^ ^i^-^^T^-^Ti^), i.q. bram°r"-mot", 

see bram^run. 

bran Wl l ^^1%^^: m. an elm-tree (Siv. 1286), Ulmiis 

Wallichiana and U. sp. (L. 79), U. erosa and U. 

pumila (EL). L. spells this word bren and brenn, 

El. has both bran and bren. Cf . L. 68, 70 (its young 

shoots used for their fibre), 79, 80. 

brana-del WT-^^ I J^t%^^R^^ m. the elm-bark, 
used as a medicine for cutaneous diseases. -dyol" 
-5IHT I ^^t^^^TR'ff: m. the bark of the young shoots 
of the elm, used for making rough but strong ropes 
(L. 70). -sur -^^1 ^T^1%^H^ m. the ashes of 
burnt elm, which have alkaline properties and are used 
for making lye. -zyun'^ -%^ I T'^^tMl^: m. elm 
firewood, used principally by Musalraans (L. 80). 

baran 1 ^^^ i ^^inz*!; f. (sg. dat. bariin" ^T^), 

a lightly-built door, such as that admitting to the 
ground floor of a house or water-shed or a cow- 
house; a doorway fitted with such a door. Of. 
L. 460. hasti-baran, f. an elephant's stable-door 
(K.Pr. 190). 

baran 2 ^i: l iiT^-^1%^^: f. the N. of one of the lunar 
asterisms, the Sanskrit Bharanl. 

baran* ^^lK^ I '^TfT'fl" a pair of uterine brothers, 
or a brother and sister, both uterine (YZ. 438) ; any 
number of uterine brothers or brothers and sisters 
(YZ. 453). -ton'* -ffr^ I »^ig^»^ m. brotherhood 
(uterine or not), the relationship between brothers or 
between brothers and sisters ; met. mutual affection or 


mutual conduct like that between brothers ; relation- 
ship by blood, or even by having the same teacher. 

barain (?), m. the oak, Quernis dilatata (El.). 
According to L. 79 this tree does not grow in 
Kashmir. The spelling of the word is doubtful. 

barin •rtr'l^, they were muddied by him, see barun 2. 

barun 1 ^^^i; i ^T^»i;conj. 1 (1 p.p. bor"! 2 ^, for 
bor" 1, see S.V.), to fill (K.Pr. 95; YZ. 373,^374; 
Siv. 24, 1169, 1345, 1784) ; to fill (with joy, sorrow, 
faith, etc.) (Siv. 171, 925, 1587) ; to perform, fulfil 
(e.g. a hope or wish), complete ; to pay (the penalty of), 
undergo, suffer, endure ; to attain to, enjoj', experience 
(love, happiness, sorrow, etc.) (YZ. 252, Siv. 1113, 
1645) ; to feel and maintain (love, faith etc.) (Siv. 
1171, 1174); to pass (time) (Siv. 799, 1065, 1584). 
— cav, to fill a wish, to desire ardently, covet (K.Pr. 
247) ; to fulfil a desire (YZ. 31). —gam, to suffer 
grief, to be sorrowful, anxious (YZ. 38). 

bar* bar* wtX ^^ ^^^1- P'*''*-- continually filling, 
fiUing over and over again (YZ. 343, Siv. 1079, 1400) ; 
used as an adj. very full (Siv. 520, 1245, 1524). 
bor°-mot'* 1 4^-»^5 I M^K^^'. perf. part. (f. biir"- 

mub" W'^-'?^). filled, brimful. 

barana yiin" 1 ^xy[ f^ I ^R^I'Th^'T'I "^- i°f- 
pass, to become filled (e.g. a vessel or a river), to 
become brimful (Siv. 1234, 1286). 

barith dyun" w1t^ f?[5 m.inf. to fill, to fill up 
(YZ. 222). 
barun 2 ^^^i: I t^^^^TWl conj. 1 (1 p.p. bor" 3 ^^; 

for bor° 1 see s.v.), to smear, daub, stain, defile, 

pollute (K.Pr. 121, of a wet dog dirtying people). 

bor'^-mot'* 2 ^-^rg, perf. part, defiled, dirtied (of 

clothes) (Siv. 1022). " 
barun 3 ^i: i t^^ft^ft^ conj. 3 (2 p.p. baryov 

«< i|~t'^) , to piue in absence from home or friends, to be 


barana amot" ^"?7T "^niTH i ^srr^^t^^ijTrT: perf. 

part. (f. — amiife** — '^'T|0 .become homesick. — 3nin°2 

— f^T I t^TlT^^if: m. i"f- pass, to become homesick. 
beran (?) m. a certain kind of grass (L. 70, 359) (qy. is 

this really for beran peth, on the field borders, and 

meaning either bera-muj* or bira mosta, see bera?). 

burbn* W^T^ I ^IMTI^^^: f. a kind of salad, composed 
of pounded radishes mixed with curdled milk (dahl), 
and seasoned with cumin and salt. It is eaten uncooked. 

brand, i.q. brSd, q.v. 

baranda (K.Pr. 39), i.q. brida, abl. of brSd, q.v. 

brang 1 ^ l Ht^lIT^ m. a turret ; the minaret of 
a mosque ; with ah of indef. art. brangah (K.Pr. 
143). — tulun — g^ I ^^IJTT^: ni.inf. to raise 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

brang 2 ^-ir 

125 — 

bror" 1 #1^ 

a minaret ; met. to swear repeatedly, to call over and 
over again God or one's spiritual teacher to witness. 

brang 2 W^T l "H^1lt%^'E[: m. the name of a pargana in 
the south-east of the valley of Kashmir. 

brangi W'f^ l •T^f^^^t f- N. of a river rising in the 
mountains east of Kashmir, and watering the pargana 
of Brang. 

be-rang t—X; ■ .^-j WtW ^^i- ^S- without colour, colour- 
less ; without form, formless (of God) [Siv. 849, 1820 
(of the universe before creation, " without form and 
void "), Siv. 1025] ; without passion, passionless 
(a Persianization of the Sanskrit rdga-rahita) (Siv. 
1267, 1566). 

brinj ^ (? m.), rice (K.Pr. 180, W. 155). The word 
has not been noted elsewhere. Cf. braz. 

brinj a-kul'^, m. N. of a tree of Kashinir (El.). 

bronth ^3 (bront, W. 97), brunth' #f5, etc., see 
under brSth b' ith^, etc. 

brbnife ^T.j {\... 37, 251, 317) = br8b", see brlth 1. 

baranawun 1 ^-^Tfi: I i7fT^TW»i; conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

baranow" =1<»ft^), to cause another to fill anything. 

baranawun 2 ^T^ilf*! I f^^Tft^^iJW: conj. 1 
(1 i^.p. baranow" ^T'Ttj)) to make a person home- 
sick, to cause him to be homesick. 

branyuv™ W^g^ I ^^^^fl^: adj. (f. braniv** w1%^), 

made of elm-wood, see bran. 

brinz' 1w^, brinzi ^^(^, brinzis 1wt|[^, see bryunz". 

brunz"^^, see bryunz". 

barun" w^-^^ a door (Siv. 207, 1890) ; cf. bar 1. 

barane-bal t^-^^ i T^i^^at^tt^IT' ™- N- of 
a certain narrow pass or cleft in the mountain -.dde 
enough for only one person at a time, through which 
pilgrims pass on the way from Srinagar to Gangabal 
(Siv. 1176, 1890) ; in Siv. 1890 also used met. to 
signify the manipura, or mystical circle on the navel, 
referred to in Yoga philosophy. 

bran-bran W^-W^ I t^if%1%^^: m. knock, crash, flap, 
the sound of striking or nioring anything solid. 

barne-gor" ^-'l^ l TTsg^ITTirtlTWt m. a man whose 
profession is to wind the woof in the shuttle for 
weaving woollen cloth. 

bar-pa b j or barpah WPTf adj. e.g. on foot, erected, 
established. — asun — '^T?11. m.inf. to be set on 
foot, established, to be zealously engaged in any work 
(Ram. 573). 

baraph', baraf' wrftfi ^j i ^I'^f^^tr: (lit. icy), a kind 

of sweetmeat made of "sugar and milk and having the 
appearance of ice. 
barpala anun ^w ^5«T; I lftrt^T^1»i; m.inf. to provoke, 
incite, persuade a person to do anything. 


bar-pur W^-^ l ^'^^ ^^- e.g. quite full, brimful, 

chokeful, crammed, replete. 
brari or breri (? spelling), f. a species of elm, Ulmua 

campestris (El.), brari, a certain plant : it was eaten 

in the famine of 1877—9 and caused many deaths 

(L. 71). Cf. bror" 1. 
briri wtlt. brir^ wt^, see brUr**. 
bror" 1 wY^ 1 1%^5r: m. (f. brbr" l ^f^), a cat (m.), 

a tom-cat^ (f.) a pussy-cat (K.Pr. 34, 35, 64, 69, 109). 

Cf. byor". — marun — ?rT^«^ i iij^ifirnRJTij'^m.inf. 

to attack a person with abuse. — morith thawun 
— TTTtt^ ^^1 1 TT^'Tffr »T(^'ITrsIiTn?\qiT'Pl m.inf. to 
establish oneself by abuse, as when a newly appointed 
official at once brings his subordinates under his thumb 
by threats and abuse immediately after his taking charge. 

brari-bokut" WtIt-^^ I t^Tr^nfm: m. (f. 
-b6k"b" -f^l,)' a kitten, -gasa -irre i ^^R^^t^ij^rfn- 

■f%^tt: r". a certain labiate plant, used in medicine as 
an anthelmintic (L. 75). Cf. brari. -hal -f^ I 
'f«l^lH\^^<!l*i m. cat's embryo, the embryo of a cat 
voided before its full time, known to be rarely found 
by a human being ; met. anything of great rarity. 
— yin^ — ^\ I ^^^<^'^^Tr f.inf. to exhibit 
a movement of surprise or fear, to start, -zun -5j^ | 
■JT^5?f\MT f- the pleasing moonlight in the latter half 
of the night and before dawn. -Zun gafehiin^ -?l^ 
TS^ • l^^^t^t^W-R: f.inf. owing to being deceived 
by the moonlight of the latter half of the night, to 
wrongly imagine that dawn is near. 

brbri-jatb ^i^-^^ I tWTT^t^^w^?: f. (sg. dat. 

-jufe^ -^1^), cat's hair (used for fine paint-brushes, 
etc.). khot" -^g I t^TRr^t^fC m. a safe or cup- 
board in kitchens, etc., in which milk, butter, etc., is 
kept out of reach of cats, -kbni -<*r^ I W^fft f. 
the cat's attic, i.e. a small attic or garret immediately 
under the roof, svdtable for storing wood or other 
lumber, -kanen -^'sr^ I ^5r»ft f. id. -malay 

-'TT^ra I tW^T'Trjft'H^^lli: f. anything longed for by 
cats, such as milk, butter, meat, or the like ; met. 
anything longed for by children, -may -?TT^ | 
f%^I>t*4«^1^f?i: f. the act of sitting silently and 
motionless, unseen by others, but watchful, like a cat ; 
stealthiness. — pakun — XT^i; I IWTr^rTRr: m.inf. 
to walk like a eat, to walk stealthily, -thaph -^^S I 
f^^T^rnriTWI^ m- (^g. dat. -thapas -^tt^), plunder 
by a cat ; plundering or carrying off by anyone in the 
manner of a cat, i.e. by a sudden attack after stealthy 
watching, -zagay -3iTT^ I f^TT^^'^rrTTT f- cat's 
watcliing; stealthy watching in order to obtain any- 
thing, after the manner of a cat. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bror" 2 g>^ 

— 126 

barish ^friT 

bror" 2 ^^ I ^TTJI'J^^tW^^: m- the upper cross-bar 
joining the two upright posts of the wooden contrivance 
for raising water from a well ; cf. byor". 

bror'-kij*i wV^-1^^ l fin^^t^T'PI'^t^t^^- 
^t^^^: f. the pin securing this cross-bar in position. 
-tiir" -fl^ I «jitm«p<*<^t | <( »!^t i l *i f- the pointed end of 
the cross-bar ; ef . tur". 

bror^ 3 ^'^ m. a god, esp. Siva. This word is commonly 
found at the end of place-names, and is derived from 
the Sanskrit h/iaifdrakah, the equivalent of Uvara, as 
in Vija-bror" = Skr. VijayCsvara, RT.Tr. II, 464. 
Cf. brbr" 2. 

brbr^ 1 WT^ I I^TT^ f- a she-cat, pussy-cat ; cf. 

bror" 2 WT^ I t^fVFr^ t^ f. (f- of bror" 3, q.v.), 
a goddess, in general, to whom any particular place is 

brtir" g;^ or brir** ^^ i xpjf^^: f. (sg. dat. briri 

^fx;), a certain animal, said to resemble a cat (cf. 
bror") and to have a voice like that of a person 
cr3ang ; its presence brings ill-luck. — pen" — TE[^ | 
^f^aiMT'd: f.inf. the occurrence of something which 
portends or is the cause of misfortune. 

birre (? spelling), m. Picca Wehhiam, the Silver Fir (EL). 

brarun WT^I, I f^^»T^«R; m. the going bad or musty 
of cooked food, milk, or the like ; mustiness, a musty 
smell. — anun — '^51; I f^^^iTWl m.inf. to bring 
mustiness, to make (anything) musty by keeping it 
from the fresh air or in a confined place. — karun 
— «Ii^'^ I f^^nftW^: m.inf. to make a musty smell, 
a musty smell to arise. — yun" — f^^ I f^^tfr^^: 
m.inf. a mustj^ smell to come or arise. 

barrit, see barith. 

braray H\\*i \ ^'J'^: f- a musty smell produced in 
anything spoiled by damp or kept shut up from the 
fresh air. 

br^S W^ f. in the following : — gafehiin" — IW'51 I 
t^^rnjfTT: f.inf. to go musty, of anything kept in 
a confined place or away from the fresh air. — karUn^ 
— ^^ I 1%?i<ft«BTW5R; f.inf. to turn anything (esp. 
soft or juicy food) musty by shutting it up in a 
confined place or pressing it together so that fresh air 
cannot reach it. — wasun*^ — ^4^ I •f%?rf!^^«lT( 
f.inf. mustiness to descend ; nmstiness to be caused to 
any soft or juicy food or the like by leaving it shut 
up in a vessel without aUowug access to fresh air. 

— w6thun*i —W^\ I t^^nrr^r^: f.inf. id. (lit. 

mustiness to arise) ; met. affection or friendship to be 
turned to hate o\ving to the mind becoming poisoned 
or to misunderstanding. 

bars ^fl m. arrogance, the insolence of a low person 
suddenly raised to power ; used in the follomng : — 

barsas amot" ^T^^ '^TRg I ^w^^wt: perf . part. 
(f. — amiifc" — '^fl^ ), come to arrogance, arrogant. 
— anun — ^'^'^ I '^(gi^^T'S'i; m.inf. to bring to 
arrogance, to cause a person to be arrogant. — yun'' 
— f^T I ^(a^<ft*1'^*IH m.inf. to come to arrogance, to 
become arrogant (of a mean person suddenly elevated) . 

barsa ^tett, see barsavyot". 

baras ^T^ to a door, see bar 1 ; I will fill for him, see 
barun 1. 

barus" WT^§ l ^nTTf^^: m- the N. of a village about 
seven Ms south-east of Srinagar. The site of the ancient 
Visvaikasilra, a sacred spot said to give beatitude 
to those who die there ; see RT.Tr. I, 192, and 
II, 460. 

brash w^ in brash-brash wi|-w^ 1 f^RTtT^I^: m. 

eating again and again without limit and without 
regard to propriety, greedy gluttony ; see brashun. 

bresh 1 ^'SJ I 1%^TT^' m- something formidable or 
terrible, a huge, ugly, and terrifying form, a monster. 
— hawun — ITJI^ l I^^TR^sl'IH m.inf. to see 
a terrifying monster, ghost, etc. (Riim. 1367). 

bresh 2 ^ I 1»l?r^tm<4)H^ Wt'I'^0^ m. sexual desire or 
excitement in female animals, heat, the oestrum ; (of 

cows) bulling. -— lagun — ^Ji; I wt^l^^^: 

m.inf. signs of heat to appear in a female animal. 
— ynn'^ — I^IJ 1 ^^ft'l'^5'^: m.inf. heat to come, 
sexual desire to arise in a female animal. 

breshe-amlife'i tsT-'Trrf^ 1 ^rTW'B'ft't'^T f- (a 

female animal) who has come into heat, or is in heat. 
-miits" -fl^ I ^'ft'i'^'JI'Trr f- (a female animal) mad 
with heat, in full heat, wild with heat. — yun" 
— f'T'T I i^^f^JlT^^ci: m.inf. to come into heat, to 
show signs of heat. 

breshen feamiife^ t^TI ^(\^\ ' iT'silsrrfiJJ^'t'^rr 

f. entered into heats, i.e. to begin the series of attacks 
of heat which she is destined to undergo (of a female 
animal who is in heat for the first time). 

breshes ateun tsr^ ^^«i; 1 tt^jitt: ^'ft'Ft^^- 

JTWrJ^ m.inf. to enter into heat, to exhibit signs of 
a first attack of heat. 
brish" ^^ , see breh. 

barsh ^^ 1 ^^^Vf%^: f. a certain medicine used for 
catarrhs, made up of almond juice, cardamoms, saffron, 
musk, and other ingredients. 

barish ^tr^ (cf. j_p*j) i gini: f. (pi. nom. bar^he 

^'^!T)> a sharp-pointed sjjear, lance (II. viii, 7 ; Ram. 

872). bar%he-bardar ^^5r-g^^ 1 ginrr^f^^: m. 
a lancer, a soldier armed with a lance. 

For words coutaining bh, see uuder b. See article b. 

borish ^rfr^ 

— 127 

breth WE 

borish ^itT^ ipiV ' ^^' ^- ^^"^' * shower of rain. 

— kariin" — '^T=f I ^tS^rnT- f.inf . rain to fall, to rain ; 

esp. of a sudden full of rain. 
burish. ^f^ l ^nftTT^TR: f- au angry speech addressed 

to a servant or naughty child, scolding. — kariili*' 

— ^jyf I ^ral'^WdS'l+l. f.inf. to scold, address 

brashub W^ I f^m'- «i. a bull ; met. a manly, vigorous, 

strong man. 
bar'shel ^^1I«^ l ^WTT^fT: adj. e.g. lance-headed, fitted 

with an extremity lilce a lance. 
breshelad 1 ^^\ I JT^^TTf 5t: adj. e.g. frightened 

at suddenly seeing something terrific. 

breshelad 2 tu^^ I ^^'i^T^^i: adj. e.g. (as subst. 

f. bresheladin WST'Sft^) (of animals or men), 
desirous of sexual intercourse, in rut or heat. 

brashun wg^C I <jm«^*r^T!!*i; conj. 1 (1 p.p. brosh^ 

?f^), to eat with champing of the teeth (as animals 
do) ; to eat greedily, brosh'^-mot" ^-4^ I Tt^.", 
tTT^^ifT: perf. part. (f. brush^-mufe*^ ^^-if ^ ) , eaten 
with chamj)ing of the teeth, eaten violently ; met. 
violently abused by word of mouth. 
brasta ^m or bresta ^^ I ^Fiit^^^^sRnjf : 

fenugreek [Trigonel/ttm Jcenuiii-yrwcum, Hindi mSthl) 
seeds, used as a condiment. 

barsath w^if^ i ^^^ , ^^^'. m. (sg. dat. barsatas 

=(f)MH,)) the rainy season ; rain in general (Siv. 1551). 
— khyon" — ^5 1 ^tff^f%^t%^nTtl'^: m.inf. to eat 
the rains ; hence, to suffer from tlie rotting, fermenting, 
or mustiness which occurs to articles in the rainy 
.season, -kal -ejrra I ^^c^^^IT: m- <he period of the 
rainy season (July— September) . -lad -^Rf I f^^ffTT- 
?rrxi3: adj. e.g. decayed, fermented, musty, maggoty, 
o\ving to the damp of the rainy season. — lagun 
— ^^rj^ I Trf^^t^^fiTO^Tl^: m.inf. to decay, grow 
musty, infected with maggots, etc., owing to the damp 
of the rainy season, -zad -oT^ I ^^^^^t^lHT: adj. 
e.g. decayed, rotten, infected with maggots owing to 
the damp of tlie rainy season. 

barsatas-kyut" ^^TT^-tsfi^ I ^^t^btstr^ adj. 

in, during, or at some time in the rainy season. 

braswar W^^TT or breswar ^^eiK 1 f f^l^irrar: 

f. the fifth day of the week,*Thursday (K.Pr. 220, 
232, W. 106). 
barsavyot" cjfi^ai^ I ^^^5^,^: adj. (f. barsavefe" 

•rer^W ), possessing wealth and property, ricli, well- 
to-do (^r.Gr. 137). 
brito 1^, in brito-brito fWfft-IWfft I f^f ttt^tj^ m. 

the act of humbly begging, imploring ; repeatedly 
begging and imploring. 

brot" wtn I '^Tf'S: m. a mistaken recognition, being 
misled by appearances ; cf . brath 2. — gafahuu 
— 3I^«t, I VT<^4«I- m.inf. mistaking one person for 
another to occur. — karun — ej^'^ I 'JTr^WT^T^^TJ^ 
m.inf. to cause a person to be mistaken by substituting 
something similar to what he expects to find, to lead 
a person to believe that a thing is something else. 

brot'^ Wl^ or brot" wfj I f^^f^^ m. a blot or drop 
of ink, obscuring a writing or drawing. 

brot* walan' ^\^ ^\^^ I ^^rf^<ft^TWl m. pi. 

inf. to blot or smear with ink what one is writing or 

drawing, to cover with blots. 

-wasan^ — ^^^^ 

m^^^^\ m. pi. inf. a papei', writing, or drawing 
to be covered or spoiled by blots. 
barta w^T or bartah ^#rf (El. bartha), m. a husband 
(Eiim. 32-5, 656, 6G1, barta ; 159, 756, 1641, 
bartah). barta-riifeh* ^Tn-TW f- a woman deprived 
of her husband, one who has been abandoned by her 
husband (Eilm. 1205). 

borut"^ 1 ^^g 1 ^r^: adj. [m. sg. dat. baratis <s»<f?i«^, 
ag. bar*t' ^^, ph dat. bariten (H. vi, 15) ; f. sg. 

nom. bar"fc" ^1,' q-"^-]' filled (both lit. and fig., e.g. 
a vessel with something material, or a man with 
wealth, \'irtue, as in sreha-borut" %f-^g, filled 
with love (Siv. 1806), etc.) ; f. (of a woman) pregnant, 
esp. when approaching the time of her delivery. 

borut" 2 3r^ 1 t%T^: adj. (m. sg. dat. baratis '^tI^^, 
ag. bar*t* ^'^^, f- nom. bar"fe" ^1.). smeared, 
plastered, used — ' after words meaning oil, mud, or 
the like. 

brath W^ f. (sg. dat. briife" W^), a trade, profession 

brath 1 wf^ I ^T^ f- (sg. dat. brbfe" wt^), liope, 
expectation ; brols" ches, I (f.) am in hope (YZ. 317). 
— rozun" — T^^gj^l ^llTTt^f^: f.inf. hope or expecta- 
tion to remain or continue. — thawufi'' — ^^T^ I 
HTft^tlfH f.inf. to hope, exj)ect, look for. 

brofe" rawun ^^ TR1, m.inf. to be lost in hope, 
to be hopeless (YZ. 37, 251). — rozun — 'O'fl't I 
'^^T^T m.inf. to remain in hope, to continue in 
hope. — thawun — ^[^^ I •^irra^^'fl m.inf. to 
give a person hopes, to encourage with hope. 

brath 2 wt'sr 1 WiW. f. (sg. dat. brofe" s^), i.q. 
brot", q.v. 

breth w^ 1 ^;^fi^: adj. e.g. (m. sg. dat. brethas 
^3^), stupid, "foolish (K.Pr. 128, 195, 215); un- 
intelligent, ignorant. — gafahun — Iff 'I I T^I^^RH 
m.inf. to become stupid, to be capable of some act 
of stupidity, generally of some person usually 

For words coutaiuing bh, see unde; b. See article b. 

brBth wf^ 

128 — 

baruth 2 ^^^ 

bretha-lopun" t3-^5 i '^^'' ^^i- (*• -lop^n^ 

-■^^SRsf), met. a stupid grain-jar; a fat fool, a big, 
clumsy, stupid fellow, -potul'^ -"^^^ I ^TfiT^: adj. 
(f. -p6t"j" -t^^T), a stupid statue, an utter fool, 
a stolid fool. 

brBth wf3 or b6th ^s i ^xm:, ^^TTfi:, ''idv. (of 
place) in front, before \siv. 872, 1029, 1494); (of 
time) before, beforehand (K.Pr. 107) ; foi-merly ; in 

■ the beginning, in olden time (Siv. 100) ; first in order 
of events (Siv. 1160) ; <>_ former, as in bro-gray, 
former unsteadiness, the unsteadiness of former times 
(Siv. 1133), cf. brfith'-gray bel.; postpos. (governing 
dat.) before (YZ. 434, Siv. 8, 846). — dyun" —f^^ 
m.inf. to give beforehand, to advance (money, etc.) 
(Gr.M.). -kali -^t1% I irr^T^ adv. in former times, 
formerly, once upon a time, -kali-hond" -^f%-f "^ I 

ttt^tT^^: adj. (f. -kali-hiinz" -^f%-^a), of or 

belonging to former times, ancient ; of or belonging to 
the beginning, initial, -kbl^ -^t1% I "^T^, 'IIT1RT% 
adv. in former times ; in the beginning, -kalyuk" 
-^T^f I in^t%^: adj. (f. -kalic*^ -?IiTf%'^), existing 
or bom in former times ; of or belonging to former 
times, old-fashioned, -kun -^1^ I ^T^Tc^ adv. (of 
place) before, in front ; (of time) before ; forwards, in 
a forward direction (El.) ; for the future, in future 
(Siv. 1756). -laki -Wrf^ I "^fT^^ adv. from the 
beginning, from the very first, -laki-hond" -vlTtsB- 
i?^ I '^Tf^: adj. (f. -laki-hiinz" -^rifsR-f^), of or 
belonging to the very beginning (either of place or 
time), -nam -•in m. the front end of a boat, the 
prow (K.Pr. 76). — nerun — ^^^j; m.inf. to go out 
in front, to lead a procession (Siv. 121) ; path broth 
nerun, to move backwards and forwards (Siv. 1790). 
— pahan — '^IT'l. adv. somewhat in front (Gr.Gr. 94). 
— yun" — 1^^ m.inf. to come forward, advance ; to 
act publicly, behave (Gr.M.). 

brotha ii^'S I Y'^: adv. in front, in (so and so's) 

presence ; opposite (Siv. 1733, 1911) ( — larun, to run 

• before a person, to meet him), -kani -mf^ | xr^: adv. 

in front, opposite ; from in front (Gr.M.) ; cf. W. 97, 

bontakani. -kanyuk^ -^f i Y^^f^ ^^i- (^• 
-kanic" -^t%^), of or belonging to in front, opposite, 
present, \asible. — nerun — %^i; m.inf. to go out, 
or advance, to meet a guest (Siv. 85). -petha -'^'S I 
■^Tt^fi; adv. from the beginning, from the first (of 
plaxie or time), -waw -^T^ m. a wind in front, 
a contrary wmd, a head-\vind (Siv. 1632). — yun" 
— t^g m.inf. to come in front of a person (K.Pr. 17). 

bruth^ ^t? I H^^^''^ ^^^- ^''°™ ^^ front, from the 
vicinity (of anything) ; in front (Gr.Gr. 154, Siv. 115, 


1609, 1790). — amot" — ^lig I gT^nfff: adj. (f. 
- — amiife" — '^T?n^ ) , advanced, come forward ; advanced 
in position, rank, or fortune, etc. — anun — '^Rl^ I 
^<.*dlt=h<.^1! m.inf. to bring forward ; to advance 
a person in rank, prosperity, good qualities, etc. ; to 
advance, adduce (arguments), -gray -Wi^ I ^T^ 
^iltsTT: f. lit. unsteadiness in front (cf. br5th-gray 
under broth) ; hence the outward grace, etc., of some 
person, as seen when walking or the like, -kali -^if^ I 
^Wrf1eRT% adv. in a former time, formerly, long ago. 
-kbl' -W[^ I M5fl»l3fiT% adv. formerl}-, long ago. 

-kalyuk'^ -^^J i ^f^T^^rPT^f^^: adj. (f. -kalic" 

-^Tf%^), of or belonging to a long bygone time, 
ancient, -kin' -f^^ I JJ^^slIrt, adv. in front, before, 
ahead, u.w. vbs. of motion, seeing, etc. ; from in front, 
from before (Gr.Gr. 158). -laki -^it^R I JT;:^^ adv. 
from the first of all, up to now or here ; regularly from 
the beginning, u.w. vbs. of motion, taking, collecting, 
gaining, -pbr' -^if^ I 'TT^'TT't adv. in front, opposite ; 
from the front (Gr.Gr. 160). — yun" — t^ I 
Tj^^l^^n^ m.inf. to come in front, come forward from 
behind ; to advance in position, rank in life, or 
prosperity ; to present oneself publich^ behave (Gr.M.). 

bartha wwi, bartah w#rf , see barta. 

barath ^\T% cl))^ I qT^n^Tq^fffr: f. (sg. dat. barofe" 
^TtV^), a writing conferring immunity or exemption ; 
by message or written document causing another to 
make a payment to a tliird party, a draft, cheque. 

barbts" dyun'^ ^"'H'l, 1^ i gr^^'i^^l m.inf. to give 
by a draft on another ; met. to put forward another 
man, an animal, etc., as a substitute for oneself, in 
order that he may be presented as an offering to 
a deity, undergo misfortune, receive punishment, make 
good a loss, or the like ; to offer another in atonement 
as a substitute for oneself, to make another a scapegoat. 
— lagun — ^^ I ^'TfT^H^Ift m.inf. to be offered 
by another in substitution as ab., to become a scapegoat. 

barith ^tr^^ adj. e.g. full (Siv. 24), filled (K.Pr. 82, 
119) ; governs the abl. as in feenyau barith, full of 
pillars (Gr.M.), tiza barith, full of glory (Siv. 919). 
— karun — ^P^l^ m.inf. to fill (EL, who spells the 
word larrif). The word is properly the conj. part, of 
barun 1, q.v. 

baruth 1 *r^ m. (sg. dat. baratas *rT;<T^> gen- 
barathun" ^TTJ^, Kiim. 891, 1353), N. of the brother 
of Rama-candra, in Sanskrit Bharata (RiFm. 5, 83, 275, 
288, etc.). 

baruth 2 ^^ I ^^^t^f!>iiTg»i^: m. (sg. dat. baratas 
^<d<^), a dish or other vessel made of an aUoy of 
several metals melted together. 

For words coutaiuing bh, see under b. See article b. 

baruth 3 ^^^ 


borav ^Tx^ 

baruth 3 ^i^ or j^^'a^ m. (sg. dat. baratas ^x:h^ or 

*<T<^^)> N. of a hill about fifteen /ids nortli of tSrTuagar 
on the pilgrim-route to Gangiibal (K.Pr. 233), also 
called Bhutesa ; cf. buth'-sher. barata-bal ^"^^f!- 
^T^ Of »TT:fI-'^^ id. (Siv. 1890). 

borth" ^1 adj. (f. biirlsh" 4f ), filled, (of a garment) 
covered^ (with blood) (YZ. llii). 

brethagi W^'ft l TS^imTT: f- the actions of a stupid 
man, stupidity. 

brithil wtft'^ I ^p{J f. stupidity. 

brith'lbz W^ft^T?! f- stupidity, ignorance (Gr.Gr. 143). 

brathim" wfj^, see brfithyum". 

brethun w^^ I ^?^*R'w; conj. 3 (2 p.p. brethyov 
%^ftW), to become stupid, be a fool (of one previously 
intelligent) ; (of greasy liot food) to be spoilt by not 
being eaten at the proper time, to be sjioilt by being 
allowed to get cold. 

brethy6-mot° ^gfY-^rg i wiV»jrT: pei-f. part. (f. 

brethye-miife" W^-?T^), become foohsh, clumsy (of 

one usually intelligent). 
brith'^rawun wt^TTg'l conj. 1 (1 p.p. brith^row" 

S^^T^^f ), iq- brUth'^rawun, q.v. (Gr.Gr. 173). 
brUth^rawan ^TT^'I. i 'JS^^TWI conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

briith^row" Wz^^), to make stupid, e.g. a boy 
naturally sharp-witted whose education is neglected or 
who is subjected to causeless terrors ; to spoil greasy 
hot food by allowing it to get cold before eating it. 

brUth*r6w"-mot" ^^rl'^'i^ i ^^^iffT: perf. part, 
(f. bruth*rb-w"-mub" W^TT^-'T|[), made stupid, etc. ; 
(of hot greasy food) spoilt by letting get cold. 
brdthus i(f'S^, I -41 Pj*!^"^ adv. next year, in the coming 
year (Gr.Gr. 158). -kani -qit% I ^f^W^ITT^ adv. 
about next year. brSthasuk" wf^^^ I ^TftTfl^Tf"!^: 
adj. (f. brSthasuc" wf^^^), of or belonging to next 

brathyum" ^j or ^f^ i xn^T3i:, tfrx;^si: adj. (f. 
brfithim" #f35), of or belonging to foi-mer time, of 
olden time ; (of a procession or the like) of or belonging 
to the front ; (of place) of or belonging to the place 
before one, of or belonging to the front (Rilm. 13) ; 
(of time) of or belonging to the future. Note that 
this word can refer both to past and to future time. 

brot'lad wit?^ I ^^%fT: »dj- e.g. (of a writing or 
drawing) blotted, smudged. 

bariten ^I^W^, see borut" 1. 

bartang t—^'i'j m- the common or greater plantain, 
P/riiiffifjo iimjor (El.) (not the plantain -fruit or banana, 
the botanical name of which is Musa). 

brBfe" wf^ , see brSth 1 and 2. 

bar"fe" ^T^ I ifilnft f . of borut" l and 2, q.v. 

biirfeh" 4fl, see borth". 

brifehun Iwfi: i ^ftt^T?^ fonj. 1 (1 p.p. bryubh" 
tWff, f- bribh*^ tWs). to weep and lament, wail, as 
when a child cries for some coveted object, or when it 
is left motherless while still a child. 

brifehanawun fw^fTTfl I ^fr^^^ll conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
bribhanow" twifft^ ), to cause to cry, e.g. as when 
some dainty or longed-for object is refused to a child. 
brebhan6w"-mot" fwwr^f 'TH I ^fr^f^fi: porf.part. 
(f. brebhanow"-mub'^ ■fwWTrf;»T|[), caused to cry, 
given soiiiptliing fo cry for, as ab. 

bribhawun" f^Wf? I ^t^'l, adj. (f. bribhawun" 
■fW^eC^l), one who is accustomed in wail or cry, as 
when a suckling cliild wails for the breast, or the like. 

bar^bar W'^W^ I ^"^Wl m- fullness, repletion (lit. and 
met.). — karun — qi^»^ l tn^TTT'lT^'T'^ m.inf. to 
make fullness, to fill (e.g. anything emj)ty, or a poor 
man with wealth, or a disciple with virtue, etc.). 
— gabhun — "^Wl l ^Tlf?TT'?f^: m.inf. fullness to 
occur, as ab. 

barav 1 ^TT^ l TlTlf^WTT- m. disclosure, revelation, 
making some hidden thing or condition manifest. 
— dyun" — 1?[5 I ^flW^H^T'l m.inf. to become 
manifest, esp. the spontaneous manifestation of some 
valuable object hitherto concealed. — lagun — ^T«l^ I 
ai^tfTjfT^f^: m.inf. a search for something hidden to 
be undertaken, e.g. of the official search for stolen 

barav 2 ^TT^ I ^^^'W: reproaches, complaints, 
grumbling (only used in pi.) (K.Pr. 58, -59). El. spells 
this word bdmu. ^din^ — f^f'f ' ^'^^ trT^PrnW 
m. pi. inf. to complain about one person to another ; 
to lament (Eam.^939). — dawan' — ■^T^t5 to scold 
(Siv. 1817) ; to cry for helji, call for rescue (Siv. 130). 

baravan abun ^T^'i: ^^^ I ^xrra^rfJi: m.inf. 

to enter upon reproaches, to start reproaching. — lagun 
— ^3r«^ I 'gxn^'WTr'^T^fm ni.inf. to become the 
object of reproaches ; (also) to utter reproaches. 

bairav f t^ or ^^. see bbrav. 

bairavi ^'^^ f. a name of the goddess Durgil, the 
consort of Siva (Siv. 1498). 

birav J J interj. go! avaunt ! (K.Pr. 4) (the Persian 
imperative of raftan). 

bbrav ^TW or bairav t(H)T:^ I ^\^: m. N. of any one 
of eight manifestations or forms of the god Siva 
(Siv. 986) ; N. of one of a certain class of lesser 
deities who form Siva's host. One of these is often 
the local godling of some locality or tract of country, 
and special localities protected by him are looked upon 
as sacred. Such a Bhairava is a very terrible deity. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

burav ^.^ 

130 — 

burza ^^ 

Cf. Siv. 1683. — galshun — ^i^i. 1 '^i^WiTWTirr^t^: 
m.inf. Bhairava to happen ; hence, sudden unexpected 
destruction to occur. — karun — ^^i; I ^^tTlfsff^ 
WrWt^fT'Pl ni.inf. to offer oneself as a sacrifice by 
committing suicide before the image of a deity ; met. 
to become engaged in some very perilous action. 
-nath -flj^ m. N. of Siva (Siv. 976, 1552, 1894). 
burav j^ (K.Pr. 23!)), i.q. birav, q.v. In W. 156 
misspelt hiirdic. 

barawun" 1 ^Tf^ I T?^1 adj. (f. barawun" 1 

^^^), one who is accustomed to fill, or is employed 
in filling. 

barawane tas ^Ty('^ ZT^ i wtlTtwil^: m- a 

certain children's game played with hollow balls of 
earth, which are dashed on the ground and burst with 
a bang (tas). 

barawun" 2 ^t;^ 5 I t^'sftif^ ^^1 adj. (f. barawun" 

m^4^ ), one who pines in absence. 

barawan ^r^ l 'TT"'!^: f- the wages for filling 
(e.g. for packing cotton iu sacks, etc.). 

brewari (?), f. the tobacco plant, Nicotiana tabacnm 
(L. 346). 

bor^way <^T<,=(^ l *rrf^^f l^l'l f- wages for carrying 
loads, porterage. Cf. bor". 

bray WI 1 ^^fit'^'Tfl; f- confusion, disorder, mixing up, 
esp. spoiling by mixing up tender things and crushing 
them together. — aniin'* — ^'i^ I ^^f^^^T^IT 
f.inf. to crush together (flowers or similar delicate 
things). — yin* —f^^ I fl^^l t^ai<ft»T^'w; f.inf. 
(of flowers or the like) to be crushed together. 

bray ^ l ^<^0*fi'5r»i; f. the jujube fruit, Zizi/pfius 
rulyaris. The wood is hard and red-coloured, and is 
used for making better quality chairs, lintels, and 
haircombs (L. bre, 79, 81). 

braye-kuj' w^-^^ or -kuj" -^^ 1 ^^g^ft^'^: f. 

the jujube bush, -pos" -43 I fl''!^f^^t(: m. a kind 
of thin rice gruel given to imalids. 

boriya WT^T or barya ^(*jt)^ I Wf^'t f. a wife 

(Siv. 1825, barya). 
bryunz" tw^ or brunz" wf I t%^^^^: (sg. dat. 

brinzis tw^^), the sound caused by snapping the 
middle finger against the thumb ; the time occupied 
by such a snap, an instant = the twinkling of an eye ; 
a second (K.Pr. 176). 

brinzi marani t^t^ lTTt?f i WI^Tfta: m. pi. inf. 
to snap the finger and thumb. 

brinzi-brinzi ft1g[-tw^ I irfTrf^^i^ adv. at every 
instant, instant after instant, moment after moment. 

brinzen-hond" tw»5?Ti:-f^ I ^jftqirr?Tff?i'?n!r: 

adj. (f. -hiinz* -i^), of, or belonging to, instants; 



met. one who has only a few moments to live, one 

who is at the point of death. 
bryufeh" tww. s*p brifehun. 
braz W?! I 'feJT^f^^'^- f- N. of a small white variety of 

rice (L. 468, brez). 

braza-gor* W?i-TTtT i '^fTZ^^t^t^^f; 

a heap or supply of the edible kernels of a certain 
variety of the water chestnut {Tnipa hi.spiiio.sfi). 

brazi-bata wf?i-^fT 1 *riit%%^: '"• boiled rice of 
the braz variety. -byol" -^5r I \fT^^^Tf%^^: m. 
seed grain of braz rice. 
burza ^^ (cf. 4; j) or burza ^^ 1 H^: m. the inner 
bark of a species of birch, Betula tarturim or (L. 79) 
Betula iiti/is, which grows freely in the mountains of 
Kashmir. The bark is easily separated into thin 
sheets and was formerly used for manuscripts. In 
old times it was employed as material for rough 
garments, worn by hermits and the like (Rilm. 201, 
763, 1448, 1591), or for umbrellas (Ram. 1253). It 
is still largely used as a wrapjiing-paper and for 
thatching (K.Pr. 167). Cf. El. s.w. b/iojpafr and 
hitrza, and L. 68, 418. In Siv. 901 the bark is 
contrasted with silken clothes. Cf. Siv. 1687, quoted 
bel. -bor" -^^ I »T^»TT: m. a load of bundles of 
birch-bark, roughly tied up with ropes made of birch- 
twigs, as brought down from the mountains for sale. 
-chal -^^ f. a piece of birch -bark (Gr.Gr. 162). 

-ged« -4^ I sj^H^fi: f. (sg. dat. -geje -iqw), 

a bundle of birch-bark, as ab. -jama -W\M or 
-jyama -WT'? ni. a coat, or gown, made of birch- 
bark (coarse and of small value) (Siv. 1687, Rilm. 5, 
182, 214). -kon" -^^ 1 ^^r^TWflT^ m- a man 
whose profession is to remove the bark from birch-trees. 
-kbn" -^T^ I 'H^^fl^. f- a bundle of birch-bark for 
thatching, -kaye -oRT^ | ar^lT^T'^T^'W; f -pi • a kind 
of apron or petticoat made of birch-bark, esp. worn by 
forest hermits. Cf . Si v. 90 1 . -liir" -^^ I WT^^^Tf^- 
■TZ^If^l f- a house thatched with birch-bark. -m6t*^ 

-«T| I ttSfm^'3X!5T:^f^^^: f. (sg. dat. -mece 

-^i^^^), a short rope or ^\■isp twisted up of liits of 
birch-bark, -met*^ kadun" -«re ^^■51 I M^TT^- 
»lf%^t[: f.inf. to jierform the ceremony of lustration 
after a Hindu mother has bathed on the sixth day 
after a cliild's birth, in which wisps of birch-bark 
are lighted, waved over the heads of the mother and 
child, and then extinguished in a jar of water. 

-phutaj' -^t?f 01' -pliutuj" -'^'i\ I *i^^%^ '^'^- 

^5lTff^f%f^ f. a parcel tied up iu birch-bark, -pash 
-xn^ I H^^^f^rmZ^JT 111- a thatch made of birch- 
bark, -postukh -^^^ I ^l^g^^H m. (sg. dat. 

For words coDtaining bh, see under b. See article b. 

be-rozgar .If; 


— 131 


-postakas, -''^^^^), a manuscript written on birch- 
bark, -postukh -^I'^'I I »J^JT'?Tg^^?i; m. (sg-. ,lat. 

-postakas -ifr^^^), id. -puth^ -^far i ^^u^^- 

'ff^^Hf^m. f- a manuscript written on bircli-bark, 
esp. a small one. -tilim -fJlf^rJ^ f. a piece of birch- 
bark (smaller than bUTza-chal ab.) (Gr.Gr. 163). 
-won" -Tl'"^ I *f^f^^^ ni. a shopkeejier who sells 
birch-bark, brought down from the hills by the hill- 
men. — watun — ^rT«l. I t^^xS^T^i^'^Jt m. a large, 
thin, split-off sheet or layer of birch -bark. 

be-rozgar ,li ;., .^-j adj. e.g. without employ, out of 
employment (L. 45G). 

burzul" ^5J^ m. a special kind of walnut, with a thin 
shell, and a kernel which is easily separated (K.Pr. 229, 
L. 352, burzal). This word generally appears in 
the plural, in tlie following form : burzal^ dun' 
^^t^ ^t^ ' ^"^Zf^^^: m.jil. walnuts of a special 
kind named burzal'. See El. s.v. dun. 

brazun w^ii; I ift^I'R; conj. 3 (2 p.p. brazyov, wwt^, 
Grr.Gr. 226), to be brilliant, to have a polish, to shine 
with poHsh; (of clothes, ornaments, etc.) to be 
bright, clean, weU set ; (of the face) to be clean and 
beautiful, to be bright-faced, brazyo-mot" W^-jig I 
^^TT^Tl%t%^^: perf. part. (f. brazye-miife" ^- 
3T^), brilliant, polished, briglit, bright-faced, as ab. 

brazanawun WtITTJI; conj. 1 (I p.p. brazanow", 

Wal'ft^), eau-ial of brazun, q.v. See Gr.Gr. 174. 

brazath w^J^ i ^WtHT f- (sg- dat. braziife" ^^%), 

polish, brightness, sheen ; (of the face) brightness, 
cleanliness plus beauty. 
brazawun" WfTf^ I ^frT'iT'i: adj. (f. brazawun" 

^^■3j), bright, polished; (of the face) bright, clean, 
and beautiful. 

bas 1 ^^ jr*J I ■^'Tl adj. e.g. enough, sufficient 
(YZ. 185, Ram. 102) ; sufficient, competent (Siv. 1712) ; 
adv. in short, in a word ; very much, greatly (YZ. 77) ; 
inter j. enough ! that will do! hold! stay! az-bas 
■i!l3l-^^ 1^ j\ adv. from the abundance ; sufficiently; 
very extiemely (Riim. 378). — karun — ^^«i; I 
f^r^tVW; m.inf. to stop, have done, cease, desist 
(8iv. 121, 837, 1298, Rum. 198). — thav — m^^ 
in terj. enough ! (EL). • 

bas 2 ^^ ij— > I ^jf- f- fi"e dust (of charcoal, cowdung 

fuel, or the lik(^) ; fine jwwder (as of salt or tlie like). 

basa-nar ^^-TTT I ^if'Crag^^: >«• powder-fire, 

a very hot fire of burning powdered charcoal, of. basi- 

nar bd. 

basi-nun ^ftr-^'^ I 'f^^i^ra^Wl m- salt-powder, 
the powder that accumulates from the frequent handling 
of blocks of salt in the course of sale, -nar -•TIT I 


'^wH^: m-, iq- basa-nar ab. -phol" -^ i ^Df^Wf : 
m. a collection of powder (of cowdung fuel, charcoal, 
salt, etc.). 
bas «rif^ or bBs l ^f?i;m. a buffalo (El.), i.q. maish, 
q.v. The word should probably be baish. *W^ or 

bbsh ^fii- 

bais "W^ or bos 2 Mf^ I '^W- ™- a bamboo plant, a 
bamboo ; a joint of bamboo, open at one end and 
closed at the other, used as a receptacle for liquids 
(Siv. 1210). -diind" -^ i ^h^t!^: f. (sg. dat. 
-danje -'^Sir), a stalk of bamboo, a bamboo-stick, 
a straight i)iece of bamboo, -kalam -^^J^ I ^t^^''!^'; 
m. a short length of bamboo, of a couple of knots 
only, -kbn" -^^ I ^II^t^^T f- spHt bamboo, used 
for weaving stools, chairs, and the like. 

basa ^W m. Adhatoda vasica (EL). 

bisa t^^ m. Salix Babylonica (EL). 

bosa i^^^ m. a kiss (YZ. 20, 70). 

bos' 1 ^T^ adj. e.g. stale, belonging to the day before, 
or to some former time and no longer fresh, -bata 
-^'r[ I ^^ft[fft"^1'^ m. stale cooked rice ; rice cooked 
yesterday and consumed to-day, or cooked some hours 
before eating (cf. basi roti in L. 250). -drika 
-f^ I ■^TTT^^rrfj^Tli^T^T: fpL stale leeches, tlie 
use of leeches, after having used eeches to extract 
blood on the preceding day. -rath -T^ I f^fft^- 
f^^tlnrrjft'^: m. (sg. dat. -ratas -T^). stale- 
bleeding, i.e. bleeding a person for the second time, 
when he has been already bled on the preceding day. 

bos' 2 ^ft^ adj. e.g. a corruption of the Sanskrit 
BlidKhu'iija, i.e. of or connected with a certain 
Kashmiri astronomer Bhiiskara (not the famous Indian 
astronomer of thesame name). Used in the following: 
bos'-nechapat^r, s|Tt^-»q^ii(t.'^, an almanac based on 
Gancsa Daivajua's work entitled the Gmhalaghaca, 
which was introduced into Kaslimir by Bhaskara. 
In Kashmir, Hindii ahnanacs have at different times 
been based on tlie calculations contained in various 
Sanskrit works. The oldest authority was the 
Ai-j/asiddlidnta (in use from the year 665 a.u.), which 
was in course of time (about 1758 a.d.) superseded by 
the Gmhaldghaca. Subsequently the Orahalaghava 
was again superseded by the Aryasiddhdnta, but some 
almanac-makers still adhere to the Gruhaldghava. 
Such almanacs, based on the Gralialdghara, are now 
known as bos', or almanacs according to Bhiiskara. 
See JRAS., 1912, pp. 719-21. 

bos" ^g or bos" 1 4^ I ^iW; ni. chaff and other refuse 
of grain, choiiped straw, broken pod-husks, and the 
like (K.Pr. 204, Iiuh). Eor bos" 2, see basun. 

For words containin;' bh, see under b. See article b. 


bos^ fri 


bbsh"lad Mw^^ 

bos" ^H I 'ST^rr^T'T: m- the receptacle of the un- 
digested food, the upper part of the abdominal 
cavity, from the throat downwards, containing the 
lungs, heart, and stomach, etc. ; according to El. the 

stomach. — phatun — xR^l, I "^rTmiT^tW^TTts^: 

m.inf. the breast to burst, a disease in which the 
phlegm accumulates in the lungs, etc., bronchitis or 
the like. — phatawun — tjrrzji, I ^^TT^^^^T- 
^T^IJl m.inf. to cause (another's) breast to burst; 
to annoy another by incessantly talking to, ashing, 
advising him, and giving him no opportunity to reply. 

busa ^ I f^aiTT^: adj. e.g. yellowed ; spoilt, rotted, 
or damaged by exposure to extreme steamy heat (of 
garments, fruit, or something else naturally soft, and 
rendered rotten) ; similarly, of children, rendered 
delicate by such heat ; (of the personal appearance) 
shrivelled up and yellow from old age or jaundice. 
(In Kashmir people often die yellow, duo to bacterial 
septica3mia and pyaemia. Hato busa ^<ft W^ is 
a tenn of ridicule to a feeble, dried -up, old man.) 
Cf. busun 2, — amot" — ''IHTH I ^ftnmf^sfiTT: 
adj. (f. — amiife" — ^T^T^), rotted, disfigured, etc. 
as ab. — on^-mot" — ■^-?Tg I f^^TflT^rrt^: adj. 
(f. — un"-mufe'^ — -^^-4^), caused to be rotten or 
disfigured, etc., as ab. — anun — "^^^ 1 f^ofiTTT- 
^T^MH m.inf. to cause to be rotten or disfigured 
as ab. — yun" — f^'g | t%^TTTfR: ni.inf. to become 
rotten, disfigured, etc., as ab. 

bus" ^ I ^^f%^^: m. a gobbet or mouthful of rice or 
similar food taken in the hollow of the hand formed 
by curving the fingers, and put into the mouth at 
one time. 

be-sabab ^—^-^ c=-! adj. and adv. without cause, cause- 
lessly (Gr.M.). 

be-sabar^rr-^ 5_j adj. e.g. impatient (W. 110). 

besod" ssi^'^j i ^t^t^?\^: adj. (f.besbz^sg^i^), taste- 
less, insipid (of food) ; met. (of an action, narrative, or 
conduct), id. 

bash TT^ I ^rlTT m. understanding, sense, consideration, 

thinking about anything (K.Pr. 91). — thawun 

— TJ'T; I ^JlT^l^t^: m.inf. to emj)loy consideration, 

to act intelligently. 

bashe-rost" ^ii--^ i ^JiT^Tfti: adj. (f. -rubh" 

-TW)> wanting in consideration or not applying the 
understanding; adv. without consideration, carelessly. 

-w6l° -^^ I '^HT^ilTT^: adj. (f. -wajen -^nifsi.), 

a careful, intelligent jierson. 
basha ^JUl mrm f. a language, speech, dialect (Gr.M.). 
bashe 1 wm -Lib l tjf^f^^TC m. a kind of falcon; 

a hawk, sparrow-hawk (Si v. 1693). 

bashe 2 ^TH I ^T^HT^Wrf'T f- the inarticulate cry of an 
infant (Riim. 1284, 1286) ; the inarticulate sounds 
uttered by one who is dumb (K.Pr. 93) ; infantile 
bubbling (used depreeatingly of a worshipper's language 
in addressing God) (Siv. 157, RsTm. 1102, 1107, 1108) ; 
the inarticulate cries or chiri)ing of birds (Siv. 502, 
1052, 1093, 1783, 1816). Cf. bol-bashe. — kariin" 
— ^XS{ I )T1^% ■JTW(f»|i^; f.inf. (of a young infant) to 
commence to si^eak, to begin to say ' papa ', ' mamma ', 
etc. ; met. of the Deity teaching His worshippers to 
address Him in right language (Siv. 1386). 

baish %% , see bis. 

bosh ^11 , ^4.' I 1^: m. pride, insolence, airogance, 
haughtiness, rudeness, shown in refusing a favour or 
the like. — kharun — ^■R't, I ir^'^^siJi; ni.inf. 
to cause arrogance to rise, to give a mean person an 
opportunity for showing arrogance by asking a favour 
from liim, agreeing with what he says, etc. — khasun 
— '^^<^ I 'I<^f-S«(. m.inf. arrogance, etc., to aiiso under 
the above circumstances. — y\Ul" — f^g I ?IT»nf»T^f^: 
m.inf. pride to come, respect for sometliing to increase, 
as e.g. when sbmethingformerly easy to get has become 
I'are ; honour to come, to be attained by a person (as 
when ho is suddenly raised in rank) (Siv. 44, 167). 

bosh ^iir I fT^^f%: f. similarity of condition of life, 
similarity of fate. 

bosh ^rhi, see bis. 

bosh" 1 ^■g I HT^TT'Si: adj. (f. bosh" ^TW), able to 
•speak (of an infant, hitherto inarticulate) ; able to 
. speak a foreign language ; an interpretei', translator. 

bosh" 2 ^"^^ , see bashun. 

bosh" ■^i^, see bah ; tdso fem. of bosh" 1 and 2. 

beshubi oJPT^ I ^^*Hrrr f. absence of goodness, 
badness. | 

beshub" sg^ i ^ij^HT: a.lj. (m. sg. dat. beshubis 
^nif^, abl. beshobi ^znftf^ ; f. sg. nom. beshub" 
=g^^, dat. beshobi ^Jnftf'?). not good, bad, 

bashbdi ^^i^ j^J'Lio adv. with feasting, with 
rejoicing (liam. 89, 1554). 

bushkaba m. the vessel out of which the poorer 
Kashmiri Musalmiins eat. It is of clay (EL). 

beshakh 1.^^,^—j adv. doubtlessly, indubitably, un- 
doubtedly, certainly. 

bushkam ^'ST^TJ^ m. a portion of the boat called donga, 
situated in front of the stem malitohi, q.v. (El.). 

bishkaruti f^T^^^^ l ■^nfrT^aii: adj. e.g. very greedy, 
always haunting tlie kitchen. 

bosh"lad ^Ti|^ i ^Irt^T^if^T^'re^: adj. e.g. 
(as subst., f. bbsh"ladin ^T^T^f^^). o"e who is 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bashun ^^1^ 


basun ^Tg^t. 

undergoing (the feeling of) the twelfth lunar day, 

one who has kept the fast of the eleventh lunar da)', 

and who is hence not expected to be good for much 

on the twelfth. 
bashun WC^^ or w(^^ I ^WTT'J'fi; conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

bosh" ^^), to speak, utter words. b6sh"-mot" 

^^-JTH I HTf*f<T: perf. part. (f. bbsh"-mufe" W[\^- 

tf^ ), spoken ; (of something concealed) openly spoken 

about, disclosed. 
bishen ^^"i; or »ftw adj. e.g. terrific, terrible ; N. of 

Siva, voc. bishena ^^T (Si v. 1209). 
bushen ^1T«T, <>r »T^^ I TU^*!*!, m- ornament, decoration, 

jewel ; (of cpialities, fame, etc.) adornment. 
beshdr ssriftT ,^j»-i^__i l "^•T^lffi: adj. e.g. ignorant, 

uninformed, a stupid follow, a blockhead. 
beshuri ^""jO cji^^-'c— ^ ' '^•T^^'Ifrr f. ignorance, 

bbsh*ran mi]T!»^ l ^^K.UlTii.'!!?^ f. incitement to speak, 

encouragement to speak, teaching to speak (of infants, 

parrots, etc.). 
bishta f^T<T I f^T^f^^TTWlI^: m- a cry used to 

drive away a cat (K.Pr. 85). 
baskar »rrWT m. the sim ; N. of Siva (Siv. 1163). 

bislay f^^T'^ or bis'lay t^^^^T^ i ^f^^i^'^ii; 

f. a fishing-rod. bislaye-wol" f%^^T^-^g I 
^t^lI'T'TT; m- a fishing-hook. 
basm ^^ or »?^ I JJm m. ashes (as used in Hindii 
purificatory ceremonies), esp, ashes of incense and the 
like. Yogis especially sraear their bodies with these, 
and Siva is represented as having his body covered 
with them. The word is frequently employed with 
the suffix ah of the indefinite article, and then appears 
as ^(Hj^Tf. basm (Siv. 878, 978, 1350, 1541, 
1572, RSm. 1081) ; basmah (Siv. 503, 529, 592, 
816, 894). — gafehun — 'F^^ I 'T^^l^'n^ m.inf. 
to be reduced to ashes (Ham. 1360). — malun 
— ?T'?nt, I ''B^^ T^^ifTTWr iH.inf. to smear the body 
with ashes of incense, a religious act of purification, 
esp. amongst worsliippers of Siva (Rilm. 389). 

basma-gol° ^(H)^-l^ m- N. of the rent in the 
earth, to tlie north-west end of the Walur Lake and 
below Warahmul, by which the waters of the valley 
escajK'd (EL). See RT.Tr. II, 389; Siv. 1572. 
-pBfeam -qfS'l I f<Tf^rf^l[^: f- the fifth (lunar day) 
of ashes; the fifth of the light half of Milg (Magha). 
On the fourteenth day of the dark half of the month 
of Miig Ilindiis worship Siva, and after fasting collect 
ashes. These ashes are smeared on the body as a 
purificatory ceremony on the fifth lunar day of the 
following light half of the same month, -tyok" -W^i I 

H^fJT^^JT; ni- a spot of incense-ashes marked on the 
forehead of Hindus at the commencement of worship. 

besom" sar^^ i fs(^w. adj. (f. besiim*^ ^^w), uneven, 

rough, difficult of access ; unequal, not equid (to) ; 

dissimilar (K.Pr. 206) ; not even,' odd (of number) ; 

unequal (in character), great but mean (K.Pr. 30, 

spelt he-stiihii/j) ; difficult, liard ; disagreeable, painful, 

troublesome, vexatious. 
basmadar W(*f)^T^ m. he who has ashes smeared 

upon his body; N. of Siva (see basm) (Siv. 161, 

621, 622, 937, 1180, 1480, 1583). 
basmadar ^(»?)^IT^7\ m., i.q. basmadar, q.v. (Siv. 74, 

129, 179, 864, 1580,^686). 
besamer **)*?«<<, I ^^J?rR: m. unevenness ; inequality, 

difference ; want of simiiaiitj'. 
basmasor »T^T^r^ na. N. of an Asor (Asura) or demon, 

called in Sanskrit Bhasmiisura. His name was 

originally Vrkiisura. He burnt his own flesh to 

ashes as an offeiing to Siva, and was restored to his 

original form by a touch from that deity (Siv. 932). 

Cf. basm. 
basmat* ^T^tjl or basmath ^^n^ i VT^qf^^^: f- 

(sg. dat. basmufe" ^T^^f^), a certain kind of paddy 
bearing a small, white, longisb, and very fragrant 
rice (L. 332, 463), and growing near Nathipor in 
the Yieh Pargana (El.) ; the rice borne by this paddy. 
basmati-gor^ ^T5a:»Tf?T-TT^ I "^^T^xji^f^^^: mpl- 

a small white kind of Singilra or water-nut (gor") 
(L. 354). 
basun ^^^ i f^cj^wjj^ conj. 2 [1 p.p. bos" 2 ^^, f. 
bus" ^«^ (or, rarely, bufeh" ^W). f-pl- basa SRT (or, 
rarely, balsha WW) (Gr.Gr. 31), for bos" 1 see s.v. ; 
2 p.p. basov Wt^ (or, rarely, bafehov WW^'^f)], to 
dwell, abide (Siv. 674, 1646). — lasun — ^^»[, I 
1%^^ f'R^'nt^ m.inf. (1 p.p. b0S"-lust" ^f-^). 
to dwell (and) to live long ; to be a hereditary house- 
holder, to dwell from generation to generation in one 

bos"-mot" ^jr-^TH l f^lfnt^TRf: perf. part. 
(f. bus"-mufe" ?|^-?T|[), (of persons) long settled 
in any house or village, an old inhabitant ; (of house, 
village, etc.) settled, long inhabited by somebody. 

basan-jay W^«1^-^T'I f. a dwelling-place (Riini. 
basun W[^^ conj. 2 or 3 [1 p.p. bos" ^^, 2 p.p. 
basyov WT^"^^ (i^iv. 1187) or basov ^T^^; poet, 
pres. part, basan ^"RfT (e.g. Siv. 981). This verb 
is usually treated as belonging to the 3rd conj., but 
some authorities class it as belonging to the 2nd], to 
become visible, become apparent, come into view 

For words coutaining bh, see iiiidf. b. See article b. 

bisini f^t%f% 


baisari W%f^ 

(Siv. 1187, 1650) ; to become visible, reveal oneself 
(of a supernaturtil being) (Siv. 1435, 1441, 1480, 
1586, 1642, 1763, 1769) ; to become just visible on 
close inspection ; to become cognizable to the senses 
(&iv. 171, 883, 981, 1280, 1655, 1900) ; to become 
apparent, intelligible, cognizable by tlie intellect; to 
be visible, apparent (Siv. 57, 72, 1374, 1724, 1757) ; 
to appear, to seem (Siv. 1310, 1585, 1657). basana 
yun" mv^ t^g I •^T'TT^t^^^^^^l'i; m- inf. pass, to 
become apparent, to become just visible, basyo-mot" 1 
^^-;Rg I 'TTfi: perf. part. (f. basye-mufe*^ ^ii-»r^) 

(for 2 see s.v.), that which has become apparent or 

just visible ; just cognizable by thought. 
bisini t^flft%, see bisyun"^. 
busun 1 ^^T'T I iraf^ ^ft^fW eonj. 1 (1 p.p. bus" 

^^^), to eat from the hollow of the hand (of sattii, 
grains or the hke). Cf. bus". bus"-mot" f f-Wj I 
^i^t^JT: perf. part. (f. bus"-mUfe" 5^-*f^)' eaten up 
(of food eaten from the hollow of the hand). 

busun 2 ^«t I ^^f^ft^frf^ •f%lf^*r^'i: coiij. 2 
(1 p.p. bus"^^, f. bus** ^^), to become yellow, 
to become spoilt, rotten or damaged by exposure to 
extreme steamy lieat (of garments, fruit, or something 
else naturally soft, but reduced to a pulp by becoming 
rotten) ; to be attacked by jaimdice, or to be 
shrivelled up and yellow from old age, to be swollen 
and yellow fiom pneumonia, asthma, etc. Cf. busa. 

busund WITI^ m. N. of a certain crow, who was an 
ardent worshipper of Yishnu, and who recited the 
Ramdrjana to Garuda. 

be-sunmb, see besom". 

basanun ^^1, I t^^TTr'?t^»T^Til conj. 3 (2 p.p. 
basanyov ^^5lft^), to become yellow; to go rotten 
and turn yellow (of things) ; to become sick with 
jaundice, or shrivelled and yellow from old age or 
illness. Cf. busun ; impers. pass, basanana ynn" 
<44j«|«| f?j»T m.inf. (iu agric), a growth of thorns to arise 
(Siv. 1111, of a hedge), basanyo-mot" ^^Rff-»Tg I 
t^l><gTift<ft^Jri: adj. (f. basanye-miib" ^^-jf^), 
spoilt by turning yellow from heat and rottenness ; 
yellow and swollen from disease. 

basanun ^"re^l. 1 ^'RT^'Tti; conj. 1 (2 p.p. basanyov 
«H<J«*J^^. The occurrence of the 1 p.p. has not been 
noted), to cause something invisible to become visible ; 
to make a thing or idea visible or cognizable to another. 
Cf. basana-wun. basanyo-mot" ^iin?ft-»ig I 
^nftrcr: adj. (f. basanye-mlife" ^T€^-»i'^), made 
apparent, made cognizable (of sometliing invisible or 
non -cognizable to most people, but which becomes 
apparent on close inspection). 


basanth ^^^ m. the colour of spring flowers, mustard- 
yellow, appHed specially to garments (Siv. 1784). 

basan-wol" ^?J«l,-^f I t^^wtm. (f. -wajeii -TTsg^J, 
one who inhabits ; a settled inhabitant. 

basanawun 1 -Nfl'iR'i: I ff^T^TJiC conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
basanow" ^^•ft'?), to cause to dwell, to settle 
(a man of wandering habits) in a permanent residence 
(Siv. 1784). 

basanawun 2 ^^r^Tf't, I tWifWTiftfft^T^'i; conj. 1 
(1 p.p. basanow" ^fl'f^^), to cause a thing to 
become yellow ; to cause it to smell fetid ; to cause it 
to become yellow, swollen, and rotten. Cf. basanun 
and busun. 

basanawun ^-rt^^?!; i ^»^t?R'i: conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
basanow" ^"RRt^), to make a thing visible, esp. 
to make a thing, that is ordinarily not visible, visible 
on close inspection (Siv. 1612, 1660, 1882, Riim. 1660). 
Cf. basanun and Gr.Gr. 175. basan6w"-mot" 
^T^pfr^-j?rT I "^n^TTftpf: adj. (f. basanbw"-miifc" 

^^•ft^-^T^), made visible to close inspection. 

b*sar ^^T of busar f^^^ i fTH^*^*i > f^^^ra»i; f • very 
hot water, scalding water (Riim. 1459) ; rain struck by 
liglitning (sujjposed to be the boiling liot fire of God ; 
in this sense often used in curses, 'ma}^ the fire of God 
bum you ! ') . — pSn" ubi I flTT^raTf^^mSTf^T^fTT: , 
%^fI^tS^<T: f.inf. scalding water to fall ; the pain 
caused by the fissures in the skin resulting from 
contact with scalding^ water, lightning, or burning 
coals, to arise ; (of a tree) scathing, fissures in the 
bark of a tree, or burning, to result from contact with 

b*sari-dev w^ft-^^ I ^T^I^iqi^^Tf^Tn'^ m. 

a scald-devil, a vessel of water or fire-brazier so hot 
that it splits or otherwise burns the fingers that toucli 

it. -devin -^rf^-sr i ^f7T^T\frfqTfl[f^rf5ri^t^: f. a 

scald she-devil ; a fire-brazier [kungrl) too liot to 
touch without causing fissures in or otherwise burning 
the fingers that touch it. 

busari-won" ^^f^-^^ l ^fTTttHra"^ ni. scalding 
water, esp. lightning water, rain which has been made 
scalding hot by lightning. 
basar^w adv. to an end, at an end, used in the following. 
— anun — '^1 I ft^T^iH'^ m.inf. to worry, harass, 
by putting pressure on a person, to keep him working 
to the end of some long and ditticult work. — yun" 
— f^jg I ^T>i(mf%: m.inf. to be compelled or ha^■e 
pressure put upon to keep on to the end of some long 
and difficult task. 

baisari ^1r^ or bbsari ^T€Tt f- a flute (Siv. 1389, 
1441, 1436). 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

besor SJI^T 


basawun ^?rrfi: 

besor ^^ or be-s6r %-^t i t'l^s: adj. e.g. wdthout 

memory, having lost cue's memory ; senseless, un- 
conscious, in a faint (Gr.M.). 

besori ^^rt l f*!^rlT f. forgetting, loss of memory ; 
unconsciousness, senselessness. 

busar f^, se<' b^sar. 

b^sarilad ^ntr^^ or busarilad ^^rf^^- i IitT^jj^ 
f^^^^: adj. (as subst., f. b*sariladin ^^tt^f^J, 

one whose skin is scalded or fissured by burning, 
one who is suffering generally from burns. 

basta 1 <T^ ^Cu^i I ^^: adj. e.g. and subst. m. bound, 
shut, closed, fastened up, folded up, impeded ; a thing 
shut up, a secret (K.Pr. 41, where bastih is probably 
a rai.sprint for bastah, i.e. basta) ; cloth iu which 
anything is folded up, a wrapper ; a parcel, bundle 
(as of papers or books), a bale ; das-basta for dast- 
basta <s:i,>*j lii-^J with folded hands, engaged in 
praj'er (Siv. 188); kamar-basta (-wo..'^ having the 
loins girt, in a state of readiness, on the alert, ready for 
action (Ram. 573). — ga^hun — fl^'l I ^^*R»I»^ 
m.inf. to become shut up, imj^risoned ; to become 
puzzled or perplexed, to find oneself in a dilemma (as 
an argument or the like) ; to become stopped in one's 
work for want of materials ; to become shut (of 
a door), to become fastened. — kariin — ^f^l^ I 
^■^efiXTiri m.inf. to bind (El.) ; to shut up, imprison ; 
to puzzle a person in an argument, to reduce him to 
a dilemma ; to stop a person's work by stopping the 
supply of materials ; to shut a door, etc., to fasten up. 
-phurao, m. the name of tlie fourth weeding and 
working of a rice crop (L. 463). — rozun — tY5I«i; I 
«4<M<1I9f^: m.inf. to be or remain voluntarily shut up 
in a room or imprisoned ; to stop working (through 
laziness, etc.). 

basta 2 ^^ I ^^ f. sheepskin, goatskin, deerskin, or 
the like (K.Pr. 26, 84) ; a leather bag or sack for 
carrjang grain, salt, flour, or the like (K.Pr. 36, 

bastan, pi. dat.), 99 (basti, sg. dat., cf. W. 124), 

158 (bastai = basta + emph. y) ; a blister (El.) ; 
a beggar's wallet (El., m.) ; pi. met. the skin of a man, 
bastan andar, within the skin, in a man's natural 
self (K.Pr. 2). daman-basta, a bellows (K.Pr. 46). 
-gor" -1'^ I '^^^TT* ™- a skin-worker, one who lives 
by preparing sheepskins, goatskins, deerskins, or the 
like for sale. -khaPr'^ -^^^ I ^Trffl^f^cI'^nTaT^l^ 
f. an old crumpled piece of sheepskin, etc. — khasuii" 
— ^^^ I (^l^ufl^WW- f-inf. a blister to rise from 
a burn or on the foot, etc. -katur'* -'^Z^ I 
^off^fl^^qixSH f. a dried-up, shrivelled, sheepskin, 
etc. ; a piece of such, -rangur -TJT I '^^<,<jI<*: m. 



(f. -ranger" -X'i^), a dyer of sheepskin, etc.; the 
f. is a woman who lives by this trade. — fehun'^n*' 
— W^'^l ^■W^frT^ f.inf. to take to begging (usually of 
a respectable person, who tlu'ows off his shame and takes 
to this practice). — walun." — ^T^T^ I ^flTp*<^«T*i, 
f.inf. to skin or flay a sheep, goat, deer, etc. ; to flay 
a man alive (H. viii, 6). -walay -Tf'5T^ I ^^TtSffil- 
•I^f%: f. the profession or trade of skinning sheep, 
etc. ; the work of a flaj'er, in scraping, etc., the skins. 
basti 1 and 2 ^f%, see basta 1 and 2. 

basti w^ 1 l^w^rffl; f-, iq- bas'ti, q.v. 

basato ^^rft in — anun — ^g'l; I ^fJilwt^TTir*^ 

m.inf. to distress or worry a person by insisting on his 
accomplishing some difficult or impossible task. 

bas'ti 4t%fft or basti wV I l^^rof^fTi: f. settling, 

settlement, taking up a fixed residence (in a new 
home) ; a settlement, village, a place where people 
live as a settled community (Siv. 1349). — din" 
— f^^ I TTf^^^TT- f-inf. to cause a person to 
raise or set up u family by taking a wife, setting ujj 
house, or (when cliildless) by adopting a son. 

— kariiii" — ^T^ I ^^"IT 'nf^^^^W'T fiuf- to 

definitely set up house, to adojit a settled life, to 
range oneself (of one who has hitherto led an 
unsettled life). — lag'^n" — ^^\ I Trlwt^^TJ^ 
f.inf. to set up a family, become a family man by 
taking a wife (of one long unmarried), or (of one 
who has given up the hope of progeny) to get a son 
at last. 
bastih, see basta 1 and cf. basti under basta 2. 

besath ^^rar^ 

:.L;, J 

m. (sg. dat. 

besatas, =5^?!^), a wrong moment, an unlucky 
time, a time which according to the rules is not 
propitious for any action such as setting out on 
a journey, a marriage, or the like. 

bostan, biistan ^^^^ m. a flower-garden (Riim. 318). 
bustan afroz ;jy' ^Jc^ Ta. Amaranth m crueiitas (El.). 

bastur" ^^^ l '^J^'^H^^: m. a skin sack or bag for 
carrying paddy, etc., of the contents of about a khar 
(say 150 lb.) ; (El. bttstiir) the bag in which coolies 
or porters carry their supply of provisions. 

bosuv" ^^^^^^ l ^ITT'I: adj. (f. bbsiiv" ^■W^), made of 

basawun ^^T^i: i t^^^TJi conj. 1 (1 p.p. basow" 

^^g), to cause to dwell, to settle a j)erson (esp. 
a newly mariied woman) in a new residence. 
bas6w"-mot" ^^^-^rg i t^mftfJT: perf. part. (f. 
basbw^-miif ^^T^"*^^)' *^"^ ^^^° ^^ caused to 
settle ; one who is compelled against his or her will 
to adopt a settled mode of life. 

For words containing bh, see undei b. See article b. 

basawun" ^'Tfj 

— 136 

bata ^<T 

basawun" ^ €g ? I t^^^i: m. (f. basawiin" W^T^), ono 

who iiiluibits (a lionso or the like), wliether regularly 
or lemporarily, a dweller (Siv. 737, 817, 1152, 1188, 
1324, 1846). 
basawun" ^T?R^ i »TTOmT: m. (f. basawuii" ^t^^^), 

that wliicli is apiiarent, manifest (Siv. 104, 512, 1^325, 
1525) ; just visible (of something liitherto invisible, 
but now apparent to the intellect or to the sight, by 
considering closely or looking keenly) . 

basawan ^HoT^T^ I I'raHltfT'nR; f. payment for residence, 
I lie rent of a house. 

basby' ^^t^ f. the act of dwelling, habitation, used in the 

follo\ving. — kariin" — ^T^ I mrq^uT ^f^"re^fTT: 

f.inf. to settle of oiie's own free will, or to take up 
one's habitation, amongst strange folk (e.g. a newly 
married woman). — karawun" — '^Tf^ I ■Hf^T^ 
■?T^5i; ra. (f. karawun" ^x;^^), one who takes to 
a settled life amongst people (usually 
strangers), after leading an unsettled life. 

basyo-mot" 2 ^T'^-JTJ I ti5f^fft»Trr: adj. (f. basye- 
mufe"^T^-?T^i (fi'i- basyo-mof^l, see under basun), 

stale, not fresh (of food or news). 
bisytin" fm%5 m. (abl. bisini f^flrf^), a finger-ring 

(K.Pr 93). " 
be-siyasath t^:..^-L-- ,_j adj. e.g. without management, 

with no conduct of affairs, ungoverned (of a countr}', 

K.rr. 216). 
besbz" ^nwtm , see besod". 

bat cL-o m. a frequent termination of ]\Iusalnian proper 
names in Kashmir, as in TiTz Bat, etc. It probably 
indicates that its owner belongs to a family originally 
Hindu (El, K.Pr. 13). Cf. bata. 

bat c:j\i, i.q. bath. 1, q.v. 

bata ^H 1 »m»l m. boiled rice (K.Pr. 26, 27, 226; 
Siv. 45) ; food (K.Pr. 59, 94, 124, 137, 145, 163,253; 
W. 135, 149) ; diet, a meal (K.Pr. 41, 114, 159) ; 
pi. kinds of food (K.Pr. 29, abl. batav for batau ; 
139, batani for batan"y, pi. dat. with emph. y) ; 
daye-bata, God's food, the sacramental food eaten 
together by a bride and bridegroom ; see day (Siv. 
1202, 1223). -bab -^ l ■^g^rmftmr m. a father 
who provides food, one who acts in the capacity of 
a father by supporting and supplying food to anyone. 

-bod" -^^ I ifr^R^^^^TT: adj. (f. -bud" -^j, 

sg. dat. -baje -^5IT), one who has achieved greatness 
by liberality in giving of food to people in general ; 
famed for lavish generosity in distributing food. 
— bbg^run — ■^TI^'T; m.inf. to divide out cooked rice, 
to give helpings of food ; met. to allot good fortune or 
prosperity to people in general, so much to each (of 


the Deity) (Siv. 1510). -bagav -^^^^S| I ^^If^wt m. 
a food-glutton, one who is always desirous of frequent 
meals and nothing else, -bajer -'^^n: I »ft3t«T^T- 
wf^^T^l^^ m. a great reputation depending on lavish- 
ness in the distribution of food, -bbj^ran -WT^TI. I 
^TWf^TnHT f- the division or helping of rice and 
other food at a dinner, -bok" -^^i I *IWf'raT: m. 
a handful of cooked vice, as much as can be taken in 
the palm with the fingers extended ; met. any small 
amount of cooked rice, -bana -^TT ui. a dish ff)r 
cooked food, a plate (W. 111). -bror" -W^^ I 
*r'3W'?f1' ^'^'HffT'TT in. an image of a god made of 
cooked rice mixed with clarified butter, milk, etc. 
These are worshi])ped at the mVhllia ceremony by 
Priilimans of the Tantrik oi'der. The image may be 
really a rough representation, or may be a simple ball 
of rice, etc. -bbrav -^TT^ I ^^^«fi c-g- a rice-demon, 
one who is accustomed to gorge himself with food. 
-bos" -^^ I HWJWT^'^ "1- a rice-belly, the stomach 
full of cooked rice just eaten, -bata -'^T[ I ^fiT^J^ 
m. " rice, rice ! " ; hence, famine, general inability to 
obtain food; .starvation, inability of a .single person to 
obtain food (K.Pr. 26). -bata lagun -^cl ^jsi; I 
■^STTWlfF^' ^'i; m.inf. famine or starvation to occur. 

-bath kariin" -w^ '^'^ i ^^^mJT^fffa: f.inf. 

to be employed in prejiaring and distributing food at 
a banquet. -bofe" -^\ri I TJ^^^f'lfai*!; ni. enough 
cooked rice for one person, a helping or portion of 
cooked rice, -dab -^ I ^ITSfl^T^^T* "i- ' rice-flop '; 
a heavy sleep immediately after the evening meal, 
when the digestion is only coiumencing. -daban 
-^i; adv. at bedtime (Gr.Gr. 157). -d6d° -^W 1 
■^T^^t^^fTT ni. ' food-pain', anxiety as to subsistence, 
the anxiety of labour for a livelihood, -dag -^»[ I 
"^nwt^T^^: 111. ' food - smarting ', id. (K.Pr. 26). 
-dogul" -^J'T I TSJjf^^T I'l- a ball of cooked rice. 

-data -^rn i ^^^TffT e.g. (-data-bay -^<t-^t^, his 

wife), one who provides food, a i)ro\'ider of subsistence; 
(of God) 'the Provider'. — dyun" — f^J m.inf. to 
feed (tr.) (EL), -gras -V^^ I HW^^: m. a gobbet 
of rice, the ball of rice in the hands which is put into 
the mouth at one time ; an amount of rice equal to 
such a mouthful, -gash -^IT^ I ■^g^Hf*!^*^ m. ' rice- 
brilliancy ', abundance or cheapness of food, -khan 
gafehan' -tist; iw^ I ■^frrf^^W^: m. pi- inf. 'food- 
pits to hapj)en '; extreme hunger (due to long-continued 
want of food) to occur, -khev -'^T^ m. dinner (L. 459, 

hattukheH). -khewawan -t^I^^^^ I »ff<»i«)*j<i<<: f. 

' wages for eating food ' ; a present given by a bride's 
relations to her husband's people on the occasion of 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bata WH 


bata wz 

her first meal in her husband's house. — khyon" 
— ^IT iii.inf. to take food, to eat something (K.Pr. 5, 
237). — khyawun — ignj'i: I ^fs«lf^?T'3WtW>^ 
m.inf. to give food to eat ; esp. (of the parents of 
a hride to the parents of the bridegroom, or vice versa) 
to give a feast or dinner-pnrty on the occasion of some 
festival, -khyawaii -^t^ I »ft^Pm^T?T: f., i.q. 
-khewawaii, ab. -kal -^^^ i n^^t^^HWi^: 
in. cooked rice sufficient for a single meal. -kul" 
■?^ I 'T'^m^f*: m. ' the rice-tree ', the bread-winner 
of a household, -kan -m^ I Jfaf^t^^ m. a very 
small ball of cooked rice, smaller even than a 
mouthful ; a very little cooked rice, -krakh -Tfi^ I 
?T7!rr^^Wrf^: f- (sg. dat. -kraki -Hfflfi), 'rice noise,' 
the outer}- raised by a mob of peo2ile assembled at 
a feast when there is not enough food to go round, 
when there is confusion in the service, or other 
similar cause. -16kh°T -^T'^'^ I 5T^nff^''!^'T f- a 
solid mass of cooked rice in a dish, a rice-shape 
(K.Pr. 27). -langar' -'^'I^ I W^^wai'T: f- a pile of 
cooked rice ready for a large number of eaters, -lur^ 
-^r^ I -^l^cJIHT^: f. ' food-cudgel ', want of liveli- 
hood, iniibiliiy to support oneself. -lur*' din" -?r^ 
f^"af I ^t%f%^rnT: f.inf. to injure or destroy a person's 
raeiins of livelihood. -lur" laeiin" -W^ ^V^ I 
^f^f^yirJITf^: f.inf. a person's means of liveliliood 
to be desti'oyed. -mar -JTT; m. a storehouse for food, 
a rice store (K.Pr. 2-10). -met"^ -wiz 1 »T3i^fs: f- a 
fistful of cooked rice ; a genl. term for a small amount 
of the same, -moya -^^T f. a little boiled rice, 
a small amount of boiled rice (Gr.Gr. 165). -myond" 
-Mild I HffiTJTH: m. a mouthful of cooked rice, as 
much as is taken into the mouth at one time ; a genl. 
term for a small amount of the same, -nend -^"^ I 
'TTfimO^'^'l f- a plate piled \ip with cooked rice for 
one person's eating, -neng -"if^ 1 ^<* *li \ fy ^mff^ft^TJ^ 
f. a large pile of rice prepared for a man's single 
daily dinner, the night-meal, dinner. -nengan 
-SEfil*^ adv. at dinner-time, at the time of the night- 
meal, while at dinner (Gr.Grr. 157). -phol" -4i^ or 
-pholwa -li^TT (Gr.Grr. 164) | ^^W^tjrarJT; m. a single 
grain of cooked rice ; met. a very small amount of 
the same (K.Pr. 4). -phal^-pbth»r -tkt%-^i«r^ I 
1'T:HTT«*I*(^K' ™- rice-grains-conduct; interested love, 
l^retence of love for interested motives, pot-love, 
cupboard-love. -path m'S I ^g^Pg^TWr^T^^! m. 
(sg. dat. -pathas -Mltm^), recitation of charms or 
prayers for food, either for people generally or 
for some particular person. -toy" -"^^ I ^3TJ^: 
m. King Food, a tenn applied honorifically on seeing 




some great pile of grain or a plenteous crop in the 
field. -SOW" -'?ftf I ^^fTTW: adj. (f. -sbw" -'^\\), 
rich or well supplied with grain and other similar 
food, one whose barns are well filled, -saver -4j|4)<^ | 
^W¥*JfIt^fl^ m. the condition of one whose barns are 
well filled, easy circumstances, opulence. -saway 
-¥T^ I ^S^jt'sH'^ f- food luxuriance, plenteousness 
of crops, the condition of a land fiowing wth milk 
and honey, cheapness of food, -tir*' -<E^^ I '^Wftll^^*!; 
f. a mass of congealed cooked rice, a rice-shape. 
-wol" -^^ I ^w^¥: adj. (f. -wajen -^Sffaj), one 
who possesses much cooked rice or food (EL), one 
who is well-to-do ; one who is accustomed to distribute 
food in charity or to give free dinners (K.Pr. 62). 
-wata -'^m m. a jingling repetition of bata, cooked 
rice, etc. ; cooked rice and other similar articles of 
food, cooked rice and its usual accompaniments 
(Gr.Gr. 95). -wav -^^ 1 ^g^fx:3I»^ m. rice-wind ; 
poverty so great that food is wanting, destitution, 
indigence, -wav pyon" -^TR i^ij I ^JT^l'TrtJUlM: 
m.inf. poverty to fall ; the destitution by the death, 
etc., of the breadwinner of a family to happen. 

bat> yun" 4^ 1^^ I ^|W?r^3n n?TTft»T^^»i 

m.inf. to become arrogant on obtaining, without 
working for it, a great supply of food or wealth. 

batas pyon" ^7m, wg i ^^i-riir>ftT:, ^ffT^^ 

'^Vl'tfll m.inf. to full for food ; to fall upon someone 
for support, as when a family's breadwinner dies and 
the members of the family throw themselves upon 
someone else for their support. — rozun — Ttltl^ I 
f^f^l'^ftst^'T^'I'I m.inf. to wait for food ; to have 
one's food stopped, to be deprived of one's dinner (as 
is done in schools as a punishment for a naughty boy) . 
— thawun — '^^ l jftWft'T^V: m.inf. to stop 
a naughty child's food as a punishment, to give him 
no dinner. 

bata ^z I WTWI- . ^^- ^^- (f • bataii ^^Z'^ or batin 

^fZ'SI q-v.), a brahman, a Kashmiri Hindu (all of 
whom are brahmans), a KashmTrl Pandit (K.Pr. 26-8, 
72, 116, 139, 147, W. 123, L. 456), the brahman 
ca.ste. Accoiding to El., s.v., the HindiJs of Kashmir 
are divided into (1) Brahman HindQs, whose only 
work is to perform the Hindu worship. In short 
they are exclusively priestly, and number about 500 
houses. (2) The Jotish Hindus, wlio study the stars 
for the purpose of predicting future events. They 
number from 100 to 150 houses. (3) The Karkun 
HindQs, who are writers, merchants, and fanners, but 
never soldiers. Relatively, this is a very numerous 
class, -bay -^T^ 1 ^UPT^ f- a brahman's wife 

Fur words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 


138 — 

bota ^z 

(Qr.Gr. 34). A woman of the brahman caste is batan 
( 38), q.v. -boy" -^^ I fl^lfH^tsd^lSr: m. 
a brahman brother, a brahman caste-fellow ; a brahman 
of the same rank or degree, who can eat and drink 
with another brahman, with whom he is compared. 

-cobur -^f^ 1 gwfl;^?rTWW: m- (sg- dat. -cobaras 

-^^w), a young brahman, able-bodied but uneducated. 
-day -^T^ I m^IW^Wt f- the servant-girl of a 
brahman (usually of some lower degree in caste). 
-gan -TTI I ^^Tlstl^Uj: m. a briihman who lives on 
the ijroceeds of his wife's adultery (K.Pr. 107) ; a term 
of abuse not necessarily implying the truth of the 
accusation, -hbr" -fT^ I ^l^f^^^: f • a sort of bird, 
a kind of yellow-coloured hor^ {Sdrikd, or maina) ; 
also the name of a kind of vulture, -kur'' -^'^ I 
WTWI'S'Tr f- (sg- dat. -kore -«Rt^), an unmarried 
girl or virgin of the brahman caste (cf. Gr.Gr. 73). 
-krun" -T^^ I ^qftrarnf^^: f- N. of a certain 
wild herbaceous medicinal plant, described as low- 
growing, with long fine leaves from which a medicine 
is decocted, -kot" -^Z I ^TT^niRT^ra: m. a boy of 
the brahman caste ; a brahman's son, a real son 
of a briihman, i.e. a good brahman (Gr.Gr. 132). 
-mahanyuv^ -Ift^ l ^^WTIIW: '»• a briihman- man, 
a menial briihman who lives by acting as a cook or in 
other similar menial service ; cf. batan. -mahaniv'- 
kot" -??ft%^-^| I <lf(*ll^my^: m. (f. -kiit" -^|_, sg. 
dat. -kace -efi^), the sou (f. daughter) of such a 
menial briihman. -mahaniv^-kath -??ff5T^-cR^ I 
^TOWWrt'T'^'^: m. (sg. dat. -katas -mz'^), the son 
of a menial briihman, used only contemptuously. 
-mahaniv^-kar -Jift^^-^irnc I sIlflli^f^'Tr'^^R^Tf^- 
%^T^^ m. the menial work done by a menial 
brahman. -mahanivi -JTff'rft I <^HHsll^U!^Prt: f- 
the profession or condition of a nienial briihman. 

-mabaniv'gi -?Tft^t5'ft I 4i«s(iu«!!^f%: f. the 

profession, condition, or means of liveliliood of a menial 
briihman. -mor^ -»T^ I s(l^t!!SiOT1 "i- a briihman's 
body (to be protected and kept free from defilement 
by obeying rules of conduct), -necyuv" -"Ift^^ I 
stl^UjM'si: m. a briihman's son, generally emf)loyed in 
a complimentary sense of an intelligent youth, -pbth' 
-■TrtS I ^T^IJTtffJT adv. like a briihman, in the 
manner employed by briihmans, according to rule 
(of conduct, giving gifts, or the like), -tshiir'^ "W^ I 
^^■f%rt%^^: m. N. of a certain medicinal plant, 
described as having small spiny leaves which creep 
along the ground. 

bata in bata-wlgun, see bota-wagim under bota. 

bat* 4tjT f. a light, a candle (Gr.M.). 

bit, see bith". 

bota ^z I ^^THjpf^'^JT^^: m. (f. botin ^Tz^, 
butin 1 ^fefST qqv., or bota-bay ^Z-^T^, see bel., 
Gr.Gr. 38), a man of Tibet, a Tibetan; usually a man 
of Western Tibet or Ladiik, a Laditki (see El., s.v. 
tul and tulahil). -bab^r'^ -'^^'^ I ^rtTf^^^: f. Ladiikl 
basil, N. of a certain medicinal plant, dark-coloured, 
with smooth scented leaves. -bay -^T^ I ^tTX;T- 
'it^efiT^^^^ f- a Ladiikl woman, a Ladiikin, i.q. 

botin, q.v. (cf. Gr.Gr. 38). -datur" -^g^ I ^nrrf^ii^: 

m. Ladiikl Datum, N. of a certain plant ; also of 
its intoxicating seeds, flowers, and leaves. -jath 
(? spelling), m. a certain medicinal plant used as 
a stomachic (L. 76). -khob" -^J I fln:^t%^^: m. 
a Ladiik hat, the woollen-lined hat worn by Ladiikls. 
-khol" -^^ I McH^ir^f^^^: m. the kernel of a kind 
of plum (? = the Hindi Bhotii/a Badain, Prunus 
communi'i) imported from Ladiik. -khor" -^^ I 
yK*l5Wl^^^' rn. a kind of round - leafed grass 
growing in lakes, and used as fodder. -malikh 
-11%'^ m. (sg. voc. -malika -?Tt%«li), Mr. Simpleton. 
The Ladiikls are easily outwitted by the sharp 
Kiishmiris. Malik is used as a title of lespect or 
flattery (K.Pr. 191). -phamb -TliJ^ 1 'aSTSTTl^^^: m. 
the cleaned wool of the Ladiikl goat. The wool is 
bought by women who take it home and clean it, the 
coarse and coloured wool being sepai'ated from the 
white tine wool (kil'-phamb). The latter is 
employed in the manufacture of shawls and pashmlna ; 
cf. El., s.v. kil-phamb. -pot° -tf^ I qzf^^^: m. a soft 
coarsely -woven cloth of goat's wool imported from 
Ladiik. -soy -^^ I ^n^t^^TfTrf^W^: f. a kind of 
nettle [Urtiea) imported from Ladiik and employed 
as a stomaeliic and diuretic medicine. -t^l -f^^Sf I 
^^1W^^: 111- a kind of mulbeiry fruit imported from 
Ladiik. -badar -^T^T I "^'t'tiTZt^^"^: f- a large 
soft shawl of goat's wool imported from Ladiik. 
-b^nun" -^35 I Pi^t%^^: ni. a luscious kind of peach 
imported fiom Ladiik. -feer -^ | tfi^ff^^^r: f. a kind 
of apricot imported from Ladiik, but also grown in 
Kashmir ; cf. El., s.v. tsera. -wagun -^Tl't. m. 
a tomato eaten in Kashmir by Musalmiins but not 
by Hindus (El., who spells -ivdiigun and also bdta- 
icdugun). -won" -^>r I '^fHlTT^f^flR^gi^ftr^ m. 
(f. -wanen -^of^, his wife), a Ladiik merchant who 
imports shawl -wool, grapes, cotton, medicaments, 
precious stones, etc., from Ladiik. There is a brisk 
trade between Kaslmilr and Ladiik. -vir -^'^ I 
^fltiq^fW^^J f. a kind of willow, Salix sp. (its bitter 
leaves used as a cooling remedy in fever and as a locid 

For words contaiuing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bota ^z 

— 139 

bith fsi^ 

application for the feet, L. 76). According to EL, 
s.v. vir, two varieties of willow grow in the valley, the 
musk wllow (mushka-vir) and the Ladiikl willow 

(bota- vir). 

bota ^Z ni. sg. nom. with suff. of indef. art. botah 
^ZTf), a boat (corruption of English word), agna- 
botah ^^-^tZTf , a fire-boat, a steamboat (Siv. 1831). 

bo-ti ^^f^, I also, see boh. 

bbt^ ^t? I ■'n^l^^''?: f- a kind of large vessel of the 
sliape of a washing-basin and made of beU-metal, 
employed both for cooking and for eating ; a washing- 
basin (El). 

but, see both" 2, buth, and buth" 2. 

buta 1 WfT I f^t^fTg^Jl^ ni. a flower or sprig worked on 
cloth or jiainted on paper, -dar -TIT "tlj. e.g. 
flowered, sprigged (of shawls or cloth) (L. 375). 

buta 2 ^<T, see buth 1 and 2. 

be-tab (_>Ij'^_j adj. e.g. faint, powerless (YZ. 84) ; 
agitated, uneasy, restless, impatient (Eiim. 372, 646, 
776, 1164). 

bat^'C ^fT^ or bat^c" ^H^ , see batuk". 

bath 1 WS f- (sg- dat. bati ^fz), a sec. suff. used in the 
word boj'bath (see boj"), commensality or partnership 
(Gr.Gr. 145). 

bath 2, see biith^ 2. 

bath 1 WIV f. (sg. dat. bati Trf^), a word, speech, 
language (YZ. 382) ; talk, gossip, report, discourse, 
news, tale, .story, accoimt (Riim. 659) ; thing, affair, 
matter, busines.«, concern, katha-bata efi^-^T<T, 
conversation (Gr.M.). 

bath 2 ^J^ l ^^rv: f. (sg. dat. bati ^tw), a scheme, 
plan, means, expedient, device, esp. for tlie perfoimance 
of some difficult task (Ram. 471, 836). 

bati anun ^Tt^'^51^ I -sUMMH m.inf. to point out, 
show; to explain, make comprehensible. • — khasun 
— ^H*!. I "^fz f^rTt^^^f^ ■'^ 1 1^ m.inf. to become clearly 
manifest to the sight or intellect ; (of a wished-for 
object) to come into sight, to become as one desires. 

— khot"-mot° — '^g-'ig 1 f1tf%Ti^TiNi^: adj. 
(f . — khiib"^ - miife" — 4^ - »Ti^ ) , become clearly 
manifest to the siglit or intellect ; become or turned 
out as one desires. — yun" — 1%T5 I ^fsf^Ttf^^^- 
jt^'TO; m.inf., i.q. — khasun. 
bath 1 ^Tz I Tt^T^^l^: ni. (sg. dat. batas ^TZH), 

the noise of crying, esp. the howling or yelling of 
a beaten or angry child, or the noisy crying of a 
woman, -batil -^fz«5 I ^^^^f^fW; f- id., esp. when 
excessive. -b".til lagun" -^fz^ ^W^ I ^t?[<1^^- 
I'^l'H^^''; f .inf. to start making the noise of crying, 
esp. of a number of grief-stricken or angry people. 


— lagun — H 1^1*1, I ^f^frnErfTB: m.inf. to commence 
yelling and weeping (of a beaten child or an angry 
woman) . — waharun — ^^T^I; I ^f^rT^WTl^TTftr!: 

m.inf. to commence weeping and yelling like a beaten 
child or angry woman, of one who is not actually 
beaten or angry. 

bath 2 ^TZ I ^RTS^mf: m. (sg. dat. bathas ^tz^), 

a thicket (of bi-ambles or the like). Cf. both*'. 

bath 3 WT3 1 %fTTf^^: m. (sg. dat. bathas ^3^), the 
panegyrist of a king, whose duty it is to proclaim 
the hour of the day, his master's titles, etc., a herald. 

hatha -bay ^3-^7^ I tdlRl<*Y f. a female 
panegyrist, as ab. ; the wife of a panegyrist. 

hatha ^3 1 ^Mdl m. the condition of being crooked or 
bent ; the condition of being dented (of some metal 
or wooden article distorted by a blow or the like) ; 
crookedness, distortion ; met. of a man's nature. 
— atiun —^51; I ^fs^rnjf^: m.inf. distortion to 
enter, distortion to occur, either lit. or fig. of character, 
health, or the like ; breakage to occur. — drav 
—JT^ I t^lfl^'^fz^; adj. (f. — draye — ^T^), 
that which was distorted and has become straight, 
straightened out, lit. and fig. as ab. — kadun 
— ^^•^ I ^I'fz^rr^lTWl m.inf. to take out distortion, 
to straighten out something which has been distorted, 

lit. and fig. as ab. — nerun — %^i: I ^"^^rnriJi: 

m.inf. distortion to go forth, straightening out to 
occur, lit. and fig. ; (of something puzzling or intricate) 
to be made plain and clear. — feanun — ^T^l, I 
^^fZ^TTPT^T m.inf. to cause distortion to enter ; to 
distort, make crooked. 

baith Li-.>-j m. a couplet, distich, verse (in poetry) ; 
poetry. baita-bbz' frf-^j^ ^jb ^^:-^ I ^^tllf- 
■RiUfSi^^: f- an exercise or game in schools, etc., in 
which one person recites a verse, and his opponent 
must immediately recite another verse, commencing 
with the last syllable of the verse just recited. The 
first person must then recite another verse, commencing 
with the last syllable of the second verse, and so on 
till one fails and the other is declared conqueror. The 
game thus somewhat resembles our ' capping verses '. 

both in beth-muru (? spelling), rice land requiring 
a fallow (L. 336). Cf. bith«. 

beth 1 ^3 ni. (sg. dat. bethas ^Zm), sitting, delay. 
— lagun — ^nni, l ft^'^^'n m.inf. delay, slowness 
in accomplishing something which should be finished 

bith t%s or bith" ft^ 1 ^»n f- (sg. dat. biche t%5H). 
a session, assembly, meeting, concourse (EL, Grr.Ghr. 13), 
esp. of persons assembled for some unlawful purpose, 

For words containing bh, see undtr b. See article b. 


bith ^^ 

140 — 

both" 2 ^5 

such as gambling, drinking, or the like. — lagun" 
— m^^ I ^flTWT^raWI f-inf. to set going, bring 
together, a meeting of gamblers, drinkers, or the like. 
— wahariin^ — qf^rr^ I ^«l^H«KU!H finf. to 
spread out such a meeting, i.e. to make arrangements 
or prepare the necessary materials for a meeting of 
gamblers, drinkers, or the like. 

bith ^'\^ I l^t^: (sg. dat. bits" ^|f), the hole 
in the ground used in the game of tipcat. The ' cat ', 
instead of being tapered at each end, is a straight peg, 
sloping with one end in the hole ; the other projecting 
end is then struck with the stick. 

bith^ wttz, see behun. 

bith" ^\^ I ■^TlffTT f. (fem. of byuth", seated ; see 
behun and of. K.Pr. 158, bit) ; (of land) long un- 
cultivated, untilled, lying fallow (El. hU-znmlii) ; (of 
a woman, cow, etc.) one who does not bear children 
owing to some strii'ture or malformation. Of. beth. 

bith"-mufe'' ^|f-'T^, see byuth"-mot", under behun 
or bihun. 

b6th wf^, i-q. brSth, q.v. L. 460 spells this word 
bo)it, and W. 97 hoitth or hront, cf. ib. boiitnkana. 

both" 1 ^^ I ^3f1^*rTT:, ^^R m. high ground, a bank, 
embiinkmeut (dat. pi. bathen, K.Pr. 192) ; the btmk 
of a river (K.Pr. 63, Siv. 1755, Eum. 625, etc.) ; the 
bank round a garden, etc. ; the high waste ground 
near the foot of a mountain. sudara-both", the 
seashore (Grr.M.). Cf. buth" 1. — kharun — WT^ I 
y'^^TWl m.inf. to lift up on to the bank from the 
stream of a river or from a boat, to land anything 
(Siv. 1023, 1840) ; to put to one side, i.e. in any 
action or business to put aside someone who is con- 
nected with it as helper or promoter. This is the 
active form of the following. — khasun — ^^Wi; I 
l^rrnj^H^^m;, ^^Tpftf 'SII m.inf. to be lifted up on to 
the bank, to be put ashore from the water or from 
a boat, to be landed (K.Pr. 121) ; to be put to one 
side, i.e. when engaged in any action or business and 
on the point of success, to be disappointed by finding 
oneself dissociated from it by some impediment or 
opposition. — thawun — if^^ \ '^wWTVi^f^, ^^- 
'^^^:XJSm m.inf. to put to the shore, to bring to the 
bank (of something floating on a river, etc.) ; to set 
apart, put apart from others, -tal -rT'S I ^T^m, udv. 
under the bank; hence, secretly, privately,*^u.w.vbs. 
of giving, speaking, assaulting, or the like. 

bathi-bathi ^f^-'^rf^; adv. along the bank (of a river 
or field) ; on every bank (Siv. 1681). — kharun 
— ^rr^i; I ^^fi|(*(IMI<»»H m.inf. to make proper or 
fit for use (of some an. or inan. obj. originally unfit 


for use or in confusion and made useful by teaching, 
arrangement, jiurification, etc.). — khasun — '^l.l 
■^^t%(5Wf^'. m.inf. to become fit for use, as ab. 
— lagun — ^npi l ^t%^>T-R:, ^ag^H^T^l m.inf. 
id., to be, or become, naturally fit for use, as ab. 
— log"mot" — ^^f I ^5!Rt%^H7T: adj. (f. — luj**- 
miib" — ^jgr^T's), made useful, put to a proper use, 
esp. of something pre\'iously useless or in confusion. 
— lagun — ^rrj^ l ^^f^t^ITqT^'i; m.inf. to bring to 
shore, to lay along shore (of a boat or something 
floating in a stream) ; to make useful by education, 
by strengthening, or putting in good order, etc. ; to 
put to a suitable use, to employ in a suitable manner. 
— rdzun — Tt^JI I ^^^Wl m.inf. to remain on the 
bank, to have one's habitat on a river bank or sea- 
shore ; to disiegard, keep aloof from any action or 
business (even when one has connexion with it). 
— thawun — ^^^ I ^% •q^TT'i; m.inf. to bring to 
the bank, to lay (a boat) alongside the shore ; to put 
to one side, to disregard an instructor in or promoter 
of any work by acting independently. 
both" 2 ^"S 1 ^tV^^IT^T?!: "1- 'I I'eap of dried cow-dung 
used for fuel (L. 460, bat). — waharun — ^fRIl I 
jftJT^TiyH^UIH m.inf. to spread out cow-dung to dry 
in order to convert it into fuel. 

bath^-guj" 4'^-'i^ I ^r^^^Tjr^ 'jiai: f- a fire-place 
full of cow-duMg fuel ; sufficient cow-dung fuel to 
fill a fire-place, -kldur" -^fl^ I ^T^fft^'- '"• i^- 
-kl,dureh -^t^^oT), a baker of cow-dung; hence, 
a man or (f.) a woman who follows a filthy employ- 
ment, or an employment resulting in wearing filthy 
clothes, etc. -lobuT -^^T; I oR"^^: m. a single cake 
of dried cow-dung, -nar -ITT I «inTtTrf^' n>- fire 
proceeding from dried cow-dung, a fire of this material; 
a spark of burning cow-dung, -phol" -'^^ I «l>Tt^- 
^W^: m. a heap of cow-dung fuel, esp. a small one 
(Gr.Gr. 164). -til -riY^ I ^"ft^t^m; m. oil of cow- 
dung fuel ; the oil which condenses from the vapour 
of burning cow-dung fuel and is used as a remedial 
application in skin diseases, sores, etc. -tyongul 

■•^^ I ^irnO'^^it^: m. (sg. dat. -tyongalas 
-(3T^R(.), a spark of burning cow-dimg fuel ; a mere 
spark, a hardly apparent burning spot in cow-dung 
fuel. -te*n -^^l I ^"^'^Tf^T''^: f . cow-dung charcoal ; 
cow-dung fuel slightly burnt and then extinguished. 
-yor" -•'^V'l I ^re^ffi: m. (f. -yareh --^rr^^), a cow- 
dung-fuel fellow, a stujml man or (f.) woman, one 
unable to tell or to understand the object of any course 
of action or who acts without consideration of preceding 
conditions or of consequences in the ordinary acts of life. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

both* ^\j 

141 — 

buth"^ 2 5| 


both* ^rs I ^a9H<sll f. (sg. dat. bache ^u), a single 
long thin dried branch or twdg of a tree or creeper, 
esp. of a willow cut off in pollarding. Cf. bath 2. 

bache mWi l f^TT'^T^fT?: twigs, esp. the 
bundles of leafed willow branches and twigs stored 
for winter fodder in the forks of tree-tiunks ; see bel. 
These stores are typical features of tb-- 'indscape of 
the country. -gyod" -Tg^ I ^Tf^rl^riv: ifHTT^ m. 
a bunch of branches ; a large mass of leafed tree 
branches cut in the autumn, tied together by a roj)e, 
and stored in the fork of a tree-trunk for use as 
required for fodder. — karaiie — ^Ti'^r I ail<5(lf=f^^: 
f. pi. inf., lit. to make (i.e. cut) branches; (of willows 
and the like) to pollard or cut off in the autumn of 
every second year the young withes or osier-twigs that 
shoot thickly in the spring from old lopping wounds. 
The smaller twigs and leaves are stored as above and 
used as fodder for sheep and goats during the winter. 
The larger are cut up and sold in tlie bazaar for 
firewood. -16"W° -^W I ^rf%Haj(<sill'J^ m. a branch- 
sheaf, a bundle of slender soft twigs cut from trees in 
the autumn as fodder for cattle. 

buth l::.-j m. (.sg. dat. butaS (j*-^), an idol, image, statue 
(YZ. 198 ; L. 177, hut). but(h)-8hikan ^ c:^ 
m. an image-breaker, an iconoclast (L. 166). 

buth 1 ^ I *Ifi: in. (sg. dat. butas ^<T^ ; pi. dat. 
butan ^a't., Gr.Gr. 51), a kind of malignant spirit 
(believed to haunt deserts, deserted houses, burning 
g/idts, graveyards, ross-roads, trees, etc.), a gliost, 
goblin, demon (Siv. 12). — afeun — '^^'l. I ^JWI^^: 
m.inf. a devil to enter, i.e. a malignant sjjirit to enter 
a corpse and vivify it, or to take possession of a living 
person so as to render him insane or maniacal. 
— lag^un — <!i«in, l Tt^W^- m.inf. a demon to possess 
a person ; a fit of passion to arise, e.g. in consequence 
of the parent of a child, a near relation, or husband 
not granting a wislied-for ti-eat. • — fehunun — Wfl I 
Tt'^^rMIf^'lH. m.inf. to raise a devil ; to put some one, 
esp. a woman or a child, into a rage by oj)posing 
their wishes. 

buta-bal ^<T-sf^ m. 1 (Jra^t^:), a propitiatory 
oblation made to evil spirits ; 2 (WT«('!l*l) > supernatural 
power obtained through the help of a malignant demon ; 
3 (Wrll^ili^lMH)' 3. place haunted by a malignant 

spirit, -grakh -vw^ I ^^^?qf^: f . (sg. dat. -graki 
-^rf^). devil's ebuUition ; hence, the birth or production 
of anything animate or inanimate in excessively 
luxuriant quantities or swarms, -gfrakh din" -^ni 
f^^ I ^F^rTf^raH^: f.inf. great productiveness to 
take place or exist (as in the case of a numerous 


progeny, of crops, of wealth, etc.). -grakh lagUn* 

-jm ^n^ I ^F^?^rf^#»T^: f.inf. id. -kh^h* -4^ i 

"*I'*II^<%^: f. devil's nose-raucus ; the distress ex- 
perienced by the disgrace of failing to accomplish 
a wished-for purpose. -kh"n* gafehiin" ^;^ f W^ I 
■^^TT'T^r^l'^^* f.inf. shanie at such disgrace to occur. 

-kh°n" kariih* ^^ ^-^sr i ^^ ^ c(*^H»^w f.inf. to cause 

such disgrace by refusing or wit)ldra^v^ng promised help 
or the like, -kath -^^ I "^mft^: m. (sg. dat. -katas 
-■^Z^), a devil's cub ; one (especially a male child) of 
■ a very passionate temper, Hke one who is possessed of 
a demon. -sed -'^Rr I JTrTflT^: f. (sg. dat. -sez* 
-■^51), rendering a demon subservient by some 
incantation or spell, and tlieiebv acquiring magical 
powers, -fcol" -^g I efit'^'RlifTi: m. a devil's .screen, 
i.e. one who is merely a screen in front of a devil ; 
one who is of a sullen, morose nature, cross-grained, 
cantankerous, sulky, -war -^^^ I '^•rnTTllT^^f^: m. 
an uncontrolled nature, want of self-control, a fickle 
disposition, -wash -W^ I WT^^ft^RTT- f- the making 
a demon subject to a person by incantation, speUs, etc. 
buth 2 ^^ m. (sg. dat. butas Wrra;), ashes with which 
devotees of Siva smear their bodies ; used — ', as in 

amar-buth, q.v. 

buth'' 1 ^^ I ^rf'J'fr ni. a person's lot in Hfe, fate 
(supjjosed to depend upon his actions in a foiTQer Hfe). 

Cf. bechan-buth", under becha. 
buth" 2 f^ I T|^*i: m. (K.Pr. 82, 243, spells this bi<t, 
but elsewhere biifh or buth [sic] ; L. 460 has but), 
the face, esp. the human face (K.Pr. 36, 38, 82, 84, 
105, 160, 189; Siv. 68, 128, 1155; E5m. 258, etc.); 
the mouth (cf. achol") ; the front (of a house, etc.) ; 
the right side (of cloth, etc.) ; the front part, toe (of 
a shoe, etc.) ; (?) the tuck of a turban (L. 464, but) ;^ 
face, audacit}', impudence (cf. bechan-buth" under 
becha) ; appearance, outward fasliion ; gabi buthi, 
a sheep in appearance (K.Pr. 63, W. 21). — dyun" 
— f^ I ^"^ ^c(<tH m.inf. to give face ; to come 
forward to undertake a task, esp. to assist some 
person who has to undertake the expense of a 
marriage or the like but has not the necessary 
means, by enabling him to undertake the responsi- 
bility. — hawun — IT^'T, I *I<^«f'1[ m.inf. to show 
the face ; hence, to scold, threaten, menace. — karun 
— '^^'t, I *T(^»lo4|(m<^|f^icfii<^: m.inf. to make a mouth ; 
to refuse a request with abusive words. — ladun 
— 'T^l I Wi^'^^fTJi; m.inf. to build a mouth ; to 
show displeasure by twisting the features (esp. 
when one has suffered loss by another's action), to 
frown angrily. — ladith bihun — ^5Tt^ t^^l I 

Fur words containing bh, >ee under b. See article b. 

buth" 2 


buth" 2 ^^ 

■'^S^^ra 'ftTf^rf^: m.inf. to sit frowning ; to remain 
sullen and full of silent wrath at some action dis- 
approved of. — nahawun — ffTJi; I »Tf^'fsrrf'T*f»i 
m.inf. to obliterate the face ; to crush a person with 
abuse, esp. someone who is addressing the abuser. 
— pbinin — ^'^ I 'HfJT%iT: m.inf. to turn the face, 
to give an insolent rej^ly (e.g. a servant to his master, 
or a debtor to his creditor). — payun — 'T^'t, I 
VT^'ffrl. m.inf. to make the face red-hot, to con- 
duct oneself audaciously (in begfjing or the like). 
— payenun — ^7^1. I VT^ffrT: m.inf. id. 
— rangun — tji; . — ranganawun — Tiirg'i; , or 
— rangawun — tifl I ^rnTTRtrr: m.inf. to colour 
the face ; to become mean, insignificant (of a 
respectable person taking to mean employment, 

begging, etc.). — samun — ^m'l^ i t'T^^r^^^fm?: 
m.inf. the face to become level ; to show .sudden 
courage (as of one who is weak, timid, or. lazy, for 
once in a way addiessiug or making a I'equest to an 
angry, illiberal, or very powerful person). — tarith 
pyon" — fltT^ T% I f«T%'gfT^ t%qTfT: m.inf. to fall 
to the ground and lie motionless with tlie limbs spread 
out (e.g. from illness, or as the result of an extreme 
effort). — feok^rawun — i^eBXiT^'i; m.inf. to make 
the face angry, to frown (EL). 

buth'-bod" fti^-^f I t^irra^^: adj. (f. -biid"^ 

-■^^, sg. dat. -baje -W^T), having a large face or 
mouth ; one who is talkative, eloquent, loquacious ; 
one who has attained eminence by the accumulation 
of wealth or the gain of a reputation ; one universally 
honoured, -bakal -^T^^ I f'TTnlT^t^rllft^: adj. 
e.g. one whose mouth is full of sobs ; (of children) 
one who is continually crying, cause or no cause, 
a cry-baby. -chatur" -W5^ I ^'^T^'^' «wij. (f. 
-Chat^r" -^^'^), pretty -faced (esp. of children). 
-dag -^11 I VTTTWTfi: f. the buffeting of a violent 
shower of rain in the face of a traveller, -dar -^TJ I 
TT'^: m. (f. -daren -(^l^aj), one who is in front, 
a principal man in a village, a leader of society. 
-dyax -^STK. I eRT^t^^^: m. face-money, N. of a poll- 
tax imposed upon Hindus by the Pathan Grovernor, 
Muhammad 'Azim Khiin (expelled a.d. 1819) ; see 
L. 197 ff. -ho^ -f^ I ^sf^^W cadj. (f. -hvLJ^ --^51), 
crooked-faced (of a man) ; crooked - fronted (of a 
house) ; crooked-pointed (of shoe or the like), -har 
-■^ I ^^"a^^T^: f. wrangling or verbal quarrelling 
immediately on coming face to face (of two enemies 
meeting each other), -khakh^r -^PiT I 'r»rnr*t%^: 
f. face-torture ; hence, the pain or inconvenience 
caused to an old person or a cripple, etc., in 

uselessly going anywhere and returning, see khakh'T. 

-khakh'T din'^ -^^\ t^ I 'Tf?f%<im<'f»i; f.inf. 

to cause sucli pain or inconvenience. -khakh^T 
lagun" -'if^ ^11^ I 'ifn^^Wf^: f.inf. to suffer 
such pain or inconvenience ; to needlessly undergo 
the toil of going over a long and difficult road. 

-khiind" -^■^ i f^'j'sm; f- (sg. dat. -khanje -^in), 

steadiness of face ; hence, the condition of one 
accustomed to endure another's abuse or insults. 

-kin' amot" -fm^ '"'wg I ifTTm^T^TfT: adj. (f. 

-amUb" -■*II*)^ ), madlv arrogant, purse-proud, 
puffed up (of some raeau person suddenly raised to 
power, wealth, or dignity) ; see -kin' yun" bel. 
-kin' anun -f^^ "^^ i ^fJlT^Trr^JT m.inf. to 
cause a person to be arrofjant, etc., as ab. -kin' 

on^-mot" -f^t*f ^-'^f I 'r^T?»n??rnnf^ri: adj. (f. 

— iin^-miib" — "^'sr-Jf^), one who is caused to be 
arrogant, etc., as ab. " -kin' yun" -t^^ I^TJ I 
^rf^ll^HTTftiT^^JT m.inf. to become madly arrogant, 
to become puffed up, purse-proud (of a jnean person 
suddenly raised to power, wealth, or dignity), -lab 

-^ I ^ift^: f. the cheek, -lagay -^Ji^ 1 fgrTt>ifta^: 

f. the occurrence of a quarrel or bad feeling, es]i. 
between relations or fiiends. -lagay gabhun" 

-^rnr^ 'tw^ i ^jqt^frrtVTtTtf^ffT: finf. such 

quarrellinii^ or ill-feeling to occur, -lagay kariifi'* 

-^rm'q ?iit^ I f^rrtT t%T^>fr¥T^^»l finf- to 

wilfully start u quarrel with one's relation or friend 
for one's private ends, -non" -•T^ I wT^flTi: , Mc|il7|T^: 
adj. (f. -niin'' - "r^ ) , barefaced, e.g. when a child is 
sleeping with its face uncovered ; (of a woman) bare- 
faced, shameless, audacious ; clean-faced, white-faced ; 
(of cloth, rice-grain, etc.) clean and white externally ; 
cf. buthi-non" bel. -pheshel -^finrsT i ^ti^j^jii: m. 
(f. -pheshal -'qJTli^ or -pheshil -■qqflx^), unlucky- 
faced ; a man, or other m. obj., whose face it is 
unlucky to see the first thing in the morning, 
immediately on rising from bed. The f. forms imply 
a woman, or other f. obj., possessing the same 
unpleasant character ; cf. pheshil. -phyur" -fx|i^ | 
"3^7!; adj. (f. -phir'' -fpR^), face-turned, insolent, 
insubordinate, rude, ill-behaved, answering-back (of 
a servant to his master, a child to his jjaient, a pupil 
to his teacher), -puj" -4^1 ^[^rf^TT^T^J^ f. a big 
basket of a face ; a great, round, ugty, and fierce- 
looking face, -prath -1?^ I €^%i •TT^^fRTJT'R; m. 
a blow in the face ; speaking insolently face to face 
to one's elder or other person entitled to respect. 
-tamun" -r^w^ i ^'g^gTi: adj. (f. -tamiin" -rnff^), 
black-faced, dark-faced, having a swarthy complexion. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

buth" 2 ^?T 

— 143 — 

buth«i 2 ^ 


-tamaiier -rTH"3rr or -tamaiiar -Tm'srr^ i g^^rrf^'n' 

m. bliiekness of the face, a swarthy complexion ; the 
darkening of the face caused by another's disresi:>ect, 
or by shame, sorrow, or the like, a woeful countenance. 
-trakur" -^gf^ i ^^ij^j^; adj. (f. -trak"r" -■^^^), 
hard-faced ; possessing the terrifying cast of coun- 
tenance acquired by often giving way to anger, or by 
giving frequent abuse, etc. -wol" -'^'?T I Jn«I^^: 
adj. (f. -wajen -■grWal ), one who has face ; one who 
is universally respected. -WOth" -^^ I ir^fV*I'lT^: , 
YSl'Wfi: adj. (f. -wiifell" -'W^), lean-faced, one whose 
face has became thin and disfigured by disease, etc. ; one 
who, having once been polite, is become impudent before 
his elders. -vyoth" -^J I ^^jr^i: adj. (f. -veth** 
-^ra, sg. dat. -veche -^WI), fat-faced, ha^-ing a face 
too fat. -zalay -51H*{ I «!|<j^l»J>l^:f. face shivering; 
the sense of humiliation and shame felt before an elder 
or other person entitled to respect when one has been 
doing something wrong. 

buthi ^f^ I ^^^ adv. in front, opjiosite, u.w. vbs. 
of going, putting, seeing, etc. — amot" — '^13 I 
t%ff riirfa^^: adj. (f. — amiib" — ^^Til^), come into 
a 2'erson's ])reseuce, arrived in front ; one who has 
rejjlied rudely and with contrariety to a polite remark ; 
see buthi yun" bel. -buthi -^t^ I ^xft^^ri: m. 
a form of lamentation amongst women, in which they 
slap theii- own faces and .scratch tliein with their finger- 
nails, -chot" -wj I gwj'a: adj. (f. -chub" '^\)' 
white-faced, fair-comjilexioned ; (of clothes, grain, or 
the like) outside white, esp. when black, dark-coloured, 
or dirty within. — dyun" — f^ I 5<*dl^*<mH 
m.inf . to put in front ; (in a fight) to place something 
in front of one's opponent ; to put up a shield, etc. 
— hyon" — W^l ^fT^qiTT!r*T , ^^^T'lTH minf. 
to take in front ; (in an address or in instruction) 
to take some head of the subject of discourse and 
bring it forward ; to take another person as a helper 
in order to put him in front face to face with 
the work. — lagTun — ^J^ I "Jrfn^?ir( m.inf. 
to appear in front, take one's stand before an 
opponent ; to take one's stand to contradict one's 
elders, etc., to reply in a discussion, or to give back 
abuse in a verbal quarrel. — log"-niot" — ^^TJ- 
»?^ I nfrJ^T^^^i: adj. (f. — liij^-mub*' — 'I|,-'T|;), 
ready to contradict one's elders, etc., to rejily to an 
opponent in a discussion, or to give insolent abuse in 
a quarrel, -non" -"^ I TTcFnT^^^ adj. (f. -nun" 

■^^), i.q- buth^-non", ab., q.v. -petha tulun -tzt^ 
HW«^ I «i|33tlrtJ|Jr. m.inf. to raise from the face ; to 
abandon shame (as of a respectable man i-educed 

to earn his food by begging) ; to becon:ie bold, 
impudent (of a person naturally mild - tempered). 

-petha wSthun -tus W^^ i t'T^^amfTi: m.inf. to 

rise from the face ; shamelessness to occur (as ab.). 

■ -pethuk" -W^^ adj. (f. -pethiic" -'«li'5 )> «f or 

belonging to (something) njion the face (Siv. 467). 

— pyon" — Tjj^ I ^Rf^wtH^TJi , •^^^n^^i'i m.inf. 

to fall in front or on the face ; (of something 
belonging to a class usually considered desirable) to 
be considered undesirable as soon as it comes within 
sight ; (of meeting on the ro&d a friend, to visit 
whom one is making a journey) to suddenly 
come into sight. — thawun — 'V^^^ I gT^p^qTO:, 
Tft^n^qiin^ m.inf. to place something before another ; 
to offer reverently, to present a gift (from an inferior 
to a superior) ; to offer a sample or specimen of 
anything. — wasun — ^^^^ I *J<sl<*|3illMf%: m.inf. 
to descend in the face ; the face to become shrunken, 
reduced, drawn, or thin, -waw -'^^'^ m. a contrary 
wind (Gr.M.). —yun" — f^ I ^% TTfTTRWl 
m.inf. to come into a j)erson's presence, to arrive in 
front ; to give a rude reply, face to face, to an elder 
or person entitled to respect, to reply impudently. 

-zyuth" -5|3 I ^^flria: adj. (f. -zith" -gf^3, sg. dat. 

-zeche -fi^), long-faced. 

buthis-peth ^t%^-TZIZ adv. on the face ; before 
a person's face, in his presence (K.Pr. 96, wrongly 
written hiithis). 

buthyuk" f^^ I ^^^^s^t adj. (f. buthic" 
^t^^), of or belonging to the face of any person, 
or surface of any thing. 

biith" 1 ■^^s I ^Wf!^T'!'T: f- (sg. dat. bache ■^^^), 

a heap, a bank rising out of level ground. Cf. 

both" 1. 

buth" 2 ^3 I jrflTTr^^Wr: f. (sg. dat. and pi. nom. 
bache WSgf, which, e.g. Siv. 1450, is often written 
bacha ^W). a hearth, the level surface beside a kitchen 
fire-place on which vessels are put when taken off the 
fire, a hob (K.Pr. 7, 23, 163, hachldh) ; dare bacha 
trbwith, having abandoned door and hearth, i.q. 
leaving house and home (Siv. 14-50). El. spells this 
word bath. — ratlin*' — Tk\ I ^I^^R^W; f.inf. to 
seize the hearth ; (of some hitherto untasted food or 
medicine) to be suitable on account of its wholesome- 
ness ; (of a child, servant, or the like) to be suitable, 
to fit into one's life, owing to affection. 

bachi baha dyun" ^f^ ^fr t^g I f^f^mrt^Tl^: 

m.inf. to steam at the hearth ; a kind of medical treat- 
ment for rheumatism of, or boils on, the leg, consisting 
in laying the limb on the hearth of a lighted fire 

For words cuntaining bh, see undi'r b. See article b, 

bith-cod t^^s-'^tf 

144. — 

batundi ^Aiij 

in order to promote perspiration, -bokut" -^^i^ I 
^5TJ7^T^^; in. (f. -bokufe'' -f^^l). a kitchen cub, 
a greedy child iilways hanging about the kitclien. 

-bror" -wt^ i fWtf^^T^: m. (f. -bror" -M^), a 

kitchen cat, a greedy cliild, esp. (f.) a greedy girl, 
always hanging about tlie kitclien. -kokor" -3I«ir^ I 
^rfH^aq: adj. (f. -kokiir" -IR^r^), a kitchen cock, id., 
but e.sp. (m.) of a boy. -kufeiir" -^^1 f N^TtTft^: 
f. a kitchen whelp, id. (of a girl). 

bith-cod f^^-^^ m. one guilty of incest mth his own 
daughter (used in abuse), a scamp (El., K.Pr. 72). 

bethak' ^it^ l ?rf%^?I^TTii: f. a sitting-room, a room 
set apart for receiving friends and conversation, a 

bbthil ofTf^^^ I %WTt%«fi^f%: f- the profession of a 
panegyrist, etc. ; see bath 3. 

bathalad ^z^^ i cR^fz^jrlf: adj. e.g. (as subst.f. 

bathaladin ^a'^rf^^), bent, curved, crooked, dis- 
torted (by a blow or the like) ; of a man's nature, 
sullen, suspicious. 

bithana f^'ST I ^'siaildm: ni. a kind of petticoat (or 
sari) made of coarse cloth. 

bathdre (? spelling), adv. on the high ground, towards 
the hill (K.Pr. 171). Cf. both'^ 1. 

buthor^ ^fT^ I ^^'if'T f- ugly-faoedness, foulmouthed- 
ness, abusiveness, scurrility. — kariin** — '^'^=T I 
^5'iY^l^TT^. f.inf. to be abusive, foul - mouthed, 

bbth^run ^TT^'si: I ^g^r^iTf^^^: conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

bbth"!" ^re^), to prune (a tree, etc.). Cf. both". 

bithis ^Hfia; tn. sg. dat. of byuth", see behun or 
bihun and byuth". 

buth'sher ^^^'^ m. N. of a sacred place in Kashmir, 
near Mount Haramukh. It is passed by pilgrims on 
their way back from the sacred lakes of Granga-bal, 
etc. It is tlie ancient Bhiitesvara. See RT.Tr. i, 107 ; 
V, 55 ; and II, 407. 

betuj" ^«m^, see betul". 

be-tijarath CLi.\sr^^ adj. e.g. without traffic, without 
commerce (K.Pr. 216). 

batuk" wg^ (Gr.Gr. 30, 36, 58) or batukh ^gi^ ^ i 
^^^: m. [sg. dat. batakas ^rl^li^ (Gr.Gr. 58), pi. uom. 
batakh ^rjT|; f. bat"c" ^tt'^ (Gr.Gr. 30, 36), or 
bat^C ^'^ (Gr.Gr. 66)], a drake (K.Pr. 117, W. 21, 
129) ; (f.) a duck (W. 17). 

batakh-lyut" ^fT^-^ I ^qf^f^^^: m. a certain 
medicinal plant growing in marshes and watercourses 
and having a firm, white flower (Eam. 646) ; clover 
(L. 70, 359) ; cf. lyut^ and under did, dida-lyut". 

-poth -t^ 1 ^"ItjfvJi^: f. (sg. dat. -poti --^U), 

duck's gut, a certain plant, the pounded leaves of 
which have an intoxicating effect when taken in the 
form of a pill. 

be-takhsir ,--^'_-_; adj. e.g. blameless, guiltless (Gr.M.). 

batil ^i^'^ l ^F^»T'3iTra: f- the profession of cooking 
largo quantities of rice, wholesale cookery. — karun*' 
— ^T^ I mf^fl^Sg'fW^^'T'^: finf. to distribute large 
quantities of cooked rice. 

batil ^'fe^r l WT^^irc^ft f- the condition of being a 
brahman, briilmianliood. 

betiil" sjj^^ I ^^jjut: adj. (m. sg. ubl. betoli s^nftf^; 
f. sg. nom. betlij" ^|ra, sg. dat. betoje 5T(ft5q), 
unweighed ; esp. that which cannot be weighed, in 
very large quantity, immeasurable. Cf. atiil". 

botal ^fi^ I ^'^JT^RT'^lw^^: f. a bottle (corruption of 
the word). 

butalad ^<[^ i Tt^^iff?T: adj. e.g. (as subst., f. buta- 

ladin ^rT^f^^), devil - natured ; readily angered, 

passionate, irascible. 
ba-tamah [i^ic], adj. e.g. courteous (K.Pr. 30). This 

word has not been elsewhere identified, and if the 

meaning given in K.Pr. is correct there is probably 

some mistake in the spelling. 
butimar 1 ^rftTTT I Tt^'HSrt^T: a<lj- e.g. (as subst., f. 

butimareii ^(ft»TT^>r), iq- butalad, q.v. 
butimar 2 w^flfflT'^ jl^Vi i tif^f%§i(: m. (father of 

wailing), the heron or bittern. 
be-tamizj-^,__j adj. e.g. without discrimination, without 

conscience (W. 110). 
batana WZ^f l ^^^t^»iqi5fcRH m. a button (corruption 

of the English word ; the old word, tup'-phol", with 

the same meaning, is now suj^erseded by this borrowed 


batani, for batan"y =(d»i*(, pi- dat. of bata, with emph. 
y (K.Pr. 139). 

bbtin ^b adj. e.g. unapparent, hidden, concealed; 
internal, intrinsic, esoteric ; (as subst.) the inward part, 
secret thoughts, mind, heart, disposition of mind. 

bbt'nuk" ^T^g^ I xr^H^!^ adj. (f. bbt'nuc'^ 

^Tt^f^)> of or belonging to the unseen, to a distant 

country, or to a time other than the present. 

bbt^niic'' balay yin*' ^frr^i^ ^^T^ t^r^ I 

^Tl"^rTT?l?l'mri: f.inf. a sudden calamitj^ (such as 

a flood, a drought, a lightning-stroke, or a pestilence) 

to happen. 
botun" ^^5 I ^TlTrrq^: m. N. of a country. Western 

Tibet or Ladiik (K.Pr. 94). Sg. gen. botanyuk", q.v. 
batundi ^J^ adv. with sharpness, with severity, with 

acrimony (Riim. 497) ; violently, fiercely, with fury 

(Eam. 376). 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 



butavish ^cit^u 

batang > C^^j adj. e.g. in straits, in difRculties ; dis- 
tressed, harassed, vexed. — anun — '^R't^ I ^ffff<sltft- 
ZIJ'^TJfT^ m.iiif. to worry, plague a person for some- 
thing impossible or unobtainable. — yun'' — f?rT I 
^fwf^Wt'T«(»TH^ m.inf. to be worried, distressed, have 
one's lieart broken in trying to do something un- 

botanyuk" fz^^ I ^I'TTTT^t'T^: adj. (f. botanic" 

^Zt^T^), of or belonging to, coming from, or born or 
produced in Ladak. 
batan 'srz^ (Gr.Gr. 38), or batin ^tZ^ f- a female 
Brahman, a woman of the liriihman caste (see bata) ; 
esp. a maidservant of the Brahman caste, a menial 
Brahmani, cf . bata-mahanyuv", under bata. Wlien 
employed » — , this word takes the form bat^iae. 

bat*ne-p6n" ^^^-tfrg i ^T^WTWfil^ft^: m. the 

condition of being a Brahman maidservant, the making 
a living in such a capacit}^ ; (of anyone else) making 
a similar living. -ton" -jftj I WTlT^^f^T: m. the 
condition of a Briihman woman ; esp. the life led by 
any woman who is well-conducted and careful about 
ceremonial purity and the like, -waza -'^J^ I ^^- 
^^•BTT- rn- a man who lives by cooking only for women 


(esp. Briihman women) ; hence, a cook who does not 

know his work thoroughly, an inefficient cook. 
botin ^fesf or butin 1 ^fe^T I 'ftSfWt f- a woman of 

Western Tibet or Ladak, a Ladakin, a synonym of 

bota-bay, see bota (Gr.Gr. 38). 
butin 2 ^fz^ I ^TfTTf^^: f- a certain vegetable creeper 

wliich usually grows wild in the jungle ; a collection 

of its leaves ; its flower. 
batpuri trel (? spelling of first word), f. a wild trel, 

a kind of apple (L. 349). See trel. 
batpiS (? spelling), f. Spircea Lindleyana (El.). 
bataura ,»ki prep, after the manner of, by way of 

(governs abl.) (Gr.M.). 
batera ^T I ^n^: m. a certain bird, the quail. 

batur" ^TJ^ I ^^; ni. a kind of quail, cf. batera. 
— athi lagun —^s^ ^R^ I ^Teqi^n^T^i^rTH: m.inf. 

the quail to come into the hand ; the means for 
carrying out any desired object to be gained. — pyon" 
—■OR 1 ^^S'^^WrffT: ra.f. the quail to fall ; something 
eagerly desired to be suddenly and unexpectedly 
acquired, to drop from tlie clouds. 

betri %f^ l 7r«|<<ji: adv. and the rest, etcetera, and so 
forth, -tetri -k1^ I T^rrf^^H; adv. id. 

bitur" t%fr^ l ' 4M*»<U| T( m. a sufficiency of means (neither 
too raucli nor too little), implements, paraphernalia. 

be-tarafdar J\^jjis^—i adj. e.g. impartial, of no party, 
unsectarian (Gr.M.). 




be-tartib L-^y^^ adj. e.g. without order, irregular; 
■without system (Gr.M.). 

butarath f fTTf^ or butarath ^jn;!^ i ^j^tis^ii: f. 

(sg. dat.,etc.,butarob"^rlTT'3,Siv. 495, or butarbb" 
^f1<,ixj), the earth, the world (Siv. 496) ; the earth 
as opposed to the sky (Siv. 468) ; (usually) earth, 
land, ground (§iv. 1110, 1231, 1234, 1291, 1296, 1297, 
1345, lo30, 1550, 1869 ; Eiim. 604, etc.). -pratau- 
wol" -irrz^^^ m. a ploughman (El.). 

batas ^flTO^ I xjiTftrrrfw^^: m. (lit. filled with wind), 
a certain sweetmeat of a spongy texture and hollow 
within (K.Pr. 28) ; a kind of cheap brown sugar, 
which comes from the Panjab (L. 254). -khiind" 
-'§■'1^ I WTfWfT'^''!^'^ f • (sg. dat. -khanje -W^) , a piece 
of this sweetmeat, -wor" -'^ I ^?35T«fiT"?7?rrft!fT*( m- 
N. of a special variety of tliis sweetmeat. 

buteshor <J^(*I)B'^ m- Lord of ghosts, 'N. of Siva (Siv. 
1135, 1175)"? 

butisuy (K.Pr. 243), incorr. for buthis"y ff«ni^, 
sg. dat. of buth" 2, with emph. y. 

butatma ^(*l)frrai m. Soul of all beings, N. of Siva 
(Siv. 1055)."^ 

batav, see bata. 

bat^wa 1 ^ZW l 'm"^f%^^: m. a globular metal vessel, 
east in one piece, used for cooking ; the batlohi or lofu 
of India. 

bat^wa 2 '^'Z^ l Wrrt^^^: m. a small bag with divisions 
or folds, used for holding money, betel-nut, tobacco, etc. 

bitawun 1%fTrf^ i ^^fi^i: conj. 1 (1 p.p. bitow" 

■f^rft^), to pass over ; to carry out, get through any 
difficult business ; to pass through (a country) ; to 
cause (time) to elapse, to pass (time), bitow^-mot" 
■f^wtj-^T^ I ^«t^: adj. (f. bitbw^-miife" f^m\- 
T^ ) > got over, carried out, passed through ; (of time) 
spent, etc., as ab. 
batawar ^-i.AV^ l lll^^T^: f. Saturday (K.Pr. 231, 
W. 106). 
batawari-dob ^z^TfT-^f i ^Tt^^TRT^ adv. on 

Saturday. -hond" -f^ I ?rf^^l^^«f^ adj. (f. 
-hiinz*' -^3 )> of or belonging to Saturday. 
batawor" ^Z^^ I "R^f^^^: m. the name of a place 
in Kashmir about six miles south-east of Srinagar. 

batawbr^-bay ^z^^-^t'9 i *T(^t%Tirfwt f- a class 

of fish-wives who carry fish on their heads in baskets 
and cry their wares through the Srinagar markets. The 
fish are netted in tlie Veth (.Jehlam), near Batawor". 

batawaryuk" ^ZTT^f I ^t^f^^^^*^ adj. (f. 
batawaric" ^Z^fT'f,). of or belonging to Biitawor". 
butavish ofrlT^ir l TfTRH: f- inspiration or possession 
by a demon or evil spirit. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

butaveth w<ttW^ 


bav ^T^ 

butaveth fm^ i ^jrntirg^fTi: f- (sg- dat. buta- 

vethi ^TTRt^), a audition of rage, fury, or gloomy 
anger, as if one were subject to possession by an evil 

batby' Wfn^ l xn;T3»ft^ e.g. one who througb miserli- 
ness or the like is in the mean habit of living upon 
food given in charity by others, even though he have 
sufficient wealth to support himself. 

batby'gi ^rfTt^I'ft I 'HJW'ftfWfffT: f- <lie condition of 
living on food given by others in oliarity, whether due 
to greed or misfortune ; any mean conduct of this sort. 

bete'' ^ , St e byot". 
bife" twi? , see byufe". 
bife" ^^ , see bith. 

^ ■■ I — 

bbfe" ^T^ I gsz'^wi; m. (sg. dat. bbb"s ^Tff^ or bateas 

^T5^, Gr.Cxr. 54), a member of a person's family, 
a relation ; pi. a person's family, the members of 
a household (K.Pr. 29, 100, 124; Siv. 1445, pi. dat. 
batean), husband and wife (K.Pr. 59) ; the inner 
apartments of a liouse, the harem containing the 
female members of his family (EL, Gr.M.) ; a wife 
(f.) {qn/ji/ti) (El., K.Pr. 43, YZ. 464). In the pi. 
this word is often used with a genitive of the word 
signifying a liusband, to indicate husband and wife. 

Thus (H. viii, i:J), patashaha-sand' z*h bbb", lit. 

the two members of the fanuly of the king, i.e. the 
king and queen, -bal -^^ 1 q5^1«R^J(^ m. power or 
influence due to having many members in one's family. 
-bata -^fl I ^J'^fntn'TTII'Tl)*!; ni. family food, the 
comparatively coarse food eaten by the ordinary 
membei'S of a large family, as distinguished from the 
delicate food given to old people, tlie head of the 
family, children, guests, etc. -grakh -mi I ^J'^- 
T^f^^: adj. (m. sg. dat. -grakas -m^^; f. uoni. 
-grakan -m^'^), the head of a large family, -syun" 
'^^ ' ^i*«l*l l^ilTTW^l^^JT; m. family seasoning ; the 
ordinary oil, CDiidiments, vegetables, etc., eaten by the 
ordinar}' members of a large family, as distinguished 
from superior kinds given to the senior members, 

guests, etc. -wol" -Tt^ I ^^fg^^WM^: m. (f . -wajen 

-^T59'^), the head of a large household; one who is 

a member of a large household, -z^h -3r| the 

wo members of a family, husband and wife (H. viii, 1). 

babi-babi ^Tt^-^lt^ l TlffleR^fi^gRI^ adv. each 

member of a family one by one (used e.g. with verbs 

of giving, visiting, or the like), bafean-bafean ^T^n,- 

'^1^^ I Hf7T*zf*s«<j(«1H adv. id. 

'batsha 1 ^^ l l^TVJtm^i: the arms (or fore-legs of 

a wild beast) from the shoulder to the elbow. 

babha 2 ^^, babhov ^wt^, biibh" ^^, see basun. 

bufeh* «f|P) f- of buth" 2, at the end of an adjectival 

compound. Cf. baka-buth°, under bakb. 
bibar ^WK ' ^''BI'l^ '"• emaciation, feebleness. 

bbbyun" ^li^ I gi^^^w^w: adj. (f. bbbin" ^t(^), 

— • possessing so many members in one's household, 
used with numerals as the latter portion of a compound 
word, thus : du-bbbyun", having two persons in one's 
household ; tr^-bbbyun", having three ; bu-bbbyun", 
having four ; pbnba-bbbyun", having five persons in 
one's household. 
bav ^(»T)^ m. existence, birth ; worldly existence. 

bawa-sagar ^(»T)^-^1'^, the ocean of worldly 
existence (Siv. 14). -santaph -^flT'S m. (sg. dat. 
-santapas -^rrnrai), t^'^ misery, or torment, of 
existence (according to Hindii pessimism) (Siv. 1870). 
-sar -^ I fi«i^€T:: m-> iq- -sagar (K.Pr. 243, Siv. 14, 
155, etc., Earn. 1596). 
bav wr^ l "^^r* ™- becoming, being ; state, condition 
(Siv. 1211, with pun on meaning ' market-price ', 
see bel., 1679 ; Rilm. 549, 1781 ; anubava-bav, 
a condition of perception, Siv. 75, 982 ; bakti- 
bav, the condition of faith, a state of faith, but 
often equivalent to bakt'-bav, faith and love, bel., 
see bakth, Siv. 515, 525,757,915, etc.; brama-bav, 
a condition of delusion, Siv. 1835 ; dasa-bav, the 
condition of a servant, Siv. 620, 1076; gur'-bav, 
the condition of a cowherd, Siv. 1000, 1837 ; nat*- 
bav, the condition of a well-bucket, Siv. 1818 ; 
shur^-bav, the condition of a child, Siv. 1015) ; 
conduct, behaviour ; way of thinking, feeling, sentiment, 
opinion (advaita-bav, acceptance of the doctrine of 
monism, Siv. 26) ; love, affection, devotional love sliown 
to a deity, i.q. bakth (Siv. 484,531, 670, 772, 790, etc. ; 
bakt'-bav, love and affection, Siv. 188; bawah, with 
suff. of indef. art., 1083) ; affectionate respect, con- 
sideration, honour (Ram. 84, 317), cf. adar-baw ; 
power of discrimination (Siv. 1548) ; a high value put 
upon anything (Siv. 1808) ; price-current, market-rate 
(Siv. 1211, see ab.) ; prosperity in business (Gr.M.). 
— badun — ^^i; l <*II4m4<*I^^^»I'1; m.iuf. respect to 
go forward ; to show pretended compliance to an order 
(given by a senior, a superior, a teacher, or the like). 
— dyun" — f^^ I ^<^<,H<^l'W;, ^JJJSTR'l m.inf. to 
show respect, to rise from one's seat througli politeness 
or respect. — karun — ^^t. I ^THRTJ m.inf. to 
make respect ; to welcome to one's house with love and 
honour. — thawun — yr^«^ I ^^"^TJIJ^ m.inf. 'to 
put honour ' ; to respect and comply with the order or 
advice of an elder or superior, the instruction of 
a teacher, or the like. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 


— 147 — 

buwaneshori ^(g)^^T^ 

bawa-rost" ^^-T^ I »Tf^?^T: adj. (f. -rulsh" 

-■^S ), wanting in love, wanting in politeness or resjiect, 
rude, genl. used as an adv. -san -^«^ I >Ttai*iai»l 
adv. politely, respectfully, affectionately. -SOSt" -^^ | 
H^^fT: adj. (f. -sutsh" -^W)> possessing love, polite, 
respectful ; possessing respect, respected, honoured. 
-vyot'' -sqH I HfWflTn; adj. (f. -v6fc*' -^^). loving, 
faithful, affectionate, or respectful by nature. 

bewai (W. 21), i.q. bewaye, q.v. 

bow" W^, see bowun. 

bow" ^5, see bawun. 

bbvi ^T^ I ^^*T 111- that which will be, that which is 
predestined, fate, destiny. 

bow" 1 W(%, see bawun. 

bow" 2 or bov" «lt^l (qt^-)^rf¥^ f. the thigh (esp. of 

birds) ; the posterior aspect of the thigh (El. boc). 

Cf. unz"-bbw". 
be-wafa \j. ^_j adj. e.g. (K.Pr. 72, W. 1-34) ; i.q. be- 

wopha, q.v. 
bawah <me(if , see bav. 
be-wukuf I— i*i; c^ adj. e.g. without sense, ignorant, 

foolish, stupid ; (as subst.) a fool, a blockhead (Gr.M.). 
be-wukufi jiJj ,__) f. want of sense, foolishness, 

a foolish action, stupidity, folly, fatuity (Gr.M.). 
bowala (? spelling), adj. e.g. furious (EL). 
bewulpha «i»3«?qi ( = j^^I^,—)) i t^f^tTT: adj. e.g. 

without rations or victuals (of soldiers, etc.) ; without 
subsistence allowance, without stipend, without salary. 
bawan 1 W^'[^ 1 l^flTi^l^: m. a kind of house ; a 
with rooms built round and opening into a hollow 
square, the house of a well-to-do person. — somb^run 

— ^J^*!; or — somb^rawun — ^«ix;-Rn^ 1 ^:F5rHTT- 
'ift^'TWi: m.inf. to lay up a great store of household 
necessities, as a provision against hard times. 

bawan 2 ^'^^ 1 %^f^^: m. ' the habitation ', N. of 
a sacred spring or tirtha close to the famous temple 
of Miirtanda. The large basins filled by the spring 
are inhabited by an abundance of sacred fish. The 
Sanskrit name of the place was bhavana (RT.Tr. II, 
406 ; El. s.vv. nidrtand and matan). 

bawana ^TTTT I *Tf^: f- a feeling of devotion, faith 
(in), respect, honour directed to a god, a preceptor, 
a Briiliman, or the like. i.q. bakth, q.v. (Siv. 70, 
l;iO, etc.). 

bawbni ^(»t)^t^ f. BhavanI, N. of the goddess ParvatT, 
the wife of Siva, in her pacific and amiable form 
(K.Pr. 228, Siv. 109, 494, etc.). Si v. makes the 
sg. dat., etc., of this word sometimes bawbniye 
H(»t)^tf'RI (496) and sometimes bawane ^(»T)^T3I 
(79, 80, 1315). -das -^T^ m. ' servant of Bhawanl ', 

N. of a Kashmir worthy, regarding wliom a story is 
told in K.Pr. 254. 

bawun 1 ^T^ I ^tHFR^i^RTj; conj. 1 (1 p.p. bow" 
^5 ; inf. abl. poet, bawane log" ^J^^ ^, he began 
to tell, Siv. 700), to show, tell, inform, relate (YZ. 454, 
Siv. 700, Rilin. 292, 453, 1105, etc.) ; to disclose one's 
inner thoughts, disclose (a secret) (K.Pr. 23, Siv. 675, 
1633, Ram. 340, H. vii, 21) ; to confide one's secret 
intentions, to tell (a friend, etc.) what in one's own 
opinion is a proper course of conduct (Riitn. 1574, 1592, 
1764) ; to explain the meaning of anything (Siv. 21, 
480, 675, 1506, 1130). 

b6w"-mot" ^"tf -»Tg I TT^fiTfilfT: perf. part, (f . bow"- 
miib" ^T^ - M^ ), disclosed, confided (of a secret), etc. 

bawun 2 ^T^«i: 1 ^^^fTT^t f«l^<^'lH conj. 1 (1 p.p. bow" 
'^^), to pour a libation of ricc-railk or the like over 
the image of a god, or into running water at some 
lioly bathing-place. 

bow" -mot" ^f-'ig I ^ ^»Tf5fT: perf. part. 
(f. bbw"-mufe" ^i^-JTi^), poured in libation as 
above ; met. (of anything not a libation) plunged in 
a flowing river or the like. 

bowan ^^^r or buwan ^(h)^st 1 *fersw: m. the earth, 
the world. Usually tliree worlds are counted — heaven, 
atmosphere, and earth (cf. Siv. 118, 159, 196, 978). 

bowun ^^5^^ I ^ir^: conj. 2 (1 p.p. bow" ^^'^ ; impve. 3 
bovin ^f^^ or boyin ^f^^ ; ben. 2 sg. boyyekh. 
«[T5p^, pi. boyiw ^f^^, 3 boyyen ^w^ ; in Gr.Gr. 

this verb is taken as the model for the 2nd conj., and 
is conjugated throughout), to become, be (Gr.Gr. 23 ; 
the ben. is very often used in this sense in blessings, 
e.g. Siv. 5, 92, 111, 658, 685, etc.) ; to be born ; to 
accrue, result ; ,to be effected, accomplished ; to be 
committed (as sin, fault, etc.) ; to come to pass, take 
place, to happen, occur ; to turn ofit, prove to be ; to 
serve, answer, do ; (most commonly, exc. in ben.) (of 
crops, fruit, etc., or of swarms of insects, birds, etc.) 
to be produced, spring up (Gr.Gr. 205, Ivi, El., 
K.Pr. 47, Siv. 1291) ; esp. to be jjroduced in great 
plenty or swarms, to grow pleuteously (K.Pr. 84). 

bow"-mot" Jf-»Tg I ^1|<t: perf. part. (f. bow"- 
miife" «[^- ?T^), become, born, etc., as above; esp. 
(of crop, fruit, etc.) produced in great quantity, with 
great fruitfidness ; happened in past time, happened 
before now (liam. 1601). 

buwan 5(^)^*1;, see bowan. 

buwaneshori 5[(»T)«r%^T^ f. N. of a certain naga, or 
sacred spring, near Khon^muh, and visited on the 
pilgrimage to the shrine of Harsesvara (RT.Tr. II, 
459 ; Siv. 930, cf. 932). 

For words cimtaining bll, see under b. See article b. 


be-w6pha %W^T 


beye 1 ^tm 

be-WOpha or be-wa^ ^IRiT lij s=^ adj. e.g. faithless, 
perfidious, treacherous ; ungrateful (K.Pr. 72, W. 134) ; 
(as subst.) a traitor, faithless one, ingrate. 

be-w6phoyi or be-wafdi tw^'hft S^j c^ f • faithless- 
ness, infidelitjs ingratitude, treachery (H. viii, 6, 11). 

bawar ,.\j m. belief, faith, confidence, trust, credit. 
— karun — ^5^1 m.inf. to believe, etc. (II. viii, 13). 

bewbri "Zr^TT^ l f^^'rafl' f- mental pain or distress, 
sorrow, anguish (arising from abuse, dishonour, loss of 
property, etc.). 

b5war ^T^T^ or bauwar ff^T'^ I ^ft*?^!^: f • Tuesday. 

bawa-sagar ^^-^u"^, -sar -^, see bav. 

bavisheth wf^^m m. (sg. dat. bavishetas ^t^^TTra:), 

the future, futuiity (Gr.M.). 
bawasir ^^TOt-^^-~--ly I ^ifffti: f. hemorrhoids, piles. 

bawasirilad w^T^ft^ I -^irfTti^: adj. (as subst., 
f. bawasiriladin ^^T^f^'^lf^^,). one who suffers 
from piles ; met. a maniac, an incoherent madman. 

be-wasta aL_jl. ,^ adj. e.g. without motive, without 
reason ; without business, without concern ; without 
relationship, without connexion ; without tie, without 
connexion with worldly things (e.g. a mendicant 

bawot'^ ^^? • ^^"^f^^^* '"■ ^ ki'id of armlet worn by 
women, consisting of ornamental bosses or plates of 
one of the precious metals strung together. 

bawat'-gul" ^i4t<r-^^ i ^^-^t^^^: m- one of 

a pair of such armlets, -hor^ -^^ I ^^^t%^^^TT^»l 
m. a pair of such armlets. 

bawath ^J^^ i ^t>iTi"Rrrf^WTT: f- (sg- dat. bawufe" 

^^^ ), showing, telling, information ; a declaration of 
intentions, an expression of one's wishes, a giving of 
instructions. Cf. bawun 1, of which it is the abs. 
noun (Gr.Gr. 128). 

bowath ^■^^ l ^su^rqtrt: f. (sg. dat. bowufe*' ^'^). 
excessive production or fructification, esp. of crops, 
fruit, plants, birds, or the like. Cf. bowun, of which 
this is the abs. noun. 

bewaye ^^7^ adj. e.g. careless, fearless (W. 21, bewdi) ; 
adv. carelessly, fearlessly (Earn. 108. 1300). 

baw*za ^T^^ l ':frrWcTT f. a brother's daughter, a niece 
on the brother's side (Gr.Gr. 133, L. 462, Riira. 138). 
-ndsb -?^ I ^c^^rlMf^l m. the wife of a brother's 
son, a niece by marriage on the brother's side. 
-zamatur'^ -¥T'T^ I >^g^ixrf^: m. the husband of 
a brother's daughter, a nephew by marriage on the 
brother's side. 

bawazun ^■r^»i; conj. 3 (2 p.p. bawazyov ^^wtw, 
Gr.Gr. 226), to be liked, preferred; (esp. of food) to 
be tastj', dainty (Gr.Gr. Iv). 



bay ^^, see baye. 

bay ^T^ f. a lady, mistress, as in aga-bay, the wife 
of the master of a house, the mistress of a house. 
Cf. K.Pr. 263; Siv. 1141, 1237, 1491, 1493. Often 
used as a suffix to indicate the wife of a man of 
a certain caste or profession. Thus, bata-bay, 
a Briiliman's -vvife, as distinguished from bataii, a 
woman of the Briihman caste. 

bayau ^"nfl", see boy". 

baye ^-ei (*R) l h^j^ m. (in Riim. 1486, bay ^^), 
fear, alarm, dread, apjirehension (Siv. 962, 1256, 1288, 
1648, 1758) ; righteous fear, the fear of God 
(K.Pr. 201). — dyun" — f^ I ^T^^TR. m.inf. 
to fill \vith fear, threaten, scold, make afraid (e.g. 
a stronger threatening a weaker, a parent scolding 
a child, a man frightening a beast), -hot" -^^ 1 
*rqT«iraf: adj. (f. -hiils" -^^ ), smitten by fear, terrified, 
frightened. -ha^ar -f^ I »T^Tfi^WH; m. a state 
of being smitten by fear, a state of terror, a state of 
fright. — hawun — ITfl. I H^TI^TJ^ m.inf. to 
.show terror (to another), to intimidate. — khyon" 
— ^13% I H^TJH^: m.inf. to eat fear, to be frightened 
at anything, to exjterience a sensation of fear, -rost" 
"K^ I t'n^: adj. (f. -riibh" -TW)> fearless, without 
fear (Siv. 1732) ; not causing fear, not frightening, 
not formidable. — rozun — T^'IT'l^ I STTl^f^i: m.inf. 
fear to remain, a condition of fear previously caused 
(e.g. to a child or an opponent) to continue ; having 
once experienced fear from any cause, that fear to 
continue for the future, -sost" -?Nl adj. (f. -sufeh" 
-^rW ), awful, terrible. — thawun — ^^^ I ^ftf^WfT- 
^^'l m.inf. to put fear, to put in fear, -^hath 
-W^ I T^Wlf: f. (sg. dat. -fehati -^fz), tossing up 
of fear, a sudden attack of fear, terror begotten by 
a mere apparition, or by the mere appearance of an 
enemy, etc. -vyot" -^g I «I^T^In!: adj. (f. -veb" 
-oEIt?), overcome with fear; in a state of terror owing 
to some previous fear. 

bayes-tal rozun ^^^-tt^ -^^si: 1 »T'«n^7ft»T^TR; 

m.inf. to remain subject to somebody under the 
influence of fear, to be in a state of terror (of some- 
body), -tal thawun -rit^ Mf^^ 1 ^t^t^^^^ttir 
m.inf. to put under one's influence by means of fear, 
to intimidate. 

baye 1 Wl^ I ^B*^f1T m. an elder brother ; met. any 
elder relation on the father's side. Cf. boy". 

baye 2 ^TT, bayi ^rf^, bayo W(^, see boy". 

beye 1 ^nr or biye l t%^ 1 ^: adv. again, once more 
(Gr.Gr. 94; K.Pr. 237; Siv. 916, 979, 980, 1341; 
W. 99, beyi; YZ. 15, 138; Ram. 1, 84, 85, etc.) ; 

For words coiituiiiing bh, eee under b. See article b. 

beye 2 ^RT 

149 — 

byakh sqri^ 

more. Conj. and, and also, also (Siv. 163, 799, 
YZ. 82). Cf. byakh. — akh — ^^ pron. adj. 

one more. — keh. — ^^^ pron. adj. anything else. 
— ti — t^ eonj. moreover, and moreover, and what's 
more. — yun" — f^«T m.inf. to come again, to 
return (El.). The word is properly dat. of bi, q.v. 

beye 2 ^m, biy t%^, biyau t^^, biye 2 t^, 
biy' f^^, biyi mf^, see byakh. 

biyo f^^ in -biyo -fw^^ l sfV^'lf^^: m. a certain 
game played by pairs of little girls. They stand 
facing each other with their feet close together, and 
firmly holding each other's hands. Then both lean 
backwards as far as they can, and whirl round in 
a circle with their feet as pivots. 

biy*' fw^ , see byuy". 

boy 1 ^^, even I, see boh. 

boy 2 1^, if I, see b6h. 

boy 3 ^^r ( =y_) or boy 1 Wt^ I ^'T'^: f. a bad smell, 
the smell of anything decaying or rotten, a stink. 
— tulun*^ —3^'^ I f^'^f^T^;'^ f.i'if- to give forth 
a stink, to stink (esp. of something rotten or decaying). 
— WOthun*' — I'^i'sr 1 ^jf^^^: f .inf. a stink to arise, 
as ab. — yin" — f^f\ ' ^'I'*?r¥^' fii'f- id- 
boy 2, see boy". 

boy" ^f^ I VTTt^ m. [spelt boi, K.Pr. 34, 130, and boij 
YZ. 436; sg. dat. bbyis ^t1%I^ (K.Pr. 134), ag 
boy* ^T^, abl. bayi Tif'T, gen. boy^-sond" 'w\^ 
^ne" (Riim. 509, 510, 894; cf. bayyun" bel), voc 
baye ^^J^^ or bayi ^it^ (Gr.Grr. 99, Siv. 1482 
Earn. 1161, the bdi/ih of K.Pr. 29) or bayau ^J^^\ 
(Gr.Gr. 99) ; pi. nom. boy' ^T^ (SIv. 1520, 1790 
boi/ of YZ. 109), dat. bayyen or bayen ^T^s^ 
Tifj^^^ (Siv. 41 ; bdi/aii or bayyen of YZ. 97, 138, 372, 
452), ag. and abl. bayyau WT^ {bai/'ev of YZ. 84 
103), gen. bayyen- or bayen-hond° ^7^Jpj.-f^ 

voc. bayo TRJt (YZ. 98)], a brother, whether 
uterine or a step - brother, cf. boy'-baran* bel 
met. a near relation, a clansman (Siv. 41). When 
opp. to kakh, q.v., it means a younger brother, 

cf. bayyun bel. ; of. also baye 1. 

boy^-bb ^^-^T I ^^iTK'' m- " brother ba ", the 
name by which the letter V{ bha is called in Kashmiri. 
This letter is pronounced ba in that language, and is 
80 called to distinguish it from "Sf or ba proper. In 
the Sarada and Nagarl alphabets it immediately follows 
«T ba in alphabetical order. Cf. bubbo, the name 
of ba. -bod° -^H' m. brotherhood, commeusality, 
partnership (Gr.Gr. 144). Cf. bbj'-bod" under boj". 
-bene -'SH^ 1 >^fW<ft f. the sister of a brother ; hence, 
a woman who has a real brother, i.e. a brother 

of excellent reputation, endowed alike with virtue 
and with fortune, -baran* -^T^ I m^^: 
a collective name for a number of uterine brothers 
(YZ. 438, 453, Eilm. 332, 443). Cf. baran'. The 
opposite is ora-boy", a half-brother by the same 
father (YZ. 84, 97, 103, 138, 452). -kakan -^TRi-ST 
or bay*-kakan ^t^T-^T^'I 1 HTrlxn^ f. a brothei's 
(usually an elder brotlier's) wife, a sister-in-law 
(Ram. 510). -lala -^?IT I ^^hI' »*Tm m. an 
honorific term for one who is at once an elder brother 
and distinguished by virtue, -ton" -^T 1 fTJ^^*^ m- 
the relationship of brother, brotherhood (Gr.Gr. 143) ; 
met. brotherly conduct, respect, or affection shown by 
one who is not necessarily a brotlier. -wol" -^^ I 
'arrd*!?!!; m. (f. -wajen -^TW^I), one who possesses 
a brother or brothers. 

bayyun" ^T^ or bayun" ^T^^ adj. (f. bayyiin" 
^ai^j or bayiin" ^T^'s? ), of or belonging to a 
brotlier ; esp. when the brother is a person specially 
referred to, and the word is used instead of or partially 
representing a proper name, of or belonging to brother, 
cf. K.Pr. 251, where bdyinih seems to be for bayini, 
masc. sing. abl. Here the word is opposed to hlkun, 
of or belonging to an elder brother. Cf. kakh. 

buy ^^, even I, see boh. 

biyaban ^jIjI-j m. a desert, a wilderness (Riim. 1326). 

byuc" 1%^ I ff^^: ni. (sg. dat. bicis f^rf^^), a scorpion. 

bic'-zbfe" t^^-gjf^ I TTCtq^n^f^HT^: adj. e.g. 

scorpion - natured, malignant, malicious, spiteful, 
maleficent. -toph -Z^B I Tf^^^lf: f. (sg. dat. 
-topi -Zt^), the sting of a scorpion; met. a secret 
malignant act. 

bayih, see boy". ^ 
beyak, see byakh. 
beyuk" ^^ I T.WT'a^'^ adj. (f. beyiic*' ^1^)' ^^ 

byakh ^^rni, byekh ^^ (H. viii, 1), or bekh ^^g 

(H. viii, 1 ; xii, 4) | ^XT^: pron. adj., e.g. [cf. Gr.Gr. 52; 

declined as follows : sg. dat., e.g. biyis t^f^^; ag.m. 

biy' fsrt?!, f- biyi t^f^i; abl. biyi f^f^ or (Gr.Gr. 94, 

153) biye f^^ ; gen. an. (rarely inan.) biy'-sond" 

t%^-#^ or bey-sond" 3g^-4^ (f. -sunz" -^1^). 

inan. (rarely an.) beyuk" ^T^^ (f. beyiic" sjj^ ) ; 

pi. nom. m. biy f^'^ or biy* f^^, f. biye t^^i or 
(e.g.) beye ^if^ ; dat. e.g. biyen fw^^ ; ag. and 
abl. biyau f^R^ ; gen. biyen-hond" f^^«(_-f^ 
(f. -hiinz" -■fsf )], another, other, different (Siv. 618; 
K.Pr. 242, sg. dat. written biyih) ; the other (Siv. 
1441) ; another one (pi. some), more, additional (Gr.M.). 
W. (34) spells tills word beyak and (137) beyak. 

For words coutuiuing bh, «ee umkr b. See article b. 

bay'-kakan ^t?-^T^^ 


byol" ^'5r 

-trakh -■^rr^ l ^Tn::^f%fi; pron., indef. adj., e.g. 
(sg. dat. biyis-triyis fsrf^-f^f'TO;, fi"d so on, like 
byakh), anj-one else, someone else. byakh"y ss4i«g^ 
adj. (declined as above with y '^ added), altogether 
different ; met. different from everything else, un- 
surpassed, beyond comprehension (K.Pr. 60). 

This word byakh is really an irregular compound 
of bi (q-v.) and akh, one. The obi. cases are those of 
bi, without akh, to which the empli. particle y has 
been added. 
bay'-kakan 4'^-eRT^^ l 'JT^JWr^ f. a brother's wife, 
a sister-in-law. Cf. boy'-kakaii under boy^ 

bay'-kakane-ton" ^^-cST^-si-jrtg i vT^wniTffff: 

m. the relationship of sister-in-law (brother's wife) to 
any person (male or female) ; met. conduct as such, 
conduct (affection, etc.) of another woman similar to 
the conduct of a sister-in-law. 
byol" ^^ I ^\wi m. (biol of L. 463 ; sg. dat. byblis 
^f%^ (Siv. 929) or belis ^f^^; ag.bybl' sjtt^ or 
bel' %^; abl. byali 5!rrf% or beli f1%, and so on), 
seed-grain, seed (K.Pr. 187, 193 ; Siv. 928, 1110, 1.530, 
1678 ; Ram. 617, 826, 1504, 1512) ; semen ; insect 
eggs, fish-roes (owing to their resemblance to minute 
seeds), -kllk" -'araim. the cuckoo, so called from its 
cry being heard at seed-time, in spring (EL). 

bel'-basta ^^-^^ l ^gjy^f%^^: f. a seed- 
bundle, the bag or membrane containing eggs, in the 
case of certain insects ; similar collections of granu- 
lations in disease, -daue -^»f I ^'^WtQ^t'lVRff^ 
m. seed-paddy, seed of the rice-plant reserved for 
sowing, -dur" -^^ I ^■^^TmtWtr^rW^SRW^: m. lit. 
a seed-bed ; hence, the amount of paddy-seed required 
for sowing the plot of ground used as a seed nursery. 
-diij" -^ I ■^H^^^'^'frt: f- lit. a seed-field ; a plot 
of unirrigated land in which .spring crop (barley, 
wheat, etc.) or an autumn crop [mung, etc.) have 
been sown broadcast, and before the seeds have 
sprouted. -gofe" -M^ or bybl'-gofe** «!Tf'^-»^ I 
^^jf^«liT f-i lit. a seed-berry, a collection of seeds, 
etc., as e.g. the bag of eggs of certain insects, the 
seed-pod of a plant containing many minute seeds, 
the roe of a fish, -lyol" -^5r or bybl'-lyoP =!TT'^- 
^^ I ^Bl^^rf^^^: m. a jar in wliich seed-grain is 
soaked before sowing (see the next) ; met. a hole or 
pit packed tightly with a large nimiber of articles. 

-mbnd'' -i^ or bybr-mbnd** ^t^-?H^ i ^^n^^^: 

f. (sg.dat. -monje -J^sg), the root of a kind of pot-herb 
(? a kind of cabbage) which is planted again, and 
from the sprouts issuing from which seeds are propa- 
gated. -tom4 -^J^^ or bybr-tom*l 5!rrf%-cqi'»^^ i 

»T^^1%^^' ™- 9- certain kind of rice. Before sowing, 
seed-paddy is soaked in water till it begins to sprout. 
Wlien the sowing is completed, any seed-grain that 
remains over is parclied and pounded for food, and is 
called by this name. It is thus a kind of malted 
parched grain. Cf. the preceding, and byali 

anun bel. -wahekh -^IT^ or bybl'-wahekh 
sJTT^-^H^^ I ^3i^i?^T^: 111- (sg. dat. -wahekhas 

-^U'^^), ' sowing -AVahekh ' (Skt. Vaisiikha), the 
month (April— May) in whicli paddy is sown, -waph 

-^■PB or bybl'-waph ^^-^T^ I ^w^PTOJT^: m. 

(sg. dat. -wapas -efllfl,), seed-sowing, esp. the season 
for sowing paddy (commencing with the sun's entry 
into Taurus, and continuing for forty da3's until 
the .sun's entry into Gemini). -wapas-kyut" 
-■^rnR(,-f^cT I «n^<^IMH^T iidv. in the sowing-season 
(as ab.), u.w. vbs. of coming, going, being born, or 
the like. 

beli khasun ^1% ^?ii; i ^TOTsfiJi^f: m.inf., lit. 

to ascend by seed ; to arrange, or j^'it in rows (like 
rice seedKngs) , to set a crowd of people in rows ; to 
put (papers, etc.) in proper order (for reading or the 

like). Cf. beli-wasun bel. — wasun — ^^M^ I 

TTfesfi^Tif i|(\y^: m.inf., lit. to descend by seed; to 
bring or select, anytliing in rows, i.e. one by one in 
proper order. Cf. beli khasun ab. 

byali anun ^rrt^-^^l I Tnftf^fTt^T^Pl m.inf., 
lit. to bring for seed ; hence, to jjrepare seed for 
sowing by soaking it in water so as to cause it to 

sprout. Cf. bel^-tom4 ab. ^bihun — f^^i; i 

«n^^lMi<^T^ m.inf., Ht. to sit by seed ; (a field) to be 
fruitful, every single seed coming to maturity. 

— byuth"-mot" — ^-'ig I ^Ri^JjfftF^aj: perf. 

part. (f. — bith^-miife** — ^^-jj^), (a field, etc.) in 
wliich not a single seed has failed, but in which each 
has come to maturity. — kadun — «fi^«i; I ^ift^lIJi; 
m.inf., lit. to bring out by seed ; to sow (a prepared 
field). — nerun — %^i. I ^T'Rwrqf^: m.inf., lit. to 
go out from seed, to be comjdetely sown (of a field). 
— WOth" — ^ I <<min ^q: perf. part. (f. — wbth** 
— 1W)> (of ^ field, etc.) specially fitted for being 
sown with seed owing to the fertile quality of its soil. 
— yun" — f%15 I ^xr^^iT^^m m.inf., lit. to come 
by seed ; hence, (of a field) to have been sown, with 
the seed which has just commenced to sprout. See 

bel^-tom4 ab. 

bybl'-did ^^-^f l ^^^^: m. a seed bull, 
a stud bull, a bull kept for breeding, -gbfe" -'^^ I 

^^jofitif: f., i.q. beli-gob*^ ab. -lyol" -^^ i ^^^z: 
m., i.q. bel'-lyol" ab. -mond" -#5 i^^^r^^n^: 

Fur words containing bh, see luuUr b. See luticle b. 

byumuk" ^sm^ 


bayath w^T^ 

f., i.q. bel'-mond" ab. -phol'* -liif i ^ira^?:, 

Tj^ ^^T*^ m. a small quantity of seeds (Gr.Gr. 164) ; 
the total quantity of seed from a single plant or 
flower ; a single seed. -tom*l -W^l^ I ^^TT^^- 

^jjf: m., i.q. bel'-tom4 ab. -wahekh -^ir^ i 
^^fH^^: m., i.q. bel'-wahekh. ab. -waph -^t^ i 
^wtfH^rra: m-> iq- belWaph ab. 
byumuk" «5TRgi, see bima. 

be-yiman ^.'^.^ <=r^ ^*^j- ^-g. without religion, infidel 
(K.Pr. 239) ; corrupt, faithless, perfidious, treacherous, 
dishonest, fraudulent. 

byon" ^ or byun'' f^g (e.g. H. vii, 3, 14) i fng^: adj. 
[sometimes written byonn" sqg, with m. sg. dat. 
benis ^f'l^ or bennis ^arfw^, ag. ben' ^^ or 
benn' ^^ (Gr.G-r. 26) ; sg. f. nom. b^n'' ^^], 
apart, separate (Siv. 1198) ; distinct from, other than; 
various ; adv. separately (Siv. 1427, benno, m.c. for 
byon°, 1563). -byon° -^ i 1v{tl ftTW»i: adv. 
separately, apart, variously (Siv. 843, 1203, 1579, 
1775) ; often used almost as an adj. as in byon" 
byon" raye ( different opinions (Gr.M. ; so 
Siv. 1134, 1755). -byon" gafehun -^ aiwi; I 
f^if\*<"4»!H ni.inf. to be torn, torn apart ; (of clothes) 
to be torn through being worn out. — kadun 
— ^^"l. I t*ra^«l!T'!r'^ m.inf. to separate, pull to 
pieces, -byon" karun -^ "^^.^ l ^ITZTJl m.inf. 
to separate, open out. -lej" -^5T | ^V7^>i||<^: f. cooking 
and eating apart from tlie other members of a com- 
mensal family. — Ishimun — W^T I ^TT^iUJH m.inf. 
to separate out, partition (joint family property, or 
the like). 

ben'-pbth' ^^-int? or -pbthin -Trrtz^ i l^r^rrar, 

fl^J^ adv. separately, apart ; apart, privately, secretly. 
bayan ^^Lj m. a declaration, assertion, statement ; ex- 
planation, disclosure, description (El.). — karun 
— ^i^'t, m.inf. to tell, relate, express ; to explain, make 
clear (EL). 

bayen, bay'an, bay'en mmh^ , and bayun" ^rrjj , 

see boy". 

be-byin ,-jT ,_j adj. e.g. unlawful, against the law 

biyen iw^^ , see byakh. 

biyun f%^ I xn^fTSTrtJIMpn: conj. 3 (2 p.p. biyyov 
f»f*qt^), to be or become stale or cold and tasteless 
(of cooked food), to be spoilt by being kept too long 
before eating (of something that should be eaten 
directly it is cooked) ; spoilt by being kept too long, 

so that it is dried up. Cf. byuy". biyyo-mot" 
fsi?5t-?T^ I f^TT^f^: perf. part. (f. biyye-miife" 

f%^-»^T?), stale (of cooked food); met. (of a man. 


woman, etc.) one for whom something (e.g. a marriuge 
or the like) takes place long after the usual time, 
period, or age for such a ceremony, etc. 

bbyun "Sf^^ i ^(^ef: conj. 2 (only used in the 
imperative and benedictive moods, and then u.sually 
referred to the verb bovun, q.v.). Thus, boyyekh, 
maj'st thou be (prosperous, and so on) (ben. sg. 3) : 
boyin, let him be (prosperous, etc.) (impve. sg. 3). 
(Cf. Gr.Gr. 247 and 252.) 

bayinih, see bayyun", under boy". 

bayanakh ^"jthi'I i ^ft^xir: adj. e.g. (as subst., m. 
sg. dat. bayanakas ^^'l^i^), fearful, terrible, 
dreadful, formidable. 

byonn" ^^, see by on". 

be-yinsbfi ^UaJ^ «=■? f- injustice (Gr.M.). 

be-yintiha \^1 ^—j adj. e.g. without limit, endless, 
boundless, infinite (Gr.M.). 

biyenawun f^^^^i; i Tr^ftfft^TWri; conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

biy enow" 'N^I'ft^) , (of cooked food) to make stale, to 
let get cold and tasteless ; to make a person permanent 
in any position by dint of long occupation, to allow 
a person to gain a right to a post by long service. 

byor" sgY^ i t%^^: , ^xr^j^^foripi: m. a cat (mostly 

vill.). The cross-bar joining the two upright posts 
of the wooden contrivance for drawing water from 
a well. Cf. bror" 1 and 2. 

biyer t%^ZfT I ^T^f^Wl m. staleness, the condition of 
cooked food allowed to grow cold and tasteless 
(Gr.Gr. 138) ; met. a long time occupied, or long 
delay occurring in any business. — lagun — ^TTt, I 
^^^f%^f^'f7f> m.inf. delay to occur in the carrying 
out of anything which it was hoped to complete 
quickly (e.g. a/iiiarriage). 

biyis t^t^, see byakh and byuy". 

bbyis ^1^, see boy". 

bey-sond" ^-^^ I T'TT^^'^ adj. (f. -siinz" -H^), 
see byakh. 

byot" "SQ^ I ^TJi^f : adj. (f. befe" ^^)> one who is (esp. 
by birth) of feeble and emaciated body, a weakling. 

Cf. byuls". 
byuth" ^ I ^ti^?t: adj. (sg. dat. bithis ^f^^; 
f. sg. nom. bith" ^^, dat. beche ^m) (1 p.p. of 

behun, to sit, q.v.), seated, sitting ; settled, settled 
down, fallen in (as a roof, etc.) ; sitting idle un- 
occupied, idle (K.Pr. 33) ; (of land) fit for cultivation 
or once cultivated and now fallow, cf. bith**. 
bayath ^^^ ( = l::..s*-j), f. (sg. dat. baybfe*^ ^^i|[), 

the act of promising obedience ; submission, obedience, 
allegiance ; initiation as a disciple of a saint or 
religious guide. — din'^ — t^^ I tlT^Tjfi^ f.inf. to 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

bayeth ^^^^^ 

152 — 

bbz' 1 ^^ 

initiate a disciple, etc.; hence, to initiate, to teach 
a person what to do and wliat to avoid in any business 
or course of conduct. — waniin*' — '^'^'%, ' ftf^- 
W^W??; f.inf. to utter words of initiation ; hence, to 
give verbal instructions as ab. 

bayeth w^^^ i ^^^t^^TfT: f. (sg. dat. bayiib" W^^), 

a lucky tlirow (of dice or the like). 
byuth"-mot" ^f^-'Tf i fTtWs: perf. part. (f. bitb^- 
miils" w1^-?T^, sg. dat. beche-mabe ^©-»t^; 

perf. part.of behun or bihun, q.v.), seated; idle, 

unemployed ; settled, cleared (of a muddy liquid, etc.). 
bayetal ^■^7\^ I ^m ^^ST'^ft adj- e.g., (of dice, or 

the like) lucky, one that usually gives lucky throws. 

Cf. bayeth. 
byufe" f^^ I ^m: adj. (f. bib" 1%^), emaciated, feeble. 

Cf. byot". 
bay'ev, see boy'', 
byuy" 1^•^ l ^vf^^({^. adj. (m. sg. dat. biyis t%f%i^; 

f. sg. noni. biy" tw^), (of cooked food) stale, allowed 
to get cold and hence tasteless, kept over-night or for 
longer so that it has dried up. Cf. biyim. 

bayyau ^t^, bayyen wm^^, bayyun" ^T^, see 

byaz =!>T?^ I ^^^fl; f- interest on money, usury. 

bayaz ^?rr^i_/5L^ l Wl'gf^tfiTft^^". f- an account-book, 

byaz*r «?n?IT I ^i^t^^ m. one who makes his living 
by interest, a money-lender, usurer. 

be-yizzati JU ^-j f. disgrace, dishonour, ignominy 
(Gr.M.). •" 

be-yizzath cljJs: ,—j adj. e.g. (as subst., sg. dat. be- 
yazzatas i^J^ -==■:)> without honour or dignity, 
disgraced; subst. m. (K.Pr. 90), i.q. be-yizzatl, q.v. 

baz Ijb adv. back; again (El.). 

baz 2 W[%j^, I ^flT^f^: m. playing, gambling ; esp. 
a single play in gaming, a single throw of the dice 
(Riim. 1351). pokhta bazah, a winning throw, 
kham bazah, a losing throw (Rilm. 298) . — ^pyon" 
—■0^5 I 1^?Tjl<J<!l*J*4T1*f: ni.inf. a throw (of dice) to 
fall; met. to come together (of a number of people 
who will help one to carry out something as one 
wishes to do it, e.g. in some domestic affair, the 
simultaneous arrival of a wife, sons, and friends all of 
whom are experienced in the matter). 

baza ^ar, see bod" 2. 

biz ^sr m. seed (Siv. 1126). 

biz** ^ar , see bed 2. 

boz ^5J I ^^: m. an arm, esp. a large, well-formed 

an^ (Siv. 1510). 
boza ^51, see b6d" 2. 



boza ^aj h-.aJ I J^'^m^ m. liquor made from grapes, 
molasses, rice, barley, etc. ; wine, beer, -gor" -^TIJ I 
»T3jf^%fTT m. (f. -giir" -'i^), a dealer in or seller of 
this beer. The fem. indicates a female dealer ; 
a dealer's wife is -gar'-bay -^t^-^T^- -gar'-wan 

-l^-^^Pl. I 'Tt^TJHMT<(»<*SIT»T*l m. a place where this 
liquor is prepared or sold. 

boze ^55, see bod". 

boz' 1 ^rrtllt/jV ' W^'l' 'TT^T, ^7TTff%: play, sport, 
game, trick ; doing, carrying out any profession ; 
gambling (Siv. 1015, with allusion also to the following 
meaning); swindling; conjuring, legerdemain, magio 
(Eiim. 905); deceit (Riim. 164, 361, 1171); illusion 
(Eilm. 25, 1611, 1732). —din" — f?^ I If^^m f.inf. 
to give deceit, to trick, swindle, -gar -TT f \^'\^ ^^ 
-gar -^TK (eg- Siv. 1644) i ^^wrf%^:, ^^^•^•. m. (f. 
-garin -TfT^T, -garen -TfT^a?), one who exhibits 
feats of legerdemain or activity, a tumbler, rope- 
dancer, juggler, conjurer (W. 140, K.Pr. 41); one 
who swindles, a swindler, cheat (K.Pr. 29, Siv. 1644, 
lliim. 1317, 1785). The fem. indicates a female who 
does these things, -gari -TtI' or -gori -illl'^ | 
fHf^Jofigfri:, ^'jf^f^: f- the profession or practice of 
conjuring ; the profession or practice of swindling. 

-gar-pbth*r -^-irr^ or -gar-pbth^r -^nr-^T^ i 

^^Wrt^^^frT: m. the profession of a conjurer, etc., 
the practice of conjuring, etc. ; conjuring, legerdemain; 
genl. deceiving, swindling. — khefi." — WT^ I ^^•tl- 
•nr^: f.inf. to eat swindling, to be swindled (Gr.M.) ; 
met. to swindle oneself, to make a careless mistake in 
any action. — khariifi." — ^TT^ I ^ qTTt^tft «ft<«!J*(. 
f.inf. to cause the stake to rise; hence, beat an 
opponent in gambling (Riim. 1316). — khasUn" 
— ^^'ST I ^^ TTTTarm^lffT: f.inf. the stake to rise ; to 
be conquered in gambling, to lose the stake ; the 
carrying on (of worldly affairs) to rise, (of a house- 
holder) a well-conducted worldly life to be earned on 
(perhaps with a side-reference to losing the ' game ' of 
salvation, to which a worldly life is inimical). 
— lagiin"* "^""^ ' ^^g>T^: f.inf. swindling to 
occur, to be cheated, swindled (in buying, seUiug, etc.). 
— ^pakanawiin" — ti^^4^ i ^^wWT^l^^^ f.inf. to 
cause swindling to proceed; to make a di.screditable 
living by swindling. — pakiin" — V^ \ li^^Tfqif^I?^ 
f.inf. swindling to proceed ; a livelihood to be made 
by swindling. — pgn" — ^ I ^^t^W€Trf%: , grsnfTT: , 
lIHIMlr!: f.inf. carrying on to fall (to occur) ; the 
household affairs of a person to be carried on pros- 
perously owing to his having intelligent wife and 
children ; the stake to fall, to win in gambling ; 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 


bbz* 2 

— 153 

bdzun ^^«^ 

swindling to fall, swindling to become apparent, to 
find out that one has been swindled. — tariin" 
— WK^ I ^^^H'^: f .inf. to be swindled (in purchasing 
or the like), -tariin" -fTTT'^ I ^g^rTT^^I'i; f.inf. to 
swindle (in selling, etc.). 

baze - peth thawun ^T^-ui3 ^j«^ i f^^tt 

^'JTff^'R^Tf'TrC m.inf. to place upon swindling, to 
carry on (a business of buying and selling, etc.) in 
a s^vindling way, to conduct (a trade) dishonestly. 

-peth rozun -vr^ T^|f1 i W^TfWTf^fTi: m.inf. 

to remain upon swindling ; to habitually live in 
a swindling manner, to habitually practise swindling. 

bazi-pbth' wrfgi-Trr^ i mm(^^)^5^*i: adv. 

swindlingl}-, clieatingly, dishonestly, u.w. vbs. of 
making, carrying out, giving, speaking, etc. -rost" 

-T^ I if^fwftT: adj. (f. -riifeh*^ ''^)' ""'^^^ ^^ 

swindling, honest, an honest dealer ; (of things) 
honest, genuine, not ' made to sell '. 

bbz' 2 (=jlj), adj. e.g. one who avoids, shuns, is dis- 
pleased with a person. Only noted in K.Pr. 145, 
where it is used in contrast with roz'. 

bbz" ^oT , see bod 3 and bod^ 1. 

buz ^^ or >T?f^. iq- boz, q.v., but chiefly used in proper 
names ; dashe-buz ^lf-JT?f, the ten-armed, a N. of 
Siva (Si v. 521, 1688). 

buz* ^^ or buzy ^5? i mt^ adj. e.g. a sec. suff. 
meaning 'dependent on', as in ath*ri-buz', dependent 
on the wool-wonn (ath.'^r**), liable to be attacked by 
the wool-worm ; luka-buz*, dependent on people 
(lukh), belonging to other people ; k61ayi-buz*, 
dependent on a wife (kolay), having only one 
relation — a wife ; feura-buz*, dependent on a thief 
(feur), liable to theft (Gr.Gr. 161). -kath -^^ I 
^(IfVti:, ^Vt: ni. (sg. dat. -katas -^iZ^), a wretched 
son of dependence ; one who, owing to powerlessness 
of voice, weakness of body, feebleness of action, want 
of money, or the like, takes refuge with and makes 
himself subject to someone who has plenty of these 
qualities ; miserable, wretched. 

buz* ^fti, buz° ^51, buz" ^m , see bozun. 
baza-bata ^3(-^fT l ^s[«Tf%^^: m. a certain dish, rice 

fried with spices in ghl, oil, etc. 
baza-baz ^3l-^5[^ l fM<«Tl<,M^m«fi: f • a continual frying, 

a general frying where a number of dishes are all 

being fried at the same time, owing to their all being 

immediately required. 
buzdil Jjp adj. e.g. timid, faint-hearted, a coward 

(GrM., EL). 
buzag ^5jJr m. a snake, a serpent (Skr. bhujaga). 

Its gen. sing, is buzagun" (K.Pr. 122) (?). 


buzagendrahar ^5i»i^'^i<,, i.q. bujagendrahar, q.v. 

ba-zakhmi ^Sl'a^fl' ( = j^:i-j), wounded, hurt (Riim. 

buza-mor" ^?I-»T^ l ^f : m- burning, scorching (of 
garments, cloth, etc.). — gafehun — TW't I ^J^- 
H^«m m.inf. to be burnt or scorched as above ; also 
of the human body (esp. the belly or other part of the 
trunk) being burnt or scorched. — karun — '^•l, I 
f^?Tl»!i; m.inf. to burn or scorch garments, clothes, 
or another's body. 

buz"-mot" ^3f-*f<T, buz"-inufe" ^5i - -f^^, see bozun. 

bazin, see bazyun" 1. 

bazun 1 ^^^i; i %fmcfi: conj. 1 (1 p.p. boz" ^3i, 2 p.p. 

bazov ^sJt^), to cook in hot oil, to fry (esp. vegetables 
and the like). The procedure is to plunge the articles 
into heated ghl and stir tbem about with a ladle. 
It is hardly the same as our frying. Cf. bazyun" 1 
and Gr.Gr. 117. 

boz"-mot" 1 ^f-^ij I %fqTf^»T: perf. part. (f. 
buz"-mu1s" 4a! - '^^ ) , cooked in hot oil, fried. 

bazun 2 ^^^r, i ^f^^^?: conj. 1 (1 p.p. boz" ^^,2 p.p. 

bazov ^alY^), lit. to divide, distribute, allot; hence, 
to lay out money in invitations to festivals ; to give 
away rewards or presents on birthdays and similar 
occasions of rejoicing ; to put down the stakes in 
gambling ; to put down money in compensation for 
losses, etc. -lazun -'5T315^ | g^^Tf^^J^fTT^ m.inf. 
(among relations or friends) mutually to give and 
receive presents on the birthdays of each other's 
children and similar festivals. 

boz"-mot" 2 4f -»T^ I ■Hf^'fT: perf. part. (f. buz"- 
mufe" 5(51 -JT^), lavishly distributed in presents, etc. 

bazun 3 ^^•^ conj^, 1 (1 p.p. boz" ^sr, 2 p.p. bazov 

H^^), to serve, honour, revere, love, adore (Gr.Gr. liii). 

boz"-mot" 3 45r-?T5 perf. part. (f. buz"-niufe'* 
^gj-?1^), served, revered. 
bizan f^^^ ^jj I ^Tf ITR, m. lit. imiierat. ' strike ', 
' slay', hence slaugliter ; used in the follo^ving : -beg 
-^3? >— ^ UJJ I WI»1«tR*ri5U: m. an executioner ; 
an official flogger, or officer appointed to carry out 
sentences of flogging. 

bozan, see buzan. 

bozun ^fi: I ^^PRR; conj. 1 (1 p.p. buz" ^, 2 p.p. 

bozov ^^^; conj. part, buzith Wf?J^, Gr.Gr. 104; 
freq. part, buz* buz* ^^ ^t?> i^. 105), to understand 
(YZ. 197, 198, K.Pr. 234, W. 136); to regard, 
consider (Siv. 1753), reckon ; (usually) to hear, listen 
to (Siv. 6, 92, 93, 1 13, etc. ; YZ. 1, 10, 22, 31, 182, 229, 
247, 260, etc. ; K.Pr. 34, 234) ; to hear of, hear con- 
cerning (anyone or anything) (YZ. 135). buz"-mot" 

For words containing' bh, see iindor b. See article b. 

buzan ^sr^j^ 

— 154 — 

bazM ^T?r^ 

Wf-^?W I ^71^^: peif. part. (f. buz"-mub» ^|;-?T|^), 

inTderstood, lieard, etc. (YZ. 455) ; esp. heard or 
known before, already heard, bozan-wol" Ttsi'l- 
^^ I ^X!^ m., (f. -wajeii -TT^T^), one who 
understands, hears, etc. ; esp. one who is by nature 
accustomed to consider, to act with understanding and 

bozana yun" ^sj^ t^j i f1%'fr=^T^^'^ m.inf . 
the pass, of bozun, to be intelligible; esp. to be 
visible (Siv. 665) ; to be seen (Siv. 85, 241). This 
verb in the pass, rarely means ' to be heard '. 'To 
be heard ' is generally expressed by a periplirasis, such 
as bozanas andar yun'^, to come into hearing 
(Gr.Gr. 169). 

buzith dyun" ^fai^ f^j i i^'^^■^ twr^Ril m.inf. 
ha\'iug understood to give ; to give or divide out 
inteUigently, so that the proper persons receive the 
proper shares. — hyon" — fTJ I ^WT'l^f : m.inf. 
having understood to take ; in tuking shares of any- 
thing, to claim one's proper share. — khyon*^ 
— ^f I ^V^3f%: m.inf. lit. having understood to 
eat ; to vie with, emulate, rival, cope with, confront, 
withstand, oppose, resist. — nyun" — f'T'T I ^^TT- 
^[Jf^'. m.inf. having understood to take ; the converse 
of — dyun", intelligently to take one's proper share 
in the division of joint })roiierty. — thawun ~^5'l. 
m.inf. to consider, to understand (Gr.M.). 
buzan ^5r«l^ or bozan ^rtajsT i »f|^R5Ff m. cooked food, 
victuals, a dish of food, meal (.Siv. 108, 1042, 1071, 
1084) ; a feast (El., who spells the word liOzaii). 
— karun — ^^l^ l ^g'Jjfk: m.inf. to eat, partake of 
food, make a meal. 

buzun ^^sj; i J^^^ui; conj. 1 (1 p.p. buz" ^gj, 2 p.p. 

buzov ^^^), to parch or roast (esp. grain or meat 
over heated sand) ; to roust (L. 463 ; K.Pr. 168, 
huzayih for buzaye, 2 p.p. f.), to bake, cook (K.Pr. 
38), fry (El. apparently, in tlie last sense, by confusion 
with bazun). buz^-mot*^ ?f '"f? ' f^: perf. part, 
(f. buz^-miib" ^^-JT^), roasted,"" parched, as ab. 

bazan-bana ^ajsj^-^i^T i %fHT^wtf»ixTrw»T; ni. a vessel 
in which things are cooked in hot oil, a frying-pan. 
See bazun. 

bozan-bana Wt?I'i:-^Tr l ^cmian^d T m. lit. a con- 
sideration-dish ; hence, the nature of one who is 
habitually a considerer, judiciousness, a discerning 
nature, habitual prudence or wisdom. 

buzan-bror" ^si^l^-wY^ I t^:^xirJT m. complete dis- 
appearance (as of the simultaneous disappearance of 
all the company assembled in a room, or of all the 
contents of a pile of any articles). 


bozan-har ^SJ'^.-IT^ I '^T^IIff^; e.g. one who is by 
nature a good listener, j udicious, discerning, prudent. 

bizanan fW^Hi: I '^rrf^^ f^tlTrf: f- the act of dragging 
and violently hurling or thrusting something (such as 
a pole or the fist) down into a hole or down to a lower 

level. Cf. bizan. 
biz^nun tw^mi: i t%qTfTi»i: conj. 1 (1 p.p. biz^n" 

•f%3l«l), to drag and violently hurl or thrust anything 
(such as a pole or the fist) down into a hole or down 
to some lower level. Cf. bizan. biz°n"-mot" t^5R- 
»Tg I w^f^t^Ti: perf. part. (f. biz"n"-mufe*' f%5(^- 
JTW)> dragged and liurled down, as ab. 

bozanawun ^srsrr^'^ I ^T^WI ^onj. 1 (1 p.p. boza- 
now" Tt^iiftf ; pres. part. m.c. bozanawan ^^- 

•rrWI.; Siv. 1652), to cause to understand, to instruct, 
explain (Gr.M.) ; to persuade, advise (Siv. 8^31, Gr.M.) ; 
to cause to hear, to tell someone about something 
(Siv. 41, 691, 842) ; to cause to be heard (Siv. 1389) ; 
to narrate, tell (Siv. 1652). b6zan6w"-mot" ^31- 
^f-'i? I ^TfwfT: perf. part. (f. bozanow^-miife'^ 

^gi»fW-jT^), caused to understand, hear, etc.; esp. 
(of a story, etc.) caused to be heard, told, narrated. 

bozanawan-wol" ^5I5it^5i;-^^ i ^'su^•^'., m^^^^. 

m., (f. -wajeii -^SBfST), one wlio causes to hear, 
a narrator, teller, informer. 
bazar ^3R; {= j\j\i) \ f^qftsr: m. a street with shops 
in it, a market, market-jjlace, bazaar, mart (YZ. 40, 
253, where the word is spelt bazar, in imitation of 
Persian; K.Pr. 78, 103, Siv. 1211, 1808). In Siv. 
1566 bazar also occurs ni.c. in the sense of market, 
i.e. traffic of the market. — afeun — W^^ I ^TOTft^: 
m.inf. to enter the bazaar ; esp. to waste one's money 
in bazaar enjoyments, to lead a dissolute life, -banga 
-■^1 I ^IWIi^f*!^*!' f- !i certain food grain, a kind of 
millet, akin to bdjrd {Paidciim xpicufiiiji or P. italicum). 
— faanun — ^T^l l ^WMT^^^ti; m.inf. to cause to 
enter the bazaar ; to induce (a respectable youth) to 
lead a profiigato life ; to seduce to dissoluteness. 
— WUChun — "^^^ I TWrTt^^SR m.inf. to look at 
the bazaar ; to ascertain the mai'ket rate of anything, 
to test the value of anything by comparison with the 
market price. 

baz^r' ^Tsr^ ( = ^}j^.) i w^TOT>inrTWlf%: adj. e.g. of 

or appertaining to the bazaar ; easily to be bought 
anywhere in the bazaar ; hence, ordinar\-, common ; 

low, vulgar. — bata — ^^z I w?rff%: m- (f • — batan 

— 'WE'^^), a bazaar brahman ; met. one who lives 
a double life, outwardly polite and respectful, but 
inwardly- deceitful and guileful. Tlie f. is a woman 
of this character. — jOsh — aftlT | ^nrt^^rw: m. 

Fi.r wolds coiitainiug bh, see under b. See ai'tielu b. 

baz5r ^rgrtr 




bazaar ebullition ; met. external brave show of some- 
thing essentially worthless. 

bazdr ^sft^ (ci.jjjj), adj. e.g. forcible, exercising force, 
mighty, powerful (Siv. 677). 

bezar ,^,— j adj. displeased, vexed, out of humour. 
— gabhun — ^rWI I ^JTI'^T^'TJI: m.inf. to become dis- 
pleased, out of humour with (e.g. with a child or 
a servant). 

buzurg fc_f, ;j adj. e.g. great, reverend, noble (El.). 



f. greatness, grandeur, glory, nobility (El.). 

buzith ^t^^fidj. e.g. roasted (L. 46;J). Cf. buzun. 

buzith ^fai^, see bozun. 

bezuv'' 3151^ I t«i:HT»T^: adj. (f. bezuv" ^stg ), without 

Hfe ; hence, weak, unfit for work, unable to do one's 
work (e.g. of a servant or beast of burden). 
buza-wlgun ^^-^aj^i; i ^l^f^^; m. a ceitain dish, 
the fruit of the egg-plant roasted and served with 

bozawun'^ ^^J^ i ^^<Tr m. (f. bozawun" ^5i^^), 

one who hears, a hearer (Siv. 695), one who is by 
habit a good hearer, or who by habit pays attention 
to and considers advice offered to him (Siv. 906) ; as 
adv. even while hearing, immediately on hearing 
(Siv. 736). 
buzawan f^l^-sr^ l ^f?T(^rT*r)f^^'B[: f. the wages paid 
for roasting or jmrching (grain, etc.) ; the small profit 
made by buying something and simultaneously selling 
it to someone else, a kind of brokerage ; the com- 
niissiou or ' dustoorie ' taken by .servants. — kadufi" 
— ^^^ I ^rnif^^^^'ilf : f-inf. to draw or take such 

commission or ' dustoorio ' (lit. to deduct it from the 
money given for the jiurchase). 

buzy ^3?i, see buz^ 

bazyun" 1 ^i^ i ^f m^: m. (sg. dat. bazinis ^fsrfst^; 

a by-form of bazun, q.v., used as an abstract noun, 
Gr.Gr. 117, where the word is spelt bazyun), frying, 
cooking in hot oil. The articles (principally vegetables) 
are plunged into hot ghl, and stirred about with 
a ladle ; met. the oil used for such cooking (K.Pr. 67, 
132, bfizin). — dyun" — t^ I %? ^^^^. m.inf. to 
give such cooking, hence to cook in hot oil. — khyon" 
— '^•f I %^ TJ^11^«W; m.inf. to eat such cooking ; 
hence, to bo cooked in hot oil. — lagun — ^ft. I 
%I^1F\*I^T1 m.inf., id. 

bazin'-degul"^ ^t^-^jjg i %?qT^TiTf^^: m. 

a kind of large earthen vessel or jiot in which vege- 
tables, etc., are cooked in hot oil. -lej* -^^ I i^- 
TTraYWT f- id., but of small size. 

bazyun^ 2 ^i^^ I ^T^iiH^: m. (sg.dat. bazinis ^f'ra:), 

a certain vegetable growing wild in the forest, and 

said to have an acrid smell. 
bazaz ^^^ \\U I 'TZf^^nft m. a cloth-merchant, draper, 

mercer, bazaza-wan ^sn^J-TTI, "i- » draper's shop 

(K.Pr. 159), cf. bazoz>. 
bazoz^ «?3lTt5J ;_s'^j- I f^^'TZ^J^'i: m. drapery, linen- 
drapery, haberdashery, the stock-in-trade of a draper. 

bazazi-wan ^sitTsi-^ti^ I ^zf^^raT^JW: m. a haber- 

dasher}', a draper's siiop. Cf. bazaz. 

be-izzati ^jj^__ 
be-izzath c:j^<_ 

see be-yizzati. 
, see be-yizzath. 

For words containing bh, see under b. See article b. 

X 2 

C -% '^, CH ^ .^ 

Q » The second consonant of the Kashmiri alphabet 

in^the Roman character, the sixth when written in 
the Siirada or Nagarl character, and the eighth when 
written in the Perso-Arahic character. It has the 
sound of ch in the English ' church '. 

Its aspirate is ch ^ .^, the seventh consonant of 
the Kashmiri alphabet when written in the Silradil or 
Niigari character. 

A C or ch occurring in a Sanskrit or Hindi word 
is very frequently changed respectively to fe or feh 
in Kiishmlrl, which are in Nagarl commonly written 
^ and ff , and in Perso-Arahic ^ and ^. Thus, the 
Sanskrit candrah 'g^: becomes Kashmiri feand^r 
^^X;, aii<l the Hindi chhota becomes Kaslimlrl 
fehot" ^5. In fact, to J^ashmlrl ears, C is b 
followed by y, and ch is feh followed by y. In 
other words, to a Kashmiri, C ^ is really cy '^, and 
ch ^ is really chy 'SJ- It thus follows that many 
Kashmiris, when wiiting their own language in the 
Silradii or Niigari character, put no dot under ^ 
or ^, when these represent fe or Ish respectively ; 
but, on the contrary, represent C by '^ and ch by 
W- So strongly is the y-sound heard in these two 
letters by Kashmiris, that ca "^ is usually pro- 
nounced ce '^, and cha 1| is usually pronounced 
che W, ya "^ following a consonant being always 
sounded as e or ye (see article e) . Thvis, the word 
caras ^T^ i^ usually pronounced ceras ■^TX^, and 
the word chakun ^^'t, is usually pronounced chekun 
lgra«(^. In the Saradii or Niigiirl character, each 
method of writing each of these two words is equally 
common. In the Perso-Arahic character (in which 
the short vowels are generally omitted) this question 
of spelling hardly arises. Similarly, the word cara 
^■^ is quite commonly written cyara 'WTK., and 
chot" WH is equally commonly written chyot" ^pT. 
Again, the 1 p.p. of the verb chdrun Wt^t. should 
according to rule be chtir" W^, but we also find it 
written chyur'^ ^I^> which is liable to confusion 
with another chyur" 13^, the regular 1 p.p. of the 
verb chirun sgV^'l^, qq.v. 

Hence, if a word commencing with ce, cy, che, 
or chy is not found in this Dictionarj', it should be 



looked up under ca, C, cha, or ch, and vice versa 
respectively. Important words which have been noted 
as actually occurring in literature under both forms 
are as a rule given under both, with appropriate cross- 
references, each in alphabetical order ; but it will be 
understood that it would be impossible to give every 
word commencing with c or ch twice over, in its two 
different spellings. 
cai (K.Pr. c/m), i.q. cah^ q.v. 

ce ^ in ce ce ■^ '^, see cyon". 

ci f^ <is- pron., adv., and conj. what ? ; which, what ; as, 
because ; either, whether, or, even ; in Eiim. 573 ci 
is used in the sense of the Persian ,^>..>-, like, — ci 
guldasta, (the six seasons were standing together) like 
a posy. 

ci ^ m. onomat. in the following : — Cl-Cl karun ^-^ 
^^1; 1 ^t'l:^^^ ^;^^«^t%>irRfl[ m.inf. to utter 
rej^eatedly low sounds when crying, to sob. Cl karun 
^^^5^^ I ^x;1%^^'. m.inf. a certain sound, the short 
involuntary exclamation uttered, wlieu one is suddenly 
and unexpectedly pinched or the like. 

cob T^j"^ i-r'}^^ ™- a mace, a club, a stick ; met. a 
beating (EL, who makes the word f. ; K.Pr. 73, 81, 
85, 94, 171, 198; W. 141). In the latter sense the 
object beaten is put in the dative, as in hunis Cob, 
beating (given to) a dog (K.Pr. 85), zaminas Cob, 
beating the ground (K.Pr. 94). — din' — f^t^ ' 
rn^»1H 1^- pi- ^^f- to give sticks; to administer 
a thrashing, to wallop, flog, birch (esp. children in 
punishment). — khen' — Wt?T I rTr^STRTfTT: m. 
pi. inf. to eat sticks ; to be flogged, etc., as a punish- 
ment. -e-kor° ^t^-^^ J ^)T ™- ('^ spelling) 
a bitter root and tonic used in Kashmir for horses, 
and much exported, Picrorhiza Kiirroa (L. 75). 
-e-koth ^t^-15^ m. the aromatic root of the Jwih 
plant. Its sale is a state monopoly (L. 75, 77, 83, 
389, 418). See koth. 

cobukh 1 k_5ol>- m. (sg. dat. cabakas '^t^^;^;), a wliip. 

Cobukh 2, cabukh t_JoU- adj. e.g. quick, active ; adv. 

quickly (YZ. 493). 
cibol" t^T^^ adj. boyish, childish, puerile, only noted 

in the m. abl. sg. and in the following adverbial 

phrases : — 

For words not found under ce, che, chy, or cy, see under ca, cha, ch, or c respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

cobur ^^ 


cah' ^Ttl 

cibali cibali karun f^^Tt% f^Tf% ^^^i; i 

^TJ^^f^VRJ^ 111. inf. to show love to a child 
regardless of its conduct (whether it is naughty or 
not), to spoil a child with injudicious affection. 

—cibali gafehun _f^^-f% ^r^*!: I ^^^ ifxr ^jm- 

WmVf\'- ra.iiif. (of a child) to be petted or treated with 
affection (even when naughty), to be spoilt by injudicious 
affection so that he is encouraged in naughtiness. 

cobxir ^w^ m. (sg. dat. cobaras ^^r:^), a youtli, 

a young man between the ages of 16 and 30. 

c6b"r" ^^'^ I «T^t!i^ f. a young woman (esp. one who 
has not borne children) between the ages of 16 
and 30, who is characterized by good looks and 
becoming dress, cob^ri-mot" ^tT-'T^ I aifl^ m. 
' girl-mad ', madly in love at first sight with some 
particular girl ; lusting for a girl. 

caca ^'^ I ftl^^: m. a father's brother, a paternal uncle. 
The word is mostly used in villages or by Musalmans. 
-baba -'^^^ l qgfqfT^i: a father's elder brother ; also, 
a father's paternal uncle, a paternal granduncle. 

clce =^tNt, see cBt". 

cica f^^ or cice f^^ l ^'ff m. the bosom, esp. that 
of a young undeveloped girl. 

Cic'^ t^'g f. an event (El.). 

C5ca or c5ce ^'g ( = <if^) I ^T^f^^: m. a ladle or 
.spoon, made of wood when large and of beU-metal, 
etc., when small (El. spells this word cJwncJiih). 
— bazun — ^^^ I ^tMiBTTTfj?: m.inf. to wield the 
spoon ; to hold authority or possess the power of 
superintendence, esp. in distributing another's food, 

money, etc. -mar -JTT^ I »ft^'RTvrrt%>irr'T'^ m. 

'spoon-hitting', preventing another from completing 
a meal or finishing a dish. — sapanun — ^tf«T»(. 
or — sapazun — ^^"i; l ^^^fft*I^1^ m.inf. ' to 
become a ladle'; hence, to become shrivelled or 
withered, as of the hand or other limb owing to cold, 
of the face owing to grief or los.s, or of a flower, herb, or 
the like owing to the heat of the sun or to being broken. 

caca-mya-mya 'q^1f^-«rr-«rr i ^^^•^^TW't; m. 

spoiling a child by showing affection or praising it 
even when it is naughty. Cf. cibol". 
C6cur° tff^^ I ^^fvSJI«*iT^: m. adder's tongue (L. 1:1), 
a certain pungent herb growing wild in the forests, 
and used as a vegetable. It is described as having 
small leaves, and growing in the spring. cBcar^- 

hakh ^f^^-TT^ I «I'*<HJ1<*^: m- (sg. dat. -hakas 

-fRi^ ), id. considered as a vegetable. 
cicraharay t^^lK^ l ^Tnif«^: f. a scream arising 
from any sudden paiu. Cf. cicararay, cicararay, 
and chicharaharay. 

cicararay 'gINTTT? I '^^T^^: f- crying aloud from 
pain, groaning ; groaning in a state of prolonged 

unconsciousness. Cf. cicraharay, cicararay, and 

cicararay t^'^n;^ l ^^f^W^: f- groaning, moaning, 
usually the low moaning of a number of .starving 

people, esp. children. Cf. cicraharay, cicararay, 
and chicharaharay. 

cod ^5 I ^f'T^rfrwt f. iin immoral woman, esp. one 
who receives men only in her own house. Cf. bith-cod. 

c8d', f. silver (El.). 

caudol ^^■^l'?^ I ^JSfT^^: m. a kind of litter or sedan 
in which women are carried. 

caudas {jmJj>- (L. 271), the term used bj^ Kashmiri 
Musalmiiiis for the fourth day after a man's death, on 
which day a feast is given at the deceased's house. 

cudsu (?) (L. 258), the giving of presents on the fourth 
day after death. Cf. caudaS. 

cig ^^ m. the cone of a fir-tree (El.). 

COga ^Jf iJ^^:>- I ^■Rxi^^f^^aTi; m. a kind of cloak 
reaching to the feet like a dressing-gown. 

COgal* x|j|^ ^Lb^ I frj-g^Tfrr f. tale -bearing, back- 
biting, slandering, slander. 

COgul ^3[^ I >ilT3lfw^^: m. a kind of paddy bearing 
soft white rice. This rice is considered the best of 
all kinds, and is grown in Telbal on the Dal Lake 
(El. s.v. ddnyi and L. 333). 

COgul"^ 1?^ J^ ' ^^' '"• *^" informer, a spy ; a tale- 
bearer, a tell-tale. 

cah ^1 i\>. 1 ^»Wl m. a well (EL, YZ. 103, 214, 
396, 406) ; a pit (natural or artificial) (Riini. 958, 
1147). —galshun — Ifi; I tTTTWTT^^TfF: m.inf. 
go to a pit ; hence, to have one's life made a burden 
by another's abuse. -e zanakhdan e^'joc^; jLt- 
m. the hollow (or pit) of the chin (YZ. 214). 

cahas gafehun '^rr^^E^ ^^'^ i f'W f'l^nfT: m.inf. to 

go into a pit ; hence, to fall into or commit an 
unworthy action. 

cah^ ^t^, cahy ^ni, or cay ^T^i (also spelt cyah' 
"^ft. cyay '3im), f. tea (K.Pr. 39, Gr.M.). 
According to El. two kinds of tea are sold in 
Kashmir — Suratl and Sabz. Surati tea is like 
English tea, and Sabz tea is brick tea imported via 
Ladak and the Panjab. There are two ways of 
preparing tea in Kashmir. For mugal cah', five 
cups of water are poured upon a tola of tea. It is 
then boiled for half an hour, when more cold water 
is added, along with condiments and sugar, after 
which it is boiled for half an hour more. Milk is 
then added. It is now ready for drinking. Tlie 

B'or words not i'ound under o8, cM, chy, or oy, see under oa, oha, ch, or o resi)ectively, and vice versa. .See article c. 

ceh ^Tf 


chuh 1 ^f 

colour is reddish. The second mode of preparing tea 
is called shir' cah'. The tea is placed in the teapot 
with a little soda and water and boiled for half an 
hour, ililk, salt, and butter are then added, after 
which it is boiled for another half -hour, when it is ready 
for drinking. According to K.Pr. (I.e.) the salt used 
in the infusion of tea is called phul. It is found in 
the Nubra valley in Ladiik, and contains the carbonate 
and sulphate of soda and a little of the chloride of 
sodium, cah' kariin**, f.inf. to make tea (EL). 

caM-kosh" ^Tff-«fi^ I OlIWTT'^^'^ "i- tea-leaves 
which have been infused, ' tea-leaves.' -nbr" -»n^ I 
^=!nrnrf%^^* f- a teapot (wth a spout like the 
English vessel), the vessel in which tea is placed after 
it has been made (EL). 

cahyah '^TUTf or cyahyah ■'^mrrw f • a cup of 
tea, tea (the infused liquid) (Si v. 1824). This is 
cah^ mth suff. of indef. art., lit. ' a tea '. 

ceh "^if , see cyon''. 

chbch Wf^ I '^Ht%^^: f- a bramble ; a raspberry, 

l{iiln(s jiircii-s (Ij. 73, EL). This word is often spelt 

chanch or cane, 
chich-kufe^r" t^W-^i^^ I ^TT^I*»a|>^ f. a woman who 

is fond of ridiculing others, a silly jesting woman. 
chSche-put" Wt'^-^g l ^^^^r^ft^T^fiJ^ m. a kind of 

toy, a child's lattle. Ci. chatun. 

chichur twf t: I f^wTztw^^: , ^TTO^TJir: m. (sg. dat. 
chicharas twif-^^, ag. chich^ri f^^^, abl. 
chichari t^wfT; pi- uom. chichur' fl^ip^, dat. 
chicharen fi^i^-^'i;, abl. chicharyau tlfi^f), 

a boil, a pustule or swelling full of matter ; met. 
a small lump of fat mutton. 

chicharaharay t^^Tf tt^ I W^T^t: f- a short sudden 

cry of pain (e.g. when one is unexpectedly i^inched). 

Cf. cicraharay, cicararay, and cicararay. 

chuc"-mub" 'i? ^ - ji^ , see chakun. 

chacyov^^^, see chakun. chlcyov iff'^ft^, see 
chatun. chicyov f^^^, see chekun 2. 

chod ^ I JJJ^T f. (sg. dat. choz*i Bf^), hunger, 
desire for food ; craving genl. — yin*' — t^af I 
^WMllrMfrT: f.inf. hunger to come; a craving to 
arise (in one who is a slave to the habit) for snuff, 
bhang, opium, or other intoxicant. 

chadun iffsi: i TTfx;<?rR: conj. 1 (1 p.p. chod" ^^, 
f. child" ^^, chaje ^m; 2 p.p. chajyov 
^SjftW), to release, let go, dismiss (e.g. a man or 
beast from confinement or from work in which he or 
it is engaged). chod"-mot" li^-^TJ ( chud°- 
miife" ^^-*r^,pl. chaje-mafea s^w-jt^), perf. part, 
released, etc. 


chag ^^ or cheg W'l I ^HI*<«)c^TT f- sudden dispersal, 

rout, as when a crowd is suddenly attacked and 

scatters, or when a flock of birds rises and flies away 

on the approach of a human being (Siv. 1860). 

— din" — 'fe^ I OjTTT^T f.inf. to scatter,, 

^ -.- — ■■ I 

drive away, as ah. — lagun" — ^ai^f I f'RTlUllfTl' 

f.inf. to be dispersed, scattered, driven away, routed, 

as ab. — feaniin" — ^T^ I xi*!ll*<«l<<4ftH<I<(«»H 

f.inf. to cause an assembly or a Hock to suddenly 

.scatter, as ab. 

chag"r" wf"!^ ' ^^J"'- f- hurry, flurry in doing anj'- 
tliing (so as to get it done before anyone comes or 
sometliing happens). 

cheh ?af , chih 1 f^f , see chuh. 

chih 2 f^f I ^tj^^iTfT: f- (sg. dat. chish" f^^), 

a slight accidental blow (esp. of something -hard) on 
the edge or point of anything, a knock. 

chih 1 lf\f_ I '^^ f. (sg. dat. chish" ^\), a sneeze, 

chih 2 ^W f. a very small amount of anything, as in 
ash^ka chih, a very little love (H. vii, 30). 

chuh 1 ^?, \'b. subst. This verb is defective, being 
only used in the present tense and rarely in the 
imperative ; it is participial in form, being liable to 
change for gender. Its forms are 1 chus W^, 
2 chukh ^13, '■'> chuh ^f ; pi. 1 chih fl^f, 
2 chiwa f^^ (chiv f^^, m.c. in H. vii, 9), '6 chih 
figf ; 1 ches m^., ~ chekh igf^, o cheh ^f ; 
pi. 1 cheh ?6if , 2 chewa ^^, '■'> cheh iBff . The 
final h of the forms chuh, chih, and cheh is added 
only to aid proniniciation, and is dropjied before all 
suffixes, as in chu-na ^"T, he is not, chem 151*^, she 
is to me. When a suffix commences with a vowel 
the u of chuh becomes w, and the i and e of chih 
and cheh become y. Thus, chuh + a becomes 
chwa WT, is he ? and chih + a and cheh + a both 
become chya WH, are they (m.) ? is she ? or are 
they (f.) ? 

In H. vii, 9 a pres. cond. pi. 2 chiv t^^ occurs. 
For the other tenses of the vb. subst. the vb. asun 
(q.v.) is employed. 

Chuh is also employed as an auxiliary verb, 
forming, with the pres. part., a 2n'esent tense, as in suh 
chuh karan, he makes or is making, and, with 
the perf. part., a jjerfect tense, as in tam' chuh 
kor"-niot", he has made. In such cases verbal 
suffixes are added to the auxiliary verb and not 
to the participle. There is this peculiarity, that when 
this occurs the suffix of the agent case of the 2nd 
pers. sing, is generally y, not the th used with the 

Foi- words not found under ce, ohS, chy, or cy, see under ca, cha, ch, en- c respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

chuh 2 ^f 

— 159 — 



past tense. Tims, fee koru-th, thou madest, but fee 
chu-y kor"-mot", thou liast made. 

As a vb. subst. chuh is very commonly used 
with a dative of possession, thus providing Knshmlrl 
with a verb signifying ' to have '. Thus, me chuh 
or (with suffix) chu-m, there is to me, i.e. I have. 

Except as stated above in regard to the agent of 
the 2nd pers. sing., this verb takes tlie usual pro- 
nominal and adverbial suffixes. Thus, chus, I am; 
Chus-ay, I am for thee ; chukh, Ihou art; chukh-a, 
art thou ? chuh-an (for chukh-an) karan, thou 
makest him ; chuh-an-a karan, dost thou make 

him? ckwa (chuh + a), is he? chya (cheh + a), 

is she ? chu-na, he is not ; chu-na, is he not ? 
chu-y, he is to thee, or he is verily ; chu-y-e, is lie 
to thee ; chu-S, he (or there) is to him ; chi-s, they 
(m., or there) are to him ; che-na, she is not; che- 
na, is she not? che-y, she is to thee, or .^he is veiilj' ; 
che-y-e, is she to thee ? che-S, she (or there or 
they, f.) is to him, and so on. In H. xii, 6, chiy is 
used instead of chuy, he is verily. Cf. Gr.Gr. 189 
and Or.M. 

chuh 2 ^f m. onomat. the noise made in driving a 
horse, tchk (H. xi, 8). 

chuhan w^^ , chuhana WfT, see chuh. 

chahora ^i^T in the following : — batafi — ^rz'^ I 

^■fnf'ra^rT, ^^2T f. a shameless brilhman woman ; 

a woman of good caste who goes about openly in 

public and has no sense of modesty ; an unchaste 

woman of good famih^ Cf. chora. 
chaj 1 If^ I TlWtZ'f'H ni- * winnowing basket, a 

winnowing fan. 
chaj 2 W^ I ^^fT'Er: m. the crest of a bird. 
chaje-mafea ^jsi-??^, see chadun and chalun. 
chiij^-mufe" i^^- m\, see chalun. 
chajyov W5?ft^, see chadun and chalun. 
chik" f^^i, see chyuk". 

choka 1 and 2 ^^, see chokh 1 and 2. 
chuk° ^^i I ^cfi^'^J^ 111. a squirt, a syringe. 

chakh ^^ I Tfrnr:- f. (sg. dat. chaki ^f^), the 

spreading abroad of anything usually collected in 
piles or heap, e.g. dust or grain ; esp. the scattering 
abroad of seed-grain, sowing seed broadcast. Cf. 
chakun, atha-chakh, s.v. atha, and Gr.Gr. 12-5. 
chakh din" ^^ f^ I -R^xnTrii; f.inf. to sow 


chekh M^, chekha mw, see chuh. 

chekh %i3 I ^swtTTJiOT m. (sg. dat. chekas w^m^, 

a wish for gooil luck expressed when another puts on 
new clothes or ornaments for the first time. 


chikh tlf?l I %^: f. (sg. dat. chiki f^t^), sprinkling, 
the throwing a little water or other liquid to a distance 
(Gr.Gr. 125) ; cf. atha-chikh, s.v. atha. 
chika-chikh f^sR-tlf^ i ^Ttf^R f. mutual 

sprinkling of water, when two persons sprinkle each 
other or throw water on each other as ab. 

chokh 1 w^ I ^VTT m. (sg. dat. chokas w^m), slight 
washing (of a dish, a garment, etc.), rinsing out only 
with water (Gr.Gr. 123). — kadun — ^^i; I ^T^RJ^ 
m.inf. to rinse out with water. — trawun — "^T^'I, I 
"^T^RI^ in. inf., id. 

chokh 2 pf I sRSr: m. (sg. dat. chokas ifcfi^), a wound 
(K.Pr. It, 14(5, Ram. 187, 430, 529, eTc), a sore (esp. 
from a missile), a blow with eflii.sion of blood (El.) ; 
met. the blow or striking of a churning stick in milk 
(K.Pr. 174) ; 161a-ch6kh (pi.), the wounds of love, 
pangs caused by love (YZ. 451). — dyun" — f^ I 
^T!jf%\in«T'l m.inf. to wound (esp. by a missile). 

choka-dod ^^-^^ l ?Tf^H*l m- buttermilk churned 
without wafer. -lagay -^TT^ I 'S^Hlftr^T^I'l f- 
wounding oneself ; esp. the revengeful self-wounding 
done when a person is aggrieved by the action of 
another on whose head he intends that the guilt of 
causing the wound shall fall, -lakam -TiTT^l^ | ^T!?^- 
■gcTT efif^^fiT m. a thorn-bit (for horses). -lakafi 
-^^■^T I ^^Trr^TT f. persistent asking for anything 
(esp. by children who won't be satisfied with a refusal). 
Cf. the next, -phakir -'q^^ i ^fTTf^ t^T'^: m. 
an obstinate persistent beggar, who inflicts wounds 
upon his own person in order to terrifv people into 
giving him something, -phakiri -qi^V^ I f^fi^'^- 
^t^: f . the conduct of such a beggar ; leading the 
life of such a beggar. 

chukh wi, chukha w^. see chuh. 

chakhna, see cakhna. 

ch6k"j" ^^^, see chokul". 

Chokal ^^^1 slTfr^fi: adj. e.g. wounded, bruised (esp. 
of fruit or the like). Cf. chokalad. 

chokul" ^ff I ^TS: ^ft^^ tidj. (f. ch6k"j" ^^), 
clear and quick (of speaking, reading, singing, etc.) 
(Gr.Gr. 146). 

chokalad ^ofi^^ I ^mgw: adj. e.g. having a sore 
(Gr.Gr. 135, El.) ; wounded, lit. (e.g. of soldiers in 
a battle, or any other animate creature), or met. (YZ. 
149, the heart). Cf. chokal. 

chokalun ^^f^ I ^^IfTfwa^H^'T'l conj. 3 (2 p.p. 
chokalyov ^^^t^), to be scattered, become 
separate from the others, e.g. of one of a number of 
things floating down a river being separated by an 
eddy from the rest. Cf. chak^run. 

For words not found under ce, ch8, chy, nr cy, see under ca, cha, oh, or c respectively, and vice versa. Sec article c. 

chakun ^^^i. 


chal 1 ^^ 

chakun ^^'t; or chekun 1 lElfT: i ^^Tf^ conj. 1 

(1 p.p. chok" Wfi ; ^ PP- Chacyov ^^^fl^ ; imperat. 
sg. 2 chekh BSI'a , Siv. 1776), to scatter abroad things 
usually together in large numbers,' to scatter, throw 
about (K.Pr. 117; YZ. 163; Siv. 732, 1079, 1092, 
1149, 1400, 1401, 1497, 1861 ; Earn. 109, 440, 778, 
etc.) ; esp. to scatter seeds, to sow broadcast. El. spells 
tliis chhikun, i.e. chekun 1 and 2. The causal of 

this verb is chakanawun or chak^ranawun ; the 
regular causal form chak^^run or chak*rawun is 

not used in the sense of a causal, but has the meaning 
of the primitive verb (Gr.Gr. 174). 

chakana yun" if^T f^ij i ^^JT^ofttsifH^'m; 

m. inf. puss, to be scattered ; esp. (of seeds, etc.) to be 
scattered abroad automatically, to be self-sown. 

chakith fehunun iff^fi^ ^^11 ^^^^ 'H^W. m.inf. 
to scatter abroad ; esp. to throw out into the open, dust, 
sweepings, etc., collected in a basket. 

chok"-mot"^ ^^-^5 I ^"^^ perf. part. (f. chiic"- 
miife" W^-Ti^), scattered abroad ; sown broadcast. 
chekun 2 WJ^ or chikun tw^l I ^^•r; conj. 1 
(1 p.p. chyuk" ti|^ or ^^ ; 2 p.p. chicyov f^'^ft^), 

to proj)el liquids to u distance in one stream, to squirt ; 
to urinate, make water (in this sense impersonal in 
the tenses deiived from the past participle). El. gives 
this word the meaning of chakun, q.v. 

chakanawun w^'TTfi; conj. 1 (1 p.p. chakanow" 
If^i^cf), to cause to scatter (Gr.Gr. 174), see chakun. 

chikin tW'f^'l I 'giT^f1!r»i; f- the act of urinating by 
a dog. 

chokan ^^pf l '%'Z'- f. obstinate and persistent begging 
for something valuable which the owner does not 
wish to give ; cf. choka-phakir under chokh 2. 
— trawiin" — "^T^ i WT^Tr?3rfWH»l f.inf. to beg 
obstinately, as ab. 

chakara W^TT l Hfl«TlTfR%^: m. the act of scattering 
about in all directions. — dyun" — f^T I ^*T «t1I^ TfF- 
m.inf. to give scattering ; to be scattered about in all 
directions ; to become spread on all sides (e.g. of 
a flood, a conflagration, or an epidemic). 

chakur" ^^^ l TTlt^^: f. a kind of song sung by 
women to the accompaniment of a drum and other 
instruments. The leader sings a phrase, which is 
sung in turn by the others. 

chukur ^^ m. (sg. dat. chukaras W^^iT^), a lad, 
a growing boy ; hence, a small person, a person of 
humble station. Cf. K.Pr. 42, where the sg. dat. is 
incorrectly written chunkaras, i.e. ^ofi^^. 

chukur« W?S^I i< l ^<g<n«< ^ f- a good-looking full- 
grown girl. 


chak^run w^^ i ^^^'ti'i: conj. 1 (1 p.p. chakor" 

1^4^), to scatter abroad, tlirow about things collected 
together, esp. of dust or of seeds scattered on the 
roadside or the like, and not on a field. Although in 
form the caus. of chakun (q.v.), this verb has not 
a causal signification (Gr.Gr. 174, 175). 

chak*ran-w6l" ^^T/l-^^ nag. (f- -wajen 
-•^siTa^), one who scatters or disperses (El.). 

chak^rana yun" ^^^f f^? I "^^^xiffiT^sjJi; 

m. inf. pass, to be scattered about, thrown broadcast, 
thrown about (of dust, or of seeds scattered auto- 
matically, and self-sown, i.e. not sown on ground 
properly prepared beforehand). — amot" — '^T'TfT I 
^^^iffHfT: perf. part. pass. (f. — amiib'^ — ^JTii), 
scattered, thrown about as ab. (of dust, seeds, etc.). 

chakor^-mof^ ^^-JTg I ^^wtw: perf. part. (f. 
chak"r"-mufe" lf^^-?Tl^ ), scattered, thrown about 
(of seeds or the like imjjroperly scattered on the 
road.side, etc., as ab.). 
chak^ranawun w^TT51.conj.l (1 p.p.chak^ranow" 
i^^T:^f), iq- chakanawun, causal of chakun 

(Gr.Gr. 174). See chakun, 

chak^rawun ^^tjw s^i ^^^rYt^'^it; conj. 1 (1 p.p. chak"'- 
row" w^rtf), iq- chak^run, q.v. (Gr.Gr. 174, 175). 
chak»rawana yun" w^RTj^T f^^ i ■iTf^'Rt»T^')»i: 
m. inf. pass., i.q. chak^rana yun", see chak^run. 

chak°T6w"-inot" ?f^^f-TrW i ^^^^j: perf. part, 
(f. chak^rbw"-mub" ^afiTT^-?i^), i.q. chak°r"- 
mot", see chak^run. 
chak^rawun" #3RTf J "ag. (f. chak^rawun" W^^), 

one who disperses or scatters. 

chokawan w^^^ I 5t%^iiTfi»^ f. (sg. dat. chdka- 
wiin" ifefi^^), the act of dipping into water (as when 
one holds a garment by one end and dips into, and 
moves it about in, the water). 

chokawun w^^^t.! si^i^^nf iJ^conj. 1 (1 p.p.chakow" 
^?R^), to dip (a garment or the Hke) into water and 
move about the article dipped therein ; to stir any 
liquid contained in a vessel, to churn by shaking. 

chokawana yun" |f^^si t^g I flf^^^r^'R; 
m. inf. pass, (of curds, water, or the like) to be shaken 
about in a closed, or nearly closed, vessel, to be 
churned by shaking. 

chokay W^^ I I^^^IT f. persistently and obstinately 
begging for something (of children). Cf. choka- 
lakaii under chokh 2. 

chal 1 ^^ I 1T!S^ f. (sg. dat. chali ??f^). a bit, part, 
scrap, portion, fragment (Ram. 878) ; a crumb 
(Gt.M.). Frequently — • (Gr.Gr. 162), as in lacha- 
Chal 5rT?f-l?^ f. a wafer (Gr.M.). -dal -^^ 1 f^Tt^j: 

For words not found under 08, chS, ohy, or ey, see under ca, cha, ch, or c respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

chal 2 w^ 

— 161 — 

ch6mbun ^'fl 

m. quarrelling combined with mutual recriminations. 

Cf. chala-pol" bel. 

chala-bagay ^^-^T^ i W^^ f%HT3T«m; f. 

division by partition or by breal<ing up into fragments. 
-chlg^r" -^f»i^ I fJT<d?i: ■H%q: f- fragment-huny ; 
hence, improperly to scatter about in all directions. 
-Chag^ri -Sifitt I tWf^HfT^ adv., abl. of the 
preceding, (of the mind or intellect) scatteredly, in 
an agitated manner, distractedly. — chala karith 
traWTin — 15^ ^RtT^ '^T^'l^ m.inf. to break anything 
iu pieces (Gr.M.). -pol" -ti^ I ^TJ^^H m. mutual 
recriminations and abuse, wordy warfare. -WOg'*!'' 
-^<l^ I ?^fref^5TT?rm«TJl f. causing a crowd to scatter 
and flee away in various directions, breaking up an 

chali chali gabhun ^V?( ift% irwi ' '^'J^uft 

)1c(«tH m.inf. to be smashed, broken in pieces, to fall 

to pieces. — chali kaxun — ^f^ ^^^i; 1 iT^Tft 

^\nf^ m.inf. to smash to pieces. 
chal 2 W^ ill the following : -chokh -Wa I ^f^T^TT 

m. (sg. dat. -chokas -W^i^), the washing of a great 
nimiber of articles at one time, a ' washing '. 

chala-chokh ^^-Wf I WT^ih; f • (sg. dat. -chdki 

-Wfti), the act of washing, cleaning (esp. cotton 
clothes, see chalun). 

chalan-gray ^?R;-'aT^ I t.^r^T«fn f. a slight, 

hasty washing, -porut" -ift^^ 1 ^T^fl^infjT: ™- an 
opportunity or time for washing accumulated dirty 
clothes, ' washing-day.' 

chal 3 ^^ m. a device, expedient (liam. 44). 

chela ^^ I ^ffl^rrf^^; m. a plain ring of gold, silver, 
or other metal, worn on the finger or toe — the 
Hindostiinl chnllCi. 

chul ^^ I f'J^: m. (pi. dat. chulan ^^(^ Gr.Gr. 51), 
a waterfall, cascade (Siv. 983). 

chula-woii" W^-^^ I fM^T^rfr "i- cascade 
water, a small mountain stream issuing from a water- 

Cahil J-^.^ card, forty (Ram. 797). 

Chbl^-bbl' ^Tt%-WT^ 1 ^'t^^TTft. adv. from above 
(ef. bal 1) and below, heedlessly, carelessly, u.w. vbs. 
of coming, etc. 

chalun 1^^ 1 '^T-II'i; eonj. 1 (1 p.p. chol" w^, f. 
chiij" ^31 ; 2 p.p. chajyov 155^^), to wash, 
cleanse (K^Pr. 17, 40, 41, 43, 82, 112, 154 ; YZ. 232 ; 
Siv. 1022, 1575 ; RSm. 622, 774, 1644, etc.). 
According to El., s.v., when cotton cloth is referred 
to chalun is used, but when the reference is to 

woollen cloth mandun or mandanawun is the 

word employed. 



chali char W^ ^t?' ' ^«*rgT^t^^T freq. part, 
washing frequently or continually; commonly used 
as adv. 

chalith chokith ?ff%^ ^f^ I ^lUild**! 

^T'5ft^«^ adv. (a jingling repetition of the conj. part. 
chalith), having completely washed. Cf. chala- 

chdkh under chal 2. — tehunun — ^^^i; 1 ?»<T^^'H^ 

m.inf. having washed to throw away ; hence, (of friends 
who have become estranged) to wash one's hands of 
another person, entirely to abandon friendly inter- 

chol°-mot" ^^-TTH I 'grt^rj: perf . part, (f . chuj°- 
miife" ^W-5Rr^), washed, cleansed by washing 
(Ram. 786, clothes). 

chalin-won" ^f%5^-^^ 1 Tr5TTft»TT^fl: m. the dirty 
water left after washing anything (esp. after washing 
rice, etc., preparatory to cooking), washings. 

chblith-chulith ^Tt%^ ^^\ ' f^^aj adv. exactly, 
accurately, u.w. vbs. of speaking, answering, etc. 

chem ^J^;, chim flp^;, chum ^j{^, cf. chuh. 

chamb ^?5 I »TT m. a mountain precipice (K.Pr. 227, 
Rilm. 1014) ; a ravine, precipitous cleft (Siv. 1627). 

chamba-dula gafehun ^i^-^^ TWI i ^^T^^w: 

m.inf. to fall over a precipice ; hence, to die a sudden 
or untimely death, -t^ur" -cj;^^ I ^f?I<f^'^^*rRT 
f. a precipice-bee ; hence, a passionate woman, ready 
to abuse on the slightest provocation. 

chambas gafehun W^IM^ T^si; I m^ fim^sjJi; 
m.inf. to go to a precipice ; hence, to be plunged in 
bad company and sinful habits, -peth wasath -ig^ 
"^^i^ I ^?Sf^t?T: f- living on a precipice ; an insecure 
position, liability to destruction at any moment (e.g. 
a village built on a sandbank in the midst of a river). 

chamb* gafehun ig^ 1^1; 1 TrrraTtfr: m.inf. to 

go over a precipice ; hence, the sudden irresistible 
flood of water from a river or canal that has burst its 

chomb w»5 or chomba ^"^ (Gr.Gr. 122) 1 qirrrT^ifC 

rn. a method of threshing paddy, in which the stalks 
are held in the hand and the lieads struck against 
a post. This preserves the straw from being injured, 
as it would be if trodden out by cattle on a threshing- 
floor. The chumba of L. 464. Cf. atha-ch6mb 
under atha. — dyun" — f^g 1 rlT^S'I'l. m.inf. to 
flog, whip (with a rod on the bare .skin). — karun 
— ^RSi: I m^^^ m.inf., id. 

chombun ifw^i; 1 ^iW?i^siT conj. 1 (1 p.p. chdmb" 
WW), to thresh grain, as described in art. chdmb, 
q.v. chomb"-mot" f f-'Tg I ^'PJ^ Jrf^: perf. part, 
(f. chttmb'^-miife^ ^'^-'^f^), threshed, as ab. 

For words not found under c8, oh8, ohy, oi oy, sec under ca, oha, ch, or o respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

Champa ^t»t 

— 162 — 

chanta WTW 

Champa Wf^> see chlpa. 
champh ^K4i , see chlph. 

chan 1 W^ l <T^ m- a carpenter, a house carpenter 
(El., Siv. 337, K.Pr. 41, 178, W. 140). His wife is 
chbn*' 2 ^fsf , chana-kolay sfri-iR^^ or chana- 
bay ^l-TT^. Of these the iirst is generally used 
as a kind of surname, added to the woman's proper 
name. ReErardinnf the other two see below. As a title 
(e.g. Yekar chan, Y?kar, tlie carpenter) the gen. of 
this word is chanun" ^Tjg. 

Chana-bay WTT-TT^ I rl^^ f. a carpenter's wife. 
The word is honorific, cf. chana-kolay bel. -kij" 
-f^^ or -kij'* -^^ I ^T^T^^^IR f. a carpenter's 
nail ; the last and final nail put into a house by the 
builder, thus completing the work ; met. in any work 
nearly completed the small ainount remaining to be 
done. KashniTrl carpenters are constantly omitting 
a nail here or some work there in order that they 
may be recalled and get another job ; this is called 
'the carpenter's nail' (K.Pr. 41). -kolay -li^RT I 
d^M^ f. a carpenter's wife. This word is non- 
honorific. Cf. chana-bay ab. and Gr.Gr. 34. 
-kot" -cfi^ I fi^xrw: 111. a carpenter's son ; met. a real 
carpenter's son, a good carpenter (Gr.Gr. 132). 
-thas -'3^ I fT^Ip^' '"• carpenter's bang, the noise 
made by a carpenter when he hits a piece of wood 
with the back of liis adze, -tokh -"Z^ I rTWlT^: ni. 
(sg. dat. -tokas -|[«lf^), carpenter's hammering, the 
noise made by a carpenter when he liits an iron wedge 
or other similar article emploj'ed in splitting wood. 

chan 2 W^^ I fl^r!»W; m. sifting; falling down (as 
powder leaking through the interstices of a sieve, of 
a basket, or ripe pollen from certain flower-clusters). 

chani, see chiin". 

chena w^, chena ^^tt, chun ^^t , chuna ^^t, see 

chena %«T m. a cymbal (EL). 

chon" f^ or chon" ^j i ^si:, f?:^: adj. (f. chon^ li^ 

or chiin" W^)i empty, void ; (of a cargo-boat) empty, 
in ballast (Gr.M.) ; empty of wealth, poverty-stricken 
(cf. atha-chon" under atha) ; less than a certain 
amount, deficient in quantity ; adv. (like the Hindostaiil 
khdli) only, merely. This word is generally used with 
emph. y, as in chonu-y ^^^ or chonu-y ^-^ (Siv. 
1201), and is thus spelt: chhoiioi by EL, so K.Pr. 42, 
vhliem, and 239, cliJiam for chun"y W^l?- -non" 
-'T^ I fx;w: adj. (f. chun"-nun" ^^j -^); empty and 
naked ; hence, poverty-stricken. . 

chane-moche W^-'^ISI l '^t^^T^ adv. in a con- 
dition of being jjoor or hard up (esp. in connexion 




with having to provide u wedding feast or the like), 

u.w. vbs. of giving, etc. 
chon" 1 ifVg, see chanun. 
Chon" 2 ^Yj I ■'Srq'^Traair^^R; the result of sifting, the 

cleansed and sifted rice, flour, or whatever article is 

passed through a sieve or strained. 

chonch, see choch. 

chonchih, see c§ca or c5ce. 

chind^run f^^f^i; i jftfw; conj. 1 (1 p.p. chyund'r" 

(^•^'^ or ^»5^ ; this verb is impersonal in the 
tenses formed from the past participles) , to be stupefied, 
esp. of the stupefied amazement caused by the attain- 
ment of more than one hoped for or expected. 

chandith lzj'S^ (YZ. 134), incorr. for bhandith, see 

chinal fif IT^ I xtt^TT;: m. a vile man living by vile 
habits and with vile companions. 

chbnil 1511%^ I <!^aT f. the art or profession of a 
carpenter (Gr.Gr. 142). 

chinal^gi f^^^^rt I ^TOTflT f. a vile, despicable mode 
of life or conduct. 

chinblil f^itl^^ i ^TOx;«^*l f-, iq- chinal^gi, q.v. 

chbnUoz" ^t?^?" I fl^^frf: 't- the livelihood or craft 
of a carpenter, carpentry, esp. of one who has taken to 
the craft after giving up some other art (Gr.Gr. 143). 

chanin l^fsn; m. a utensil (EL). 

chanun ^ji; or chenun lEl^l, I fiieq<i«m conj. 3 
(2 p.p. chanyov lpli\^), to be strained, sifted ; to 
fall from a mass (as grain falling through a hole 
in a basket), to dribble away; to exude (Siv. 1008) ; 
(of a tree) to lose its leaves (Siv. 1039, 1208); to 
waste away (Siv. 1002) ; to be broken up into parts 
(of a ring of dancer.s, 8iv. 1010). 

chanun W^\ i ^rq^PW: conj. 1 (1 p.p. chon'^ ^Yg, 
f. chbn" W^, 2 p.p. chaiiov i^Tsft^), to sift 
(Siv. 1527) ; to strain, filter ; to trim (Gr.Gr. xxii) ; 
to search minutely, investigate ; to shake down fruit 
from a fruit-bearing tree. 

ch6n°-mot" ^^Vj-flJ I ^iTfT: perf. part. (f. chbn"- 
miife" WT=T -'T!^ ), sifted ; strained, filtered, examined, 
investigated ; (of a fruit-tree) having had its fruit 
.shaken down off the braiiches. 

chonun if^s^ or chonnun ^^T; i ^^>< «)•)*(. conj. 3 
(2 p.p. chonyov |?5ift^ or chonnyov ff?ft^) . to be 
deficient, to be below the full size, quantity, or 
weight (Siv. 1212). 

chonyo - mot" W^-'Jg l '3RY»Tfi: perf. pass. 
(f . chonye-mub" W^-Ti^ ), reduced in size, quantity, 
etc. (e.g. of dried-up fruit, wealth, etc.). 

chanta ifrw, see chlta. 

For words not found under oe, cM, ohy, or cy, see under oa, oha, ch, or c respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

chont" iftTE 


chipakal' f^xnet^ 

chont" wtT^, chantun WTTSfl, etc., see chstun. 

Chinov" fif^f I "^t^WTfTT m. poverty, esp. that 
caused by loss of wealth or savings. 

chanawan ^T«R'T I ^rT^TirfTi: f. wages paid for 
sifting flour, etc. Cf. chan 2. 

chanaway $H«t*< I fT'^*r1li: f. wages paid to a car- 
penter. Cf. chan 1 (Gi\Gr. 142). 

chanay ^TfJ I "arqwrJi; f. the act of sifting, esp. of 
flour or other similar minute powder. 

chanbz'^ ^TTiaf l fl^^t%: f- the profession or craft of 
a carpenter (Gr.Grr. 143). 

chan or cheii ^^f l l[^t%^'^: m- onomat. the noise 
made by a metal vessel or the like falling on the 
ground, clang, clatter ; cf. chon. -chakh -If^ I 
*ftt^lf^^^: m. onoBiat. (sg. dat. -chakas -^c){^), 
clang and clatter ; a kind of musical dance. The 
girls who dance wear bells and tinkling anklets which 
are sounded in time with the music and singing; 
cf. chon-chokh under chon. -chamber" -^^^ I 
'^'^^T'Jrfff: m. a sudden and accidental death, as if 
it were caused by falling down a precipice, -chan 
-^^ I ^f'^Hf^^^: m. onomat. clash, chink, tinkle, 
the noise of metal to metal, e.g. of metal vessels 
knocking against each other, or of rings or bells on 
a bell-girdle. 

chon W^ I ir=^f^^^' ™- onomat. chink, tinkle, the 
sound made by money in a bag, a bell-girdle, or the 
like ; cf. chan. -bong^re -^Jj^ i ^^^t^^Tpff bracelets (of crystal or precious metal) supplied 
with bells, so as to make a tinkling sound, -chokh 
-^1 I ?fcl^lf^W^: ™- onomat. (sg. dat. -chokas 

-gi ji^ ), iq- chan-chakh, see chan. -chon -^^ i 

^^f^T^tilSjajj; m. onomat. chink-chink, tinkle-tinkle, 
the sound of chink repeated over and over again. 
-dar -^'5 l Ito^;^^^ adj. e.g. a chinker, a tinkler, 
that which has the power of emitting chinks or tinkles, 
such as a staff or a girdle supplied with rings or bells 
to make a chinking or tinkling noise, -ton -J^ I 
\|«<<*|<4r<tMl«t*l m. onomat. making chinks, making 
money (esp. someone else's) fly, squandering. 

chane ^^, chaii' ^^, chiin*^ ^\, see chon". 

chon' wVt^. ('^"- 1-532) chbni ^T^, iq. chon". 

chon" ?t^ . s'e chon". 

chon" l^T^I ^aTT^IJl, 'Srq^^j'ra^'t f- sifting, 
winnowing, straining ; knocking down walnuts from 
a tree ; siftings, the resultant of sifting (e.g. cleaned 
or winnowed grain) (Siv. 1-532, 1533). In Siv. 1532 
chbni is m.c. for chon*, i.q. chon". 

chbn" 2 wV^ I H^^^ f-. see chan 1, a carpenter's 
wife, usually employed as the latter part of a proper 


name, as in Zuna chbii", Ziina the carpentress 

(Gr.Gr. 37). K.Pr. spells this word chhani, i.e. chdni. 
chon" 3 W^> see chanun. 
chaiier ^^-^ l tT^f^TT m. emptiness. 
choiier IP^IT I ^TTrlT m. incompleteness, want of full 

weight or measure; loss, detriment (El.). 
chon«run f ^n. or chon»rawun f ^Tf^ l ^^ «^i<.UiH 

conj. 1 (1 p.p. chofior" i?-^ or chon«r6w"^3nftg), 

to make less, to reduce below a certain fixed quautit\', 
to lessen (the cliheiiruicKii of K.Pr. 119). chon^row"- 

mot" f ^Ttf -?Tg I ^'^fiff: perf. part. (f. chonerow"- 

miib" sp3TT;T^- *r^ ) > reduced below a fixed weight or 

scale of quantity. 
chapa l^tj pi. nom. of chaph 1, 2, and 3, qq.v. 
chapa ^IfiT I Tt^rf. m. anything printed, such as a book, 

a patterned cloth, or a pattern generally. 
chop" ^^ or chop" ^5 I »Ti:^T^^^: m. a kind of 

small churning-stick, used for churning curdled inilk, 

etc. — dyun" — 1^5 l JI^SRJT, ni.inf. to churn as ab. 
chaph 1 ^TS or cheph 1 w\ I flT^^Ji; f. (sing. dat. 

chapi ^f^l), fine dressing, adornment, wearing jewels 

and rich garments. — ^kariin" — ^^'^Jal I ^RlJVnciirJi; 

f.inf. to wear fine clothes, etc., to be exf)ensively 

chaph 2 w^ or cheph 2 ^ps i ^t??TT: f- (sg. dat. 

chapi Iffq, pi. nom. chapa ^tT),a sacrificial offering 

(cf. chapun 2). 

chapa-chbr" W^T-WT^ ' ^^WTT^ f- sacrifice-haste, 

unexpectedly becoming a sacrifice in company with 

some one who is dj'ing or suffering great calamity, 

unexpectedly sharing such a fate. 

chapi lagun ^fq ^^i: l ^'JlT^'T^'fi; m.inf. to 

offer oneself as a sacrifice instead of or on behalf of 

any one. 
chaph 3 ^ or cheph 3 ^rs 1 'i{^^^^ f. (sg. dat. chapi 

^fq), a paring, chip, shaving, when cutting wood 
either \vith a hatchet, etc., or (e.g. a reed-pen) with 
a penknife; a gash or cut in shaving (L. 457 chep). 
— hen" — "Wn^ l ^»i^(<<m«TJT f.inf. to raise up or 
elevate a splinter or shaving when cutting a stick ; to 
put a point to a reed-pen, etc. 
Chlph IgTFfi I 5?T, «[^f%l»l f- (sg. dat. chlpi wffxf), 
an instrument for sealing or stamping, a seal, signet- 
ring ; a stamp or impression made by a seal, etc., 
either in sealing-wax or in ink, etc. 

choph ^^5 I ^J^T^ m. (sg. dat. chopas wt^WC), 

a machine or .staTuia (usually of wood) for impressing 
marks on heaps of grain, etc., so as to prevent the 
pile being broken without detection. 
Chipakal* t^q^t^ f- a lizard (Gr.M.). 


For words not found under o», ohg, ohy, or cy, see under oa, oha, oh, or c respectively, and vice versa. See article o. 


chapal ^^^ 

164 — 

chir 3 f^T 

chapal ^rra I ^alTem^T!^: adj. e.g. having a chip or 
splinter elevated fiotn the surface, having a split 
point (as in a reed-pen). 

chlpul'^ wtgf , i q- chlpun", qv. chapal^-kiin" 
^f4t%-4-^,1.q. chlpan'-kiin^ see chlpun". 

chapan' Wf^^ i" chapan* kiiii" WP^V^ ^. iq- 
chlpan^ kiiii", see ch&pun". 

chapun 1 w^l I f fs^^:, ^Tto^^TWI- ^^^'j: conj. 1 
(1 p.p. chop" ^T?) , to be hidden, concealed (Rilin. 398, 
978) ; to take shelter from heavy rain ; generally, to 
take refuge with (K.Pr. 243), seek the patronage of 
any one ; to endure patiently trouble or calamity in 
the hope of better times ; to waste time, pass time 
unprofitably. The caus. of this verb is chapana- 

wun, chap*rawun, ch6p°^run 1, or chop^rawun 1 

(Gr.Gr. 174). 
chapan-jay ifxii;-wr^^ I ^TW^jt'r: f. a place of 

shelter, a shelter under which a person waits for 
rain to pass over ; generally, a place of refuge. 

-shai -'sn^ f' '^ place of refuge (EL), chapani 
yun" ^xjI'T t^J l ^T'ft^TWl minf. to come for 
refuge, to take refuge with any one, to claim sanctuary 
(Ram. 475). 

chapith Iff^^ conj. part, used as adv. secretly, 
privately (Ram. 398, 978). 

chapun 2 ^5«i: I fqu^l^M^ ^q: conj. 1 (I p.p. chop" 
I^U), fo cast into a river the remains of an offering to 
a deity, flowers left after a sacrificial ceremony, etc. 

chapun Wl^l conj. 1 (1 p.p. chop" sftg), to print 
(a book, clotl), or the like) (Gr.M.). 

chapun" WTyj, iq- chlpun", q.v. 

chapun" ifigg, chapun ifTJi:, or chSpul" affj^ I 

%qift m. (sg. dat. chSpanis ^t^t'ra;), a sling (for 
casting stones, etc.) (K.Pr. 96). chSpan' kiin'' 
I^Ir^ «fi»T I ^MJlH^iilf?!^ f. the stone, or missile, of 
a sling. 

chapanawun ^tj^T^i; i ^th!!^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
chapanow" ifq«f^), to cause some one to pass 
time, or to cause him to wait till a shower of rain is 
passed over (caus. of chapun 1, Grr.Gr. 174). 

chapar ^^'^ l ^^T^»T'1[ m. a hut, a temporary shelter 
of straw and wood or the like. 

chap"r" ^T^i^ I ^X^t^^ f. a kind of large basket. 

chap^run w^l or chap^rawun ^hjt^i; conj. 1 
(1 p.p. chapar" i^Tj^ or chap*r6w" ^^f), iq. 
chapanawun (Gr.Gr. 174). 

chop»run 1 if^^^i; or ch6p°^rawun 1 ^itt^jfl I 
^rsft^TWl conj. 1 (1 p.p. chop^r" |Ftr^ or 
chop^row" WR^Ctj), to spend (money), to expend 
(articles) ; e.sp. to spend extravagantlj', dissipate. 





This verb is an irreg. caus. of chapun 1, q.v. (Gr.Gr. 
174). ch6p°r"-mot" 1 ^^-5Rg I si^ifri: perf. 

part. (f. chop"r"-mufe" If't^-^f^)- expended, dis- 
sipated. chop^r6w"-mot" WR:^f-''g i ^^^if^tr: 
perf. part. (f. chop*rbw"-mufe" ift^;?:!^- ?t|[^), id. 
ch6p*run 2 l^^l^i: or chop'rawun 2 ^H^f 1^ I ^fw: 
conj. 1 (I p.p. chop°r"^^ or chop'^row" WR'fff), 
to fling away anything so as to conceal it, to conceal 
hurriedly; to hide, conceal (faults, bad qualities). 

ch6p*rawan #HX^T^«i: I ^frr f. (sg. dat. chop^rawun" 

p'RXT^)' throwing something about so as to conceal 
it, hurried concealment ; concealment of faults, bad 
qualities, etc. ; causing time to pass, -dag -^'T I 
«M<!l(%%^^T^- f- causing time to pass, pretending to. 
waste time, temporizing in order to get something 

done. Cf. chapawan-dag under chapawan and 
chawan-dag under chawan. 

chapota ^^Z l '^"'JS': m. a splinter, a chip, as in 
pointing a stake or mending a reed-pen. 

chapath ^xw I ff^-q: i. (sg. dat. chapub" w4^), 

throwing awaj', scattering and abandoning ; hence, 
putting up with, or making the best of, a work or 
a life full of pain and affliction. 
chapawan I^tTT^'I; f . in the following :— -dag -^'n I 
^Rf\'*I^^T|'"l f- wasting time in the performance of 
any employer's work, by the workers pointing to each 
other as the proper person to do it ; as when e.g. A 
says "it's B's work ", and B says " it's C's work", and 
C says "it's A's work ", so that in the end nothing 
is done. Cf. chawan and chop*rawan-dag under 

char 1 ilg?; or chir" l ^^ l "^l^^: f. name of a certain 
disease, a crop of boils on the hands, feet, or back, 
impetigo contagiosa : also used of carbuncles. 

char 2 3R; I %«B: f. a sprinkle of water, oil, ghl, or the 
like from the tips of the fingers, small in amount, and 
thrown to a distance. Cf. chir 1, 

charii, see chiryuv". 

cher IfT I '^ftJ^^'^^xpi; f. irritation, annoying or 

frightening a person by abusing him or worrying 

him ; using such means to drive a person away, or 

make him run away. 
cher a WTT. see char ah. 
chir 1 tlf-^ I fM^iJT f-. i q- char 2, q.v. 
chir 2 fl^ I ^l^B^Tf : f- the thin stream of milk 

issuing at one pull of the udder at the time of milking 

(Gr.Gr. 13). 
chir 3 tlf'^ I ^^rrf%^T'l f- the milk of a goat or sheep. 

Chiri-goru fl^-'^ l ^WrfM^Tf%^fTT ni. a seller of 

such milk ; his wife is chiri-gar'-bay flf tr-'t^-WT^ . 

For words not fouud under c8, ohg, ohy, or oy, see under cft, oha, ch, or c respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

chir 4 tIfT 

165 — 



while ii female seller of such milk is chiri-gur*' 

chir 4 f^^ I Mi'H^K^nT^: f. the growth of the substance 

of a seed (as of rice, etc.), the filling out of the husk 

of a seed. Cf. doda-chir, under d6d. 
chira t^T l ^^Hl^: m. a lamb, the young of a sheep 

(male or female), esp. when newly bom. — kath. 

— «fi^ I "^^W^: m. (sg. dat. — katas — ^Z^), a young 

male sheej:), a lamb ram. -put" -tJfT | $^)%^: m. 

a young lamb (male or female). 
chir" 1 ig^^ I TtTi^^: f. (sg. dat. chere 1 %^), i.q. 

char 1, q.v. 
chir" 2 ^^ I ^*T f- (sg- <lat. chere 2 %^, for chere 3, 

SCO cherun), a switch, stick, wand, rod, cane, walking- 
stick; a wand of office (Siv. 222, 1029). 

cheri-bardar %f<-w^H i t"W>JT: ">• a waud- 

bearer, the marshal who walks before people of 
consequence with a wand of office to make way and 
keep off crowds (Siv. 1153). 

chir" 3 ^^, see cherun. 

chor ^T^ m. in the following : lagTUl — '^TJ'l I 

ftriuTf^y 1^ <iri; m.inf. unhealthy evacuation to occur 
unawares, sudden diarrhoea to occur. Cf. chor". 

chora 1 WT I '^'^f^^^: m- a certain part of the female 
genital organ ; apparently the triangular segment in 
front of the vagina on whicli are the clitoris and the 
jneatus urinarius. The word is also used in filthy 

chora 2 wr i" the following: — -chor -WT or -ch6ra 

-?n^ I ^tTRS^nr f- agitation, distress, fluttering, 
qxiivering (from pain, sorrow, etc., like that of a fish 
caught in a net). 

chora wtT "^ tue following : — -batan -^z^ i ^WZT 
f., i.q. chahora-batafi, see chahora, p. 159, coLw,!. 26. 

chor" ?fY^ I fsfSTf^^TT- '"• an unhealthy condition of 

the evacuations, diarrhoea, etc. (K.Pr. 49), esp. of 

horses or cattle. Cf. chor. 

chari-konz" ^Tf^-?RTf I f^cfTM^f^J m. dahi 

(curdled milk) wliich has turned liquid, green, and sour. 
chor" ^^ I «^TT f- hurry, fluster, agitation from fear 

or the like occurring in the performance of any action. 

churi ?f^ in the following : — -mar -irr^ I ^rf7f?3^ 

f)^: m. 'a dagger- striker ', a kind of beggar so 
importunate that he will even kill himself with 
a dagger if his request is not complied with. Such 
threats are not uncommon, and invariably result in the 
request being granted, as a refusal would bring the 
guilt of murder on the head of the refuser. 
cah*ra or ceh*ra ^^ «^,>- I t%^J^ m. face, visage, 
countenance ; (usually) a likeness, a portrait. 


card. four, cahar-dah 

» J jl,- 




fourteen (Ram. 1083). 
ceharu (?), the slants of a roof (L. 464). 
Charah WTTf or chera IETTT I ^^H adv. alone, only 

(Siv. 243, chera). 

chirkav f^«(iT^ l 'jfirftiy'lH t^- sjjrinkling water on the 

ground (to lay dust or the like). 
chirkawun or chir^kawun fli^T^i: conj. 1 (I p.p. 

chirkow" fW'R^^)) to scatter, sprinkle (water, etc.) 

cherilad %fT«l^ l ^»:<««n*l. adj. e.g. one who acts 

hurriedly owing to irritation, fear, or the like. 

Cf. chor". 
chir"-miife" wt^-'T!^ , ««« cherun. 
charun i?^«i; i g^f^^^'^- conj. 1 (I p.p. chor" ^. 

This verb is impersonal in tenses formed from the 
past participles, as in K.Pr. 13, 200), to evacuate, go 
to stool (K.Pr. 17). chor"-mot" #5-?T5 I yft- 
^<^"3ftU 5Rf%f^: perf. part. (f. chhur"-mub" ^^- 

?T^), dirtied by evacuations (e.g. a pan or commode). 
cherun %^i; i ■^tlRTTf'l conj. 1 (1 i).p. chyur" 1 
llgj, pi. chir' w^t<:; f- chir" 3 ^^, ph chere 3 
$'^; 2 p.p. cheryov i|^^- For chyur" 2 see 
chorun, for chir^ 1 and 2 see s.vv., and for chere 

1 and 2 see chir" 1 and 2), to irritate, co worry 
a person by abusing him or harassing him. chyur"- 

mot" ^-^5 I '^rf^at^??: adj. (f. chir"-mub" ^^- 

J^g ; for 2 see chorun) , irritated, etc. 

chiran t^T/t. I Tj^dMI'*J<JH f- an oblation of rice boiled 
in milk, coloured yellow with saffron, etc., and offered 
to Vac, the goddess of speech, on the day on which 
a boy commences his first studies. 

chorun ?ft^1, I WTi: conj. 1 (1 p.p. chur" ^ or 
chyiir" 2 ^^^ , pi. chur' ^tj »i" chyiir' m^ ; f • chur** 
^^or chyur" ^n^, pi. chore ^"^4 ; 2 p.j). choryov 
ifr^^. For chyiir" 1 see cherun), to release, 
loosen, dismiss, let go (Rilm. 490), esp. something 
tied up or confined ; to let go (something held) ; to 
give, give away (Gr.Gr.). chur"-mot" ^f^-'T^ or 
chyur" -mot" 2 1|^ IRH l ^ftWTlf: perf. part. (f. 
chur"-mufe" ^^-?t5 or chyiir"-miife'' w^-»T?r. 
For chyur"-mot" 1 see cherun), let go, etc., as ab. 

Chrar sharif, m. name of the i:)lace which holds the 
shrine of Kashmir's greatest saint, Niir Din (L. 250, 
293 ; not mentioned in RT.Tr. or by EL). 

chiryuv" flftt^ i ^r^t^^^: m. (sg. dat. chirivis 

t^fx;f5f^), a certain fish found in the Valley of 

Kashmir, with a long snout, from 8 to 15 seers in 

weight, the chharu gad of El. and c/iarri gad of 
L. 157. 

For words not found under oS, ch8, chy, or oy, see under ea, oha, oh, or c respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

ches m^ 

— 166 — 

chath°T ^^ 

chiriv' - c6t" flflT^ - '^ i ^TWOT^T^: 

chiryTlv"-cliiiined, one who says flattering things, 
one who is soft-spoken in order to carry out objects. 

ches lera;, chis t^5H;, ehus ^^, see chuh. 

chish^ f^l[r , see chih 2. 

chish" if\^, see chih. 

chata Wrl or cheta 36I(T in the following (cf. chot") : — 
-chiran-hyuh" -tWTi:-tff I ^f^T^gW^: adj. (f. 
-Chiran-hish" -fg?T:i:-'fflT ), lit- like white and yellow 
rice-niilk, very white and clean-looking, esp. of some- 
thing edible, -hor'^ -?Y^ I ■gwf^'ff^fT: adj. (f. -hor^ 
-ft^), marked or ornamented with a white pattern, 
esp. of ii cloth or the like which has become dirty 
;ind dark-coloured, and then is given such a pattern 
to freshen it up. -lay -Wl{ I '^Wfn'f^lf'RT: f. spoiled 
by becoming white or being whitened (as a face by 
sickness or by foul air, or anything by being touched 
with white matter that comes off). -t*l -fj^ I 
■^WH^i^^J^ 111. the fruit of the white mulberry, 
white mulberry -fruit. -tyo^" '"^^ ' ^^ ^dj. 
(ra. 8g. dat. -tekis -asff^; f. -tlc^ -'^r^), having 
white spots on the skin, one who suffers from a leprosy 
that comes out in white spots. 

chata ^Z I ^TTf^^'^^Hf : m. a flock of sheep, etc., 
esp. such a flock led out for the season on to the hills 
for grazing. 

chata ^Z I T^W-, '^Tt'^^: adj. e.g. left to one side as 
unpleasing (of unsatisfactory things picked out of 
a pile and left uncared for, e.g. the bad fruit picked 
out of a basket of fruit and laid aside). 

chot" ^5 or chyot'^ wj I '^W- adj. (m. sg. dat. chatis 

Wt^oi" chetis lETfTI^, and so on ; f. chufe*^ 1 ^^ 
or chels" 1 ^^^, for chute*^ 2 see chath 2), white 
[Siv. li;}, 1.54;3,^1607, 166'2, K.Pr. -i'i (chot" pofeh", 
a white cotton coat), 116; Ram. 1502, 1614] ; dari- 
chot", white-bearded, a venerable person (Riim. 1600). 

—shin hyuh« — Tfti; f|| I ^l7T%fT^t^: adj. [f. 
chUfe" (chefe") shin hish" ^!5 (m^) ift'l ff^l, 
wliile like snow, snow-white. chotu-y ^JVH I 
t^^nft^SfW^ adv. uselessly, needlessly, unnecessarily, 
u.w. vbs. of coming back and the like. 

chat^ (chet*) krehan* fearan' ^t^ {^^) W^t? 
?rr'^t5 ' t^^^mUH. m. pi. inf., lit. to select blacks 
and whites ; hence, to be zealous iu picking holes in 
a person's (esp. a blameless person's) character, or in 
harmless words or actions. 

chub<* (chib*^) dal ^^ (igf^) ^ra i "ga^^ f. 

white (Idl, a certain dish made up of husked millets, 
husked beans, or similar white grains. — han — fs^ I 
^f^HT f. ' the white little ', i.e. that which remains 


after sorting or sifting out the dirty portion of things, 
such as grain or the like. — kun" — cjjof | ll^1jt%§^: 
f. the white stone, IV. of a place also known as 
' Sangsafcd ', marked by a white rock, from which 
issues the source of the river formerly known as 
Scetagangd, and now as Chafea-kol, q.v. s.v. The 
place is to the south-west of Srinagar, in the central 
part of the Plr Panteal Range round Mount Tatakutl. 
See RT.Tr. II, 418. 

chot" ^tW m. (?), a broom of twigs, a branch of a tree 
used as a broom. Only noted in K.Pr. 35. The 
form of the sg. nom. is uncertain. 

chatSg ^Zl^I I VZ^^TW^TTT'i; m. a certain weight, 
a chittack, the sixteenth part of a seer or 5 folds,. 
approximately 2 ounces avoirdupois; anything which 
weighs a chittack. 

chath 1 ^^ I ^fxizisriT m- (sg. dat. chatas WfT^). the 
thatch or roof of a house ; a ceiling. 

chath 2 or cheth 1 ^\ (ggr^) i ^tw: f. (sg. dat. 

chiib" 2 1^^ or cheb'* 2 #^; for l see chot"), injury, 
loss, harm, especially the loss or diminution of the 
original stuff incurred in the manufacture of vessels, 
ornaments, wooden furniture, or the like. — gafehUn" 
— T?5^ I '^f?1¥Trfi: f.inf. such loss of original 
material to occur. — heii" — fj^J I t'lJHSrr^'raf'T 
f.inf. to take (advant;ige of) loss, to cause or get 
a person to work for nothing. — ^nakha walun" 
— 'Hlf ^^"^ I ""^^ ^T^^qr^M'i: finf. to repay 
loss, to work badly (of one who is compelled to work 
against his will). 

chUts''(ch8b")-put" ^^5, (,#31)-^ I TTT-graiiwfr- 

^^TH^: m. a son of loss, a son born last of all in 
a large family (and hence unwelcome). 
chath sfz I ^i^Tt^HTT: "i- (sg. dat. chatas ^z^), 

the weight or amount of the load of a beast of 
burden, such as a horse, ass, or camel. 

cheth 2 la^ ni. the presentation of an offering to 
a deity (in Sanskrit haliddiuim) (Riim. 1132). 

chith fs53 I f^"^^TZ: f. (sg. dat. chiti t^fz), cotton 
cloth stamped in colours, chintz ; a chintz gannent 
(K.Pr. 28 contrasted with satin, 154, 239). chiti- 
dutay HffZ-^rf^ f. a chintz garment with very 
wide sleeves worn by Musalraan women ; it is some- 
times simply called dutay, q.v. (EL), -gar -^ m. 
a chintz-maker (EL), -nar^war -«TtT:^T^ I t^'^TJZ- 
^^»TWr^J^ m. a large kind of sleeve or cuff made of 
chintz and worn by women. 

chithi t^i^ f. a ticket (EL). 

chath^r w^^ i W^K m- (sg- dat. chat^ras w<tt^, 

abl. chat^ra ^c^^T > and so on, but pi. nom. chath*r 

For words not found under c8, chS, chy, or oy, see under ca, oha, ch, or c respectively, and rice versa. See article c. 

chital tlfz^ 

— 167 — 

chav 1 ?fra 

^^^), an umbrella, esp. a large umbrella held over 
kiugs or a small silver umbrella put over the idol in 
a temple ; a sort of umbrella made of flowers, etc., 
used at festivals (au ordinary umbrella is chat*r', 
q.v.) ; (?) a certain pot-herb, Megaearpcea polyandra 
(L. 72, chattr). 

chat°-ra-bun" W^IT-^ l ^^jt^W^ f • an umbrella 
plane-tree ; hence, met. a woman with many children, 
grandchildren, and other relations, -gul*^ -IM I 
^rwt^^^: m. N. of a well-known village in Lilr 
(Laliara) Pargana, close to Ramariidan, for which see 
RT.Tr. I, 114 (iii, 467 n.). -hal -fT^r I 'KTRir^^ii: 
f . (sg. dat. -hoj*^ -fi^r , Grr.Gr. 69) , a certain kind of 
rice ^vith a soft wliite grain, which is very fruitful. 
chital f^Z^ I f^'W^Z^^TT f- a woman who habitually 
wears cloth stamped in colours ; see chith. 

chatun ^^ or chetun w^^ I %<fl'*i^'ifi; c(jnj. 3 

(2 p.j). chatyov Ifaft^), to become white, to turn 
white (Siv. 1704) ; to be white ; (of the eyes) to become 
white, to lose their sight (Rilm. 1196). The cans, of 
this verb is chafe*run or chab°Tawun (Gr.Gr. 173, 

chatyo-mot"' ^i^-JTg i 'gwtwi: perf. part. (f. 
chatye-miife" ^^-JT^ ), become white, turned white, 
chltun WTZ1 I ■^Tfwwn;: conj. 1 (1 p.p. cliot" W^, 
pi. chSt' ^ttz; f. chSt" ^fz, pi. chlce iff^; 
2 p.p. chacyov ^f^^), to pick, pick out, cull, 
select, sort ; to discuss (rumour, news, etc.) ; to make 
public something which was known as a secret, esp. 
to disclose suddenly a secret anger, sorrow, or the Uke. 
ch6t"-mot" wff-'IJ I TI'Ff ^f^^fi: perf. part. (f. 
chbt'^-miife" ^l^-?i^ ), picked out, selected ; discussed 
(of news, rumour, etc.) ; disclosed (of anger, etc ). 

chat^ra W<IT. see chath^r. 

chat*r' ^fi[tT l '^flT^'l f- a" umbrella, a parasol. Cf. 

chat^ri-bardar i^r^^fr-^^^ i W'^^Tf^: ni. an 

umbrella-bearer, an official whose duty it is to carry 
the state umbrella over a king's head ; see chath^r. 

chator" ^fi^ or chatur" 1 ^w^ i 'fl'TTf: adj. (f. 

chatUr" ^ri^or chafr*^ 1 lffj^),fair-complexioned, 
fair-skinned, fair-limbed, esp. of a child, and 
equivalent to ' beautiful '. 

chatur" 2 i?g^ i ??c^j4^: m. (f. cliat"r*i 2 w^t^). 

a young fish, any tiny fish like a minnow or our 

chat^re ■^-^ l ^^»f^1^f : f-pl. a flock or crowd 
of such small fish. 
chiife" ^^ , see chot° and chath 2. 



Chafea-kfil W^IR^ l %fT1iI<sm T^ f. the White 
River, N. of a certain river in Kashmir, called in 
Sanskrit ScitdgdngCi (White Ganges) or Dngdliagangd 
(Milk Ganges). Its source is at Chuts"-kiiu'' in the 
I'lr Panfeiil Range to the south-west of Srlnagar. It 
runs into the Veth (Jehlam) in the town of Srlnagar 
at a place named in Sanskrit Bahiil;lidclake&a, still of 
some repute for its sanctity, and opposite the old 
quarter of Diddilmatha. Cf. chu1s"-kun" under 
Chot", RT.Tr. 11, 418, and El. s.v. dmtmhol. 

chafaar ^3^ or chetear ^?nc i ir^?ra*l i»- whiteness 
(Siv. 1707)^ 

chab^ran ^?r?:i i ^fit^^W»^(«»T^'T»i) f. (sg. dat. 

Chafe^run" ig^x;^), the act of making white, of 
whitening; the condition or state of becoming white, 
chafc^run w^^^'l l ^W^^TW^i;, 5Tf^(ft^TW»T conj. 1 
(1 p.p. chafr" ci^), to make white, to whiten; 
met. to put to !>hame, to make ashamed, to leave 
without answer; cans, of chatun (Gr.Gr. 173, 175). 
chafe^rana yun" w^Ti t^ I wt^ffti^^i*!; m. inf. 

pass, to be put to shame, to feel slianie, to feel oneself 
chafe^rawun g^^^jr^ii; i -g^^TiWi^C, ^f^nft^TWl 
conj. 1 (1 p.p. chab^row'^ W'^Ttf ), iq. chafe^run, 
q.v. (Gr.Gr. 173). chafe^rawana yun" ^5j;twt 
t^ I ^w»ft»^^»fTi; m. inf. pass., i.q. cha1s*rana 
yiin'*, see chab*run. 

chab^r6w"-inot" W^f^f'Tj i •^w^ri:, sftrr: 

perf. part, (f . chab^rbw^-miife" ?|^Tt^ - *ll? ) , made 
white, whitened, whited ; caused to feel asliamed ; 
publicly disgraced. 
chaba trela W?^ ^^ "!• " certain kind of apple (see 
El. s.v. tn-k). 

chwa ^T, chewa igR, chiwa fw^, ste chuh. 

chav ^'^ I ^131j\>tT f. the fine show or beauty made 
by new clothes when they are put on for the first 
time on the expiry of mourning for a father or other 
relation, going out of mourning. — gandufi." — 'i^^T I 
^^iftHTf^Vm'R; finf. to tie on pretty clothes ; 
(esp. of a man's -wife's relations) to put a man out of 
mourning by giving him a new suit of clothes, to 
induce (by such means) a son (or the like) to go out 
of mourning (for his father or the like). 

chav 1 lET^ I ^f^JTtn^: m. the final cooking of rice or 
other cooked food, after pouring off the water in 
which it has been boiled. It is then heated for 
a short time in order to drive off the suq^lus moisture. 
This heating is called chav. El. writes the word 
chhao, makes it f. and translates it ' boiling ' (Siv. 

For words not found under c8, ohe, chy, or cy, see under 08, oba, ch, or c respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

chav 2 ^^ 

— 168 — 

cak' ^^ 

1020, 1717). — yun" — f^g I TTlt'ngR'FfJrrqf^: 

m.inf. cooking to be completed, as ub. 

chav 2 WT^f- '1i"S"'g. i" tlio following : — chawa-chav 
^TW-^T^ 1 fl%TmT%ft f- 11 kind of gymnastic exercise, 
throwing a stick or the like from one to another, 
buck wards and forwards. Cf. chawun 1. 

chawo IfW I ^^VITTRftt^^SlT ni. tlie act of tucking 
up the skirts of a garment (as is done by villagers 
when working in the fields). 

chiv f^^, see chuh. 

chavekh ^T^sx^ , see chawun 2. 

chiwalay f^^^r^T f- in the following : — chiwalaye 
nerane fif ^^ra ^t;^ i TT^TTTT^t>*^»i^'rR: f . pi. inf. 

surplusage to issue, more than sufficient to exist, 
e.g. when food or money is being distributed amongst 
a number of people after every one has been supplied, 
something to remain over and above ; to be enough 
and to spare. 
chawan l^l^«t; in the following : — -dag -^ I 
<4il<H^M'UjI^ f. wasting time in tlie performance of 
any employer's work, by the workers pointing to each 
other as the proper person to do it ; as when e.g. A 
says "it's B's work", and B says "it's C's work", and 
says "it's A's work", so that in the end nothing 

is done. Cf. chop^rawan and chapawan. -das 

-3[T^ I ^^T^^^' ni. ' Mr. Shirker ', one who 
wastes time as above, a work-shirker, a skulker. 

chawun 1 WT^'i: i "!1^^t!I»i; conj. 1 (1 p.p. chow"^^), 
to throw anything at or to another person (RiTm. 923, 
chow^'-mot'^ 1 ift^-^rg i "^^ tuTh Tff^jc- p*^'"f- part- 

(f. chbW"-mub*^ ^Tf-?T!5), flung at anotlier. 

chawun 2 wi^^ I ^'I'fti: conj. 1 (1 p.p. chow" iflf), 

to enjoy, make use of, partake of, experience (Siv. 26, 
60, 132, 181, 511, 1008, 1058, 1691, 1711, 1782, 1800, 
1823; Ram. 1525, 1627, 1634, 1770) ; to experience 
(an odour), to smell (H. xiii, 3) ; to enjoy happiness 
or prosperity, to be happy, blessed, azal chawun 
chuh ^^^ Ifl^'^, If^, fate is to be experienced, one 
must diee one's weird (H. ix, 6). chavekh ^T=SJ^ 
or chayekh ^t^^ i 'gxuft'Tflit^: ben. sg. 2, mayst 
thou use, mayst thou have full enjoyment of (Grr.Gr. 
252). Hence, used as a subst. masc, full enjoyment, 
perfect bliss, equivalent to the Persian miibaraki 
(Siv. 668). 

chow"-mot" 2 Wl"f-?T^ I 'aW'af: perf. part. (f. 
chow'^-miife" e5T^-?T^)> enjoyed, used, partaken. 

chawun 3 ^fTf^ i f^fl^^T^'l conj. 1 (1 p.p. chow" 
^<J), to embroider (cL)th, etc.) (K.Pr. 260, where the 
inf. is translated ' jewels '. It seems really to mean 



' embroidery ', i.e. an embroidered garment ; so 
W. 149). 
chawun 4 W^^ conj. 1 (L p.p. chow" ^J), to 

complete the cooking of rice, vegetables, or the like 
when being boiled (K.Pr. 41) ; the 'completion' is 
done by pouring off the water, and placing the food 
over the fire for a short time, so as to drive away the 
surplus water. Cf. chav 1 and ada-chov" 1 under ad. 
chawun 5 (YZ. 254, 258, 527, etc.), incorr. for 
cawun, to give to drink, q.v. 

chiwun fifji; I ?T^?q^: conj. 3 (2 p.p. chivyov 
fi^cij^^), to be intoxicated, maddened (with wine, 
drugs, etc. (K.Pr. 5, Siv. 1860) ; to be proud, puffed 
up, arrogant, intoxicated with the possession of wealth 
or the like ; to be intoxicated, in rut (of an elephant, 
etc.). chivyo-mot" f^aft-^fj I ITTHfl^: perf. part. 
(f. chivy e-miife" f^^-ir^ ), intoxicated; arrogant 
(whether by nature or owing to some special cause) ; 
in rut (of an elephant, etc.). 

chiver f^^n^ I JT^TtTFIT ni. intoxication ; arrogance. 

chiw^rawun fle^TTfl i iT^Ji: conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

chiw^row" fl^^''^^), to intoxicate, madden (bj- the 
administration of wine or drugs or by suggestion) ; 
to make proud. 
chya WT, chey w^, cheye w^ : chuy ^^, chuye 

W^, see chuh. 

_ \» _ , 

cahy -m^ f-, iq- cah', q.v. 

chyuk" 1 f^g> or igj, see chikun. 

chyuk" 2 tlf^i or 1^ I oT^^^I-i^Ji; m. a squirt, 
S3'ringe for jirojecting water. 

chayekh ^Tsra (Siv. 668), see chawun 2. 

chyund"r" f^'^^. see chind*run. 

chyur"-mot" 1 and 2 l^^-sffT, see cherun and chorun. 

chyot" WJ, see chot". 

choz" w^ , see chod. 

CUJ" '^^i f. cij^la ^5f?rT m. the ash (Fraxinus 
.rn)it/wx///oif/es) (El.). 

caka 1 "^^ I t%i«hl(*lr|«tlfT^fv m. (for 2 see cakh 1 
and 2), curds, curdled milk {(fd/ii) from which the 
liquid portion, or whey, has been strained. 

caka TT^, see cakh 1 and 2. 

cak' ^^ I ^^t: f. longing, desire, urgent wish (for 
anything or to do anything). — afeun" — ^^^ I 
HI^UIl^r^fTT: f.inf. longing to enter, to expect to get 
something again and again because one has alieady 
once got it easily ; to be in the habit of doing any- 
thing, to do a thing easily from long practice. 

caki-khor 'g^f^-'i^tT '"• i^n eater of longing ; hence, 
one who does a thing easily from long practice, an old 
servant (K.Pr. 39). 

For words not found under o8, cM, ohy, or cy, see under oa, cha, oh, or c respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

cika f^^B 


cokh 1 "gt^ 

cika t%^, see cikh. 

coka 1 ^^ I irr^^S*SII«IH rn- ^ square ; an enclosure 
set ajjart for cooking or distributing food, the space 
in which a Hindii cooks and eats bis victuals (the 
ground being first plastered with mud and cowdung) ; 
a similar place set apart for worship ; a cooking-range. 
In the houses of the common people it is placed either 
in the small hall of the house or in the topmost floor 
(EL, who spells the word c/ioka). — dyun'' — ^^ I 
^T^^vTri^ m.inf. to prepare such an enclosure for eating 
or for worship, to plaster the ground with mud and 
cow-dung as ab. 

coka 2 ^^ m. an impediment, in the following: 
coka pyon"^ ^eR tzi^ I f%yiMld: m.inf. an impedi- 
ment to fall, a stoppage or impediment to occur 
during the execution of some work. — fehunun 
^W'^ I f^^^Tfl^W; m.inf. to throw an impediment, 
to cause an impediment to occur to another in the 
execution of some work on which he is engaged. 

coka 3, 4 ^^, cf. cokh 1 and 2. 

Cllk^ (?), f. a kind of barberry -tree bearing red fruit, 
Berhcris Lijcuim. cuki-phal (?), m. its fruit (L. 74). 

cuk' '5'^ I "^T^ f- '1 square and low four-legged seat, 
a stool, a bench. 

cikacav f^^'^T^ I ^^^f??^: m. the intoxication of 
youth (K.Pr. 207, of a young girl), the effervescence 
of spirits in a young man making him self-confident 
and daring. 

cokdan (?) m. a pole for beating the mud at the bottom 
of a lake when collecting water-chestnuts (L. 355, 
cho'hdioi). Cf. gor^-kow", under gor". 

cakdar \.iL>- m. a kind of Government tenant, an 
official who has obtained waste land on privileged 
terms (L. 414, 426). Cf. cakh 1. 

Cuk'dar ^l^i^i. m. a watchman, guard, sentinel, 
chowkidar ; a messenger (Riim. 584). 

cakh 1 -k^^t^f- I ^■^f^iint: m. (sg. dat. cakas ^m^, 

a plot of land (usually hitherto uncultivated) let for 
a fixed rent by Government; turf -clods (L. 464). 
cakh 2 j^f m. enmity, opposition, strife, altercation, 
tumult, wrangling, -cakh ^W-=^<I ^ -fT I iftltg^'T- 
TtfSMH m. babble, prating ; .scolding over and over 
again, a good continued scolding, esp. when ad- 
mini.stereil to children or the like. 

caka-bok" 'gafi-^gi l ^T^T^TffK: m. the confused 
noise of a number of peof)le talking at once, a hubbub. 
-cakh -^^ I efil'Wrf^: f. the confused noise made by 
a iiunil)i.r of peojjle (esp. children) talking or abusing 
eacli other at the same time, an angry hubbub. Cf. 




cakh 1 ^T'^ 1— 5'U- (also spelt cyakh ^rrer) i %^: m. 

(sg. dat. cakas TRR^), a tear or rent (of cloth, 
leather, or the like), cf. cokh 2; a crack (El.) ; as 
adj. broken, torn (El.) ; a splitting (of a rock, etc.) 
(Riim. 1197, 1694) ; met. of the heart being broken 
(Ram. 2:57, 771, 1503). — dyun" — t^ I t^?n^ 
m.inf. to tear, to rend (e.g. the clothes in grief, etc.) 
(YZ. 19, 440; Rmn. 119, 2G6, 283, 1537). — gafehan' 
— IWt'f I tW^*^^"^ m. pi. inf. tearing to occur, to 
be torn; to be split (with dat. of subject, YZ. 130). 
— karun — ^^s^ m.inf., i.q. cakh dyun" ab. 
(YZ. 536, Siv. 828, Riim. 156, 441, 444, 874, 1305). 

caka-wUt" ^^t^-^? i ^^r$^^: f- a slit or slash 
made on each side of the lower part of a garment. 

-wace dine -^^ f^i w^nRWTf^Ti%^i*i inf. 

to give such slits, hence to slash or tear a garment 

from the neck to lower end. 
cakh 2 ^T'l vl.=- I l^gg: adj. e.g. (as subst., sg. dat. 

cakas -qiq^), active, alert ; dexterous ; sound, 

healthy, hale, heart}^ in good spirits. 
cakh 3 ^11 m. in cakh-bakh 'qi'a-^T'a l Tt^Ti^T- 

•TTt^: m. loud lamentations, cries of grief, sorrow, 

or pain. Cf. cikh-bakh, under cikh. -bakh 

dyun'^ -^T'a f^j i ^^rrsTTqf^f^^gr^'w: m.inf. to 

make a complaint with loud lamentations (esp. of 
a complaint or call for justice to an official). 

cakha ^t^ (cf. ^-s^) l fsi^Teh^U!*^ m. dri\ing away vvdth 
abuse (e.g. a dog out of a kitchen) . — karun — ofi^'^ I 
fJlX^WR;- ni.inf. to drive away with abuse, as ab. 

cikh f^il I ff^'^H^: f. (sg. dat. ciki f^fsR), a shrill 
sound made by anj^ mechanical means ; a high-pitched 
cry (not necessarily loud) ; (pi.) met. grumbling, 
murmuring (Gr^I.). -bakh -^^^ I ^Jqif^WTIT- 
t^^gf^: m. (sg. dat. -bakas -^^^), a complaint 
made with loud lamentations (esp. of a complaint or 
call for justice to an official). Cf. cakh-bakh, under 
cakh 3. 

cika dine f^^ f^^I f. pi. inf. to grumble, niurmur 
(Gr.M.). -nad -MT^ I fft'ylirM'JIT^T'R^ m. a call or 
cry uttered in a high-pitched, but not harsh, voice. 
cikh ^^1 I wt^fTlTfT^T: f- (sg. dat. ciki ^fqj), 
a shrill, far-travelling sound, such as that emitted by 
the whistle of a locomotive-engine ; a scream, a screech. 

-bakh -^>a I ^^^T^t^'J'l f- (sg- d^it. baki ^f^B), 

weeping associated vvith screeches or screams (as when 
caused by rage or pain). 

cokh 1 'i^^ I ^g:^n^^l'l m. (sg. dat. cokas 'gt^^), 

a house in I lie form of a hollow square, witli a court- 
yard in the centre, into which rooms on all the four 
sides open. 

Fur words not I'ouiid under c8, cM, chy, or cy, see under ca, cha, ch, or c respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

cokh 2 Tt^ 

170 — 

cal 2 'gr^ 

cokh 2 '^^ I ^X- ^- (^?- ^^^- cokas '^>^^), a long 
stniiglit rent or tear in clotli or the like. Cf. 
cakh 1. 

c5kh ^^^ I ^T^(T: f. (sg. tlat. C5ki ^f^R), a sudden 
blow or bruise (esp. from something inanimate, e.g. 
from coming into collisiioii with a block of wood or the 
like) ; a shock, loss in trade, etc. — din" — 1^\ ' 
flfsieRT'T'l finf- to cause loss to another by setting 
an obstacle or stumbling-block in tlie way of his success. 
— lagun'' — ^fhf I ^Tf'T^H^: f inf • a stumbling-block 
to occur ; loss to occur by an obstacle coming in the 
way of success. — khen" — W^ I fT^^TfTT: f-inf. 
to suifei- loss as ab. 

cakh-cak' ^i^-^-^ i '[HTWl' f • ^ kind of dagger (worn 
concealed on the waist). 

cakh-candur" =^^3-^^^ i ^^^l^t- ™- ^ kind of 
charcoal used for fireworks. It is made by burning 
certain kinds of bark, and collecting the extinguished 
sparks. Children wrap it up in cloth, and swing it 
about after setting it on fire. Cf. Hindi cakacaundh. 

cakh^ma ^'(^T 'UXr- l ^qT«rf^^^; m. a kind of leather 
stocking worn in snowy places, snow-boots. 

cakhna (K.Pr. 55), incorrect for HinddstanI cikna, 
smooth, shining, cheerful. 

Cokh"r^ '^t'S'^ I ?T''^'^ f . a group of four, an assembly 
of four 2)ersons ; hence, a small assembly. 

caukharun ^^Tl^'l, or cSkharun ^'g^'t I ^^^T^l 
conj. 3 (2 p.p. caukharyov ^%?ff^), to shrivel up, 
become withered, as the hands or feet from excessive 
cold, or some delicate flower from extreme heat. 

cSkharawun ^1riix:Tf5i; conj. 1 (1 p.p. cSkharow"^ 

^^tI'^), to cause to be withered or shrivelled 

cokhta ^'i l aft^Rf^^^: m. roast meat kept over from 
dinner and suitable for the following midday meal, 
equivalent to our ' cold joint '. 

cakla '^W 'iJ^^ I ^JI'EWi: m. a tract of country divided 
into village-areas, a group of villages (H. ix, 10). 
Cakladar (= Hinddstilnl^b =4^) m. a subordinate 
revenue official or speculating contractor for small 
areas of land (L. 408, 421). 

cikan V^^;^ ^C=- i xi|f%r^firi m. a particular mode of 
working silk flowers on muslin or other cloth (El.) ; 
embroider}', ' chicken - work.' -dor" -^^ m. an 
embroiderer (EL). — kadan^ — ^^^ I ■^fW'TTt'^Trri^ 
m. pi. inf. to pick out embroidery ; met. excessively' 
and unnecessarily to test another's statements ; to bring 
under discussion over and over again, -kar .li ^^ 
adj. e.g. embroidered, the name of a certain kind of 
shawl (L. 377, chiknikdr). 




eukun ^i; i ^^ttf^^t^^j?: conj. 3 (2 p.p. cukyov 

"^^t^), to be finished, completed, settled, decided 

(of a lawsuit, quarrel, or the like). 
cakar ^t^/U- or clkar '^f^ (K.Pr. 42) i ^^sr: m. 

a servant, esp. a house servant, a shampooer servant, 

or the like. 
cakora '^^'^ I tfl'^ir: adj. e.g. sharp, quick, intelligent 

(esp. of a boy or girl). 

cikra fg?ii in the following : cikra-bakar f^si;-^^ i 

^^517?^: f. noise, esp. the disturbing noise created b)' 
a number of children quarrelling or crying. Cf. caka- 

cakh under cakh 2. — haray — fK^ I ^^T- 

1^1%^'^'. f- the noise made by a crowd (esp. of children 
or of birds). 

cikar f^«RTT ' If^^lf^^^: m- N. of a mountainous tract 
in the west of Kashmir along the left bank of the Veth 
(Jehlam) between CikotI and Domel. Immediately 
to its west is the British District of Haziira. 

cikara i.lCs- adj. e.g. lit. 'of what use?' useless, worth- 
less, contemptible, cikaras hyon" f^<fii<,^ li^ I 
11% TW^'T^I m.inf. to be countable on an occasion 
of honour (i.e. of one whose character has to be 
considered before deciding as to the amount of respect 
to be shown to him) ; to consider mean or con- 
temptible (used especially \vith reference to one who 
has taken a bribe and cannot be trusted). 

cakrun (EL), for chak^run, q.v. 

cukaras (K.Pr. 42, chuhkams), see chukur. 

cukaw ^^T% I T^rf'I'^'?!: ni. the settlement or fixing 
of a i^rice between buyer and seller ; the settlement 
or adjustment of an account. 

cukawun ^^5«i; I ^^fi"g^^TT!rai: conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

cukow" ^«r1'^), to fix or settle a price (between 
buj'er and seller), to agree to a price, cukow"- 
mot" 'g^g-?TfT I ^fflJT'^f^W^: perf part. (f. cukbw"- 
miife" '3^11^" 'T^), having the price settled, that of 
which the price has been agreed upon. 

cakwari (?), a certain kind of boat used by people of 
high rank in Kashmir (L. 382, chakwari). 

cal '^^ I ^TTfT: m. a sudden or unexpected happening 
of any conduct (such as giving and re-laying, buying 
and selling, or the like). — yun° — t^g I t^'^^qirf: 
m.inf. something unpleasant to happen unexpectedly 
(such as the arrival of an enemy, or the inconvenient 
demand for the repayment of a debt). 

cal 1 'gra I ^qift'n f. (sg.dat. cali l ^rf^), beauty of 
form (of anything animate or inanimate) (K.Pr. 71, 
of a horse ; so W. 139). 

cal 2 '^T^ or cyal '^n^ i ■^^: f. (sg. dat. cali 2 ^Tf% 

or cyali ^Tf^ ), rule, practice, course, procedure. 

For words not fouud under eg, che. ohy, or cy, see \inder ca, cha, oh, iir o respectively, and vice versa. See urtiele o. 

cela ^^ 

— 171 

camakun ^'TSf'l. 

method, mode, manner ; conduct, behaviour, character 
(Grr.M., K.Pr. 156) ; with sufP. of indef. art., calah, 
a mode of life (Siv. 818). 

cela ^^ I ttr^' m- a pupil, disciple, follower ; esp. 
one of the disciples or followers in a Hindii monastery, 
whose duty it is to cany on the traditions and 
perform the ritual hiid down by the founder. 

cil f^^ I JT^T^^: ni. a wooden pile, a piece of timber 
driven into the ground for building or strengthening 
embankments, etc. (Siv. 1109) ; cf. cilacil. — dyun'' 
— f^ I ^jgfsi<=|«T«!*^ ra.inf. to drive a pile or piles. 

cila-juvur" f^^-^^^ i ^^rrar^qTvn'ft f • a wooden 

pillar driven into the ground for carrying a light, 
a lamp-post. 
cil =^5I in. Piiius exceha (El.). 

cila f^, see cilia. 

col (?), N. of a Kashmiri tree, Euonymus sp., the spindle- 
tree. It is somewhat rare and grows at high 
elevations. Its wood is highly valued as a material 
for pen-boxes and for tablets in lieu of slates at school 
(L. 79, 82, Choi). Cf. ciial. 

Cbl' ^T^ f- e.xoitement, in the following : col^ khasun* 
^^ (^^3{ I JT^'^^: f.inf. excitement to rise, esp. 
mad desire for the accomplishment of some purpose 
to arise in a person who cannot accomplish it without 

CUal ^■^^ m. Euonymus fimb7-iata and HamUtonii (El.). 

Cf . col. ^ 
cul'^t^ I ^W' f. (sg. dat. cole ^^), a small jacket 
or bodice, usually reaching down about as far as the 

cilacil f%^rf%?5 f- in cilacil kariin" t%^rf%^ ^T^ I 
"^yfli'. ♦d4«)r^<sl»1*1H f-inf. to drive a number of piles 
clo>e together in making an embankment, etc. Cf. cil. 

Cailcalira P^^^^^V^ m. Parmdia chanichadcdis (EL). 

calador ^^^>t: I «JIf[N(ll ^STWrv^: e.g. one who is 
good at urging others to work (with his voice only, 
and not by example). 

cilki (Hindd.-stanl ,S^^ ) > the local rupee formerly current 
in Kashmir and worth about 10 anils in British- 
Indian coinage (L. 236). 

calakh ^.TjIU- adj. e.g. active, alert, nimble; expert, 
dexterous; clever, ingenious; vigilant; artful, cunning. 
— rozun — ■'Ct^I'l m.inf. to remain vigilant, to keep 
vigilant (Riim.''l321). 

cilikh t%t%i^ I Ttfrr: f. (sg- dat. ciliki f^fsrfgR), the 

manner or ciistomury method of conducting any 
business. — neriin** — ^"t^ I T^fTtf^T^^TT: finf. 
such a method to issue forth, the starting of a new 
method of business. 

cilia t%5r ^i-^ or cila f%^ i 'gwrfTU^: ^rra: m. 

a jieriod of forty days ; the fort}' days of Ijcnt during 
which Musalmiin religious fraternities seclude them- 
selves in their cells or in their mosques, and remain 
at home fasting and engaged in divine worship ; the 
fast of Lent. 

cilas behun f^^ ww^ I '^c^Tf^^^Tf^^fi^fi- 
f^VTf i; m.inf. to pass forty consecutive days in fasting 
and divine worship in a cell or mosque, etc. ; to keep 

cUim 1%f%3R; l VWin^qT'^H f. the bowl of a huqqa, or 
hubble-bubble tobacco pipe, whicli holds tlie tobacco 
and the fire (K.Pr. 204, chihm). — cyon" — •^, 
to smoke tobacco (K.Pr. 241). 

calan ^^^l=- m. an invoice or waybill, bill of lading, 
letter of advice (II. viii, 10). 

cilas t^Wra;, I ^irt%^^: ni. the country commonly called 
Chillis, to the north and north-west of Kashmir. It 
contains a celebrated shrine of Siiradii, the patron 
goddess of Kashmir. 

cilbs* f^^r'^ I ^f^^q"^¥^: adj. e.g. of, belonging to, 
or produced in the country of Chilils ; a kind of 
tobacco, the plant of which has green flowers, 
Nicotiana riistica (L. 3 16). 

cum 1 *=>- m. boasting, gasconade, in the following : 

cum-kutun" ^^T-^^ i '?l^:'5f%Tt wff t^^: m. that 

which is hollow within but outwardly solid in 

appearance, a hollow fi'aud. 
cum 2 ^^t m. fawning, in the following : cuma-c6t° 

^?T-^73 I ^Tf?^*!!^ ni- one who fuwns and licks, 

a flatterer, sycophant, fawner. Cf. cumun. 
camba ^(1^ m. Jasminum grandiflorum, J. officinale, and 

J. rerolutuni (El.). 
CUmba (L. 464, vJiitinha), see chomb. 
cambel ^^^ f. the jasmine, Jasminum grandiflorum. 

camakh ^?t^ I ^(tt: f- (sg- dat. camaki ^*rf%), 

glitter, brilliance, splendour ; flash ; gleam. Cf. 
Gr.Gr. 125. 

cama-khama ^?i-^^ ( = ^ ^) i ^mf^TTrft adj. e.g. 

moving gracefully, swaying coquettishly ; hence, 
stately, pompous. 
camkan ^J^^i: I ^^tsr^UTf^^: m. a glittering leaf 
of metal suspended from jewellery worn on the fore- 
head, etc., a spangle. 

camakun 'sr^Rgi'i; (also spelt cemakun ■^JTj't,) i 

^TT5I^ conj. 3 (2 p.p. camakyov ^?T^^), to shine, 
beam, glow, glitter, sparkle, glisten (Siv. 1703) ; to 
shine, be pre-eminent (in character, etc., of human 
beings) ; to be prosperous, have a bright outlook, (of 
trade or the like), to revive (Gr.M.). 

F(ir words not found under ce, chS, ehy, or cy, see under oa, cha, ch, or c respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

Z 1 

camkath ^fl,^T^ 

— 172 — 

cond'* 'gTC? 

camkath ^n^^rra m. (sg. dat. camkatas 'qii^Tm), 

DcHiiwdtini tilia'foUuin (Kl.). 

camakawun 'gir^iiT^'^ (also spelt cemakawun ^»t- 
qjT^si;), coiij. 1 (1 p.p. camakawow" ^iR^TTt^), to 

cause to shine, to make biilliant, polish (Siv. 1660). 

cumun 'g^'i, i '?it?nTmi'i; conj. 1 (1 p.p. cum" 'gw), 

to show humility (to a person), to fawn upon, flatter, 
to implore with flattering words. 

campa ^^, see cSph. 

camar ^?nT I ^^^ m- lit- a 1°^ caste leather-worker, 
hut used to mean any vile person, a vile sinner, one 
whose conduct is sinful and vile. 

camargi ^ITTT'T^ l ^^1 f- conduct such as that of 
a vile sinner (see camar), a habit of causing sorrow 
or trouble to others. 

camarton" ^JTTTfTtg I ^^^^^^ll7t: m- conduct such 
as that of a vile sinner (see camar), esp. when such 
is performed by a pei-son usually well-conducted. 

Cumta ^*[Z I ^it^l^^lft ra. tongs, forceps, pincers, 
nippers, used principally for taking up burning coals 
or the like. 

can (El.), for chan, q.v. 

cana ^T I ^T?r^: m. the chick-pea, Ciccv aviefinum, 
commonly called ' gram ' (El.), -cambel -^%^ I 
«l5T!r^ MWK f. anything to be eaten in grains, such 
as mixed peas, pulses, and the like, parched together 
and eaten dry. -phal' pother -xii^ ^T^ 1 '^S- 
^■3n"f«{*i«('*ll lu. ht. the manner of pea-grains ; hence, 
a condition of temporary, loose friendship, quickly 
made and quickly dissolved. 

cauni, see cun^ 

cen ''^S^ I V[^r{^ m. (for gender see Gr.Gr. 120), a drink, 
a beverage (Sanskrit pdnain in Kashmlm-iabdamrta, 
IX, ii, 41), esp. a beverage fit to be drunk in large 
quantities, a large draught. 

cena- ^h-, see cyon". 

ceni ■«*J«n 1 ^l^ m. impers. fut. part, of cyon", that 

which is to be drunk, bibendum (Gr.Gr. Ill) ; hence, 

any potable beverage. 
cin 1 ^s^^ m. the country of China (Gr.M.) ; see cuna, 
Cin 2 'q^'i: f- a large dish (EL, K.Pr. 2, 6, 211, where it 

is spelt c/ii/i, i.e. cin). 
cin 3 ^,-j- ? f. a fold, plait (YZ. 5, of hair). 
Cina ^•ff, cinwa 1%'^^ m. Panicum miliaceuin (EL). 

It is like rice in appearance, but is grown on dry laud 

(L. 337). 
cin^ 1 ^t5. see cuna. 

cin' 2 '€t^ adj. e.g. (as subst., f. cinl ^f«l), of or 
belonging to China (Gr.Qr. 150). — khos*^ — ^^ 
m. a china cup (ib.) ; see, however, cuna. 

cuna ^T or cyuna '^»T I WJJ m. (in composition this 
word takes the form cin^ ^^, as if from cyun" 

■^•T), lime. 

cin'-khos" '^t^-'ftf I f ^irrt^^f^B*< i ^ "i H m- 

a kind of metal ciq) (usually of brass) covered or orna- 
mented with a lime-cement or enamel (probably really 
connected with the word 'china', see the next; in 
Gr.Gr. 150 the word cin' is given as an adj. meaning 
of or belonging to China), -pyala -IZIT^ I ^VT1%K- 
^i^m^ m. a kind of earthenware cup ornamented with 
lime-cement or enamel. (The word «;*' has here two 
meaning.s — one connected with citnii, lime, and the 
other moaning china, i.e. a cup made after the Chinese 
cun' ^t^ I T'^^'^^'l f- '' >^liark, ii small ruby or other 
gem, or a similar spark of an imitation gem (El. 

chauni, i.e. cauni) . — hSn° — ff^ i WMl|i»(*i finf- 

to mark a pattern of creases ah)ng the edge of a clotli. 
— lagiin" — ^T^I^ I ^Wrr^^TlTI f "it- to set sparks 
or other small gems, to fasten them in an ornament ; 
to corroborate or confirm a statement made by another. 
cuni-dar ^-^TT l ^f%rT»TtT!r^: adj. e.g. (of an 
ornament, etc.), set or studdod with sparks or small 
gems, -gar -T^ I "f^f^aif^^ in. a gem-setter, one 
whose j)rofession is to set sparks or small gems in 
ornaments of gold, silver, etc. 

cane (EL), i.q. chbch, q.v. 

cance for cSce, see c8t". 

conca, conce (and chohchih), see c5ca. 

canca-mya-mya, see cica-mya-mya. 

cancararay, see clcararay. 

cand ^ifS l ^xjgY f. an unruly woman, a vixen, a 
slattern ; a woman of bad character who will not obey' 
the ordinary decencies of life. 

canda-bapar ^Tj^-^inT i ^Ts^j^nrr ni. habitual 

action such as that of an unruly woman or slattern. 
-miib" -»T^ I ^•ilTltfi'sMI f. a mad slattern, a woman 
who is such a vixen or slattern that she is as good as 

canda ^s^ (also spelt cenda '^s^) i ^^srI^ij: m. 
a pocket (in a garment) (K.Pr. 4, 8, 18, 25, 43, 189, 
201, 253 ; W. 135 ; Siv. 1201) ; a purse (EL), -gol" 
-'1^ I ^^'^'!r*J*s(*t ni. the opening of a pocket. 
.g6ts"r" -J^^ I ^^^"^irnirrT: f- the bag part of 
a pocket, which holds the articles put into it. -feur 
-i|T I 4^«Rtin^^f1T^: '». a pickpocket, one who 
steals from pockets, -feur' -^^ f. pocket-iaicking (EL). 

cbnd', see c8d'. 

COnd" '^T!^ I ♦ii(^c(i^^^^: m. an intoxicating drug 
made of opium and smoked in a pipe. 

For words not fouiiil iindcr ce, che, chy, or cy, see umlur ca, cha, ch, ur c respectively, aud vice versa. See article c. 

candoj" 'gx!^^ 

— 173 

capar ^tn: 

candbj" ^^SST^. see candal. 

candal 'gn!^^ I ^t^t^: m. (f. candbj" '^T^iw), a man 

of a degraded tribe, sucli as a leather-worker or other 
low caste. 
candaPgi ^ts^T^'I^ I ^U^I^JIdl f- the actions of a 
candal; lience (of a man of higher caste), cruel, vile, 
despicable, or sinful conduct. 

candalil ^^ti^Tf^^ I ^t^^tit f-, iq- candal^'gi, q.v. 

candan-, incorr. for feandan-, q.v. 

Cang I— ^j!^ m. a claw (of a wild beast), talon (of 
a bird). — yun" ^V_ ftfj I ^T^mf!'. m.inf. a claw to 
come (i.e. falling into someone's claw) ; hence, distress 
to arrive (esp. some causeless distress to aiise through 
the action of a king or the like which can only be 
avoided or removed at great cost), tyranny to be 
experienced. canga-tala nerun '#1-fT^ ^^s^ I 
»T^Tti('Tf?lf: m.inf. to issue from under the claw, to 
escape clear from tyranny or distress. 

cang, see cig. 

canga ^^ ( = k— <:^) l ^T^rf^^'?: ni. a certain musical 
instrument, a kind of Jew's harp (L. !i07) ; N. of 
a sept in Kashmir, whose ancestor is said to have 
played this instrument (L. 307). 

cenagrakh ^^i^ig, see cyon". 

cangus ^1^ m. N. of a village famous for its singing- 
and dancing-girls (EL). 

cenahar ^•j^i<, see cyon". 

conj" ^f or conj° % i -^Rm^^^rrft adj. (f. cbnj" 

M^ or cuni*^ ^W), one who is accustomed to act 
« ^ . . . *^. 

\vithaut discrimination or without previous reflection. 

canj-phanj ^ - t«^ I '^rWT^flWT^R ni. (apparently 
a jingle of phanj, cf. Persian jcj falsehood ; see 
phand), statements partly true and partly false (e.g. 
in flattery or tlie like). 

cankar ^t^T (K.Pr. -12), see cakar. 

cuiikaras (K.Pr. 42), see chukur. 

cont" ^■'Sf . see cot". 

Cbnt" ^TT^, see COt". 

centha ^^, see cltha. 

cinwa i^^^l , see cini,. 

cena-woP ^^T^-^^, see cyon". 

cunz" ^sf f- a maid-servant (EL). 

can ^»l I ir^*^^' ^- onomat. the sound made by 
a slap of the open hand on the shoulder or similar 
flat part of the body, -can -'^^ I ^g^T'H'Sr^f^^: 
m. onomat. a howl, such as tliut made by a dog when 

cin f^m I TTf^^^' f- a kind of eartlienware dish or 
saucer used by Musalmiins (El. i7iin). 

eln° ^^, seo cyon". 


caner ^T^f^, see cyaner. 
capa 1 ^'^ ^=- l ^srfT'^'l "i- an oar, a paddle. 
Capa 2 ^(^ m. a crumb of bread (EL). 
capa 3 and 4 ^Tj, see caph 1 and 2. 
cop" ^^ m. the instep (EL). 

capacar ^q^ir; l '^fTnfl'^flT m. extreme haste or speed 
(in the performance of any action or business). Cf. 

cap"r*^ 1 and ear l. 

caph 1 ^^ m. onomat., used in the following : capa- 

caph ^tr-'gi^ f. (Gr.Gr. 75), or caph-caph ^-^ i 
*sll^»(l(s^: m. onomat. (sg. dat. -capas -'gxj^), the 
ugly sound made in greedily eating, as if one were 
a hungry dog. 
caph 2 ^ I f^l^a^^MT f. (sg- dat. capi ^ftr), false tale- 
bearing, slandering (esp. of a servant to his master 
against a fellow-servant) ; cf. ^^j'j t_^3- to deceive. 
— kh6n" — igi^ I t^^'^^^TT^VT'W: f.inf. to tell 
false tales of, inform against, us ab. 

capa gabhun ^^ Tfi; I X!^^^>?^T*i; m.inf. (of 

an overseer or the like) to show habitual disfavour to 
one person or set of people and at the same time to 
show habitual favour to another person or set of people. 
ciph ^15 f. (sg. dat. cSpi ^ft^), pressing, squeezing, 
used in the following : clpa carane ^'^ ^TT^ • 
^%f^^'^»!'^ f- pL inf. to put to a certain form of 
torture, in which wedges of wood are placed between 
the fingers, which are then tightly bound together. 

Cf. cap"r" 2. 

caphkal' ^tfi^% l ^WTHT^Tf^^^^ f- » necklace worn 
by women, composed of little ornaments in the form 
of the bud of the campd flower (Hindi, campa-l-ali). 

caphkali-hot" ^^f^-f^ i ^rraw^^w^w: m. 

a throat adorned by wearing such a necklace, -hofe" 
-^^ I ^■'!?lT^T'T^'!r'^''f m. a die for stamping the 
canipa-hn(\. beads of such a necklace, -phol" -''Sgr I 
«fiT!?*T^T^^1 "1- a single cuwpd-hnA bend of such 
a necklace, -posh -xitl| i ^W^tntR^^Tqi^ m. the 
gold setting (like a flower) in which the vaiiipd-hwdi 
beads of such a necklace are set. -rosh" -^^ I 
eRWTHTW'^^' "^- ^ long, thick variety of the above 

cipa-kon" t^xT-?Rt^ I ?T?^nqrncr^^: adj. (f. -kon" 

-«li'N[), dull-eyed, blear-eyed (e.g. from illness, or 

from having mean, insignificant eyes). 
capll ( = Hinddstiinl ,X^) f • a slipper, a sandal (cf. 

L. 69). 
caupan, COpan ^-1;^.=^ >"• a shepherd (L. 361). 
Copandiga (?t_Xl|j yj^^}^) m- Achillea millefolium (EL). 
capar ^mr ' ^<3fifi« '^i- excessive talkativeness, vain 

talking (esp. when untruthful) ; cf. car. — karun 

For words not found uiukr oe, ch6, cliy, or cy, see under ca, oha, ch, <ir c ruspectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

capar' ^q^ 

174 — 

c6r° 3 '^^ 

— ^r^«T^ I ^f?Tf%'^^^*rnJWl m.inf. to prate excessively, 

use vain talking (esp. when the talking is reprehensible) . 
capar' '^TTT^ I WF>1T^'!I1I^^: adj. e.g. one who is in 

the habit of using excessive talking (esp. when vain 

capur"'gT3^ i ^fTTf^^TTRT^: adj. (f. cap^r" 'gT^hi;), 

i.q. caparS q.v. 
cap"r" 1 'g't^ l ^ftWtn f- haste, agitation, flurry ; cf. 

capacar and car 1. cap*re gandaiie ^^^ tt^^ i 
■ tj) tlfjI ^TtpfT^; f. pi. inf. to harass or afilict a person 
so as to induce him to perform quickly some action 
(e.g. to repay a debt). 
cap**!" 2 ^'i^ I «Rl^5rf%^^: f- the wedge placed between 
the fingers and used in the torture called capa 

carane. See cSph. 

cap^ras ^T^T^ I ^^W^'^ ni. a badge as a mark of 
office worn by official messengers or peons (usually 
upon the belt or liead-dress). 

cap*rbs* ^^T^ I ^^f: m- one who wears a cajfrds or 
badge, a j:)con, orderly, messenger of a court (L. 450). 

capath '^trr^ ^^"Vr ' ^t^^T f- (sg. dut. capbfc*' 

^TtV^ ), a slap with the palm of the hand, esp. on the 
cheet (K.Pr. 74, 156; Siv. 873). — layiin* 
— 5n^i^ I ^qfz«liTK% M U! H finf- to slap a person on 
the cheek ; met. to swindle another out of property. 

capathal ^ire^ l ^^'ggr;^: adj. eg. quadrangular 
and, at the same time, long ; plank-shaped. 

capav ^m^ l ?r^1TSI'. ni. the entire destiuction of 
a living being, utter destruction. 

car 'gr^ I ^Slfwt m. excessive talking, esp. self -conceited 
talk, bragging, as e.g. when a man who is not able to 
accomplish more than a very little, brags about his 
ability (o accomplish something difficult, and does 
nothing but talk, without making a real attempt ; cf. 

, capar, carcar, and caral. — karun — cfi^'^ i 

^('jflif^^MH m.inf. to stand by and prate advice 

as ab. 
car 1 ^K I ?fVWc1l m. quickness, speed ; of. capacar 

and cap^r** 1. 

cara-car ^^-'^'^ l '^f?I^'5Tf!T f. extreme haste 

or speed in the performance of any work. 
car 2 ^T^ 1 iJ^^5T»T m. drawing tight ; bracing ; tying 

tightly (Gr.Gr. 124), fastening, strapping, binding; 

pressing upon, bearing hard upon, oppression; wringing, 

squeezing (cf. atha-car under atha and cSpa 

carane under clph). — abun — '^^ I ^rrvtfqt%: 

m.inf. squeezing to enter ; harassment or urgent 
pressing of a person to occur in order to induce him 
to do something or to make him repay a debt, pay 
a tax, and so on ; .squeezing to extoii payment to 



occur, —karun — ^R^'i: l WTOTf^^arr'Ul m.inf. to 
urge or harass a jierson to do something quickly ; as 
ab., to squeeze for payment. Cf. cap^'ri gandane 
under cap^r** 1. — Isanun — ^T^l, I cff^5R: m.inf. 
id. — yun" — f^rg I ^^Tt^K^^. m.inf. squeezing 
to come ; oppression from violence, esp. violence to 
induce a person to do anything, to occur. 

cara ^t^ or cyara '^ttt ^^j^ i ^^t^t: m- a device, 
stratagem, artifice ; a means of success ; redress, help, 
resource (Siv. 11, 69, 129, 152, 429, 1473, 1581, 1582, 
1897 ; Eilm. 264, 333, 385, etc.). -saz -^3j m. 
a helper, protector (Riim. 70). -sozl -^^ f. heljnng, 
giving protection (Ram. 361). 

cari (? spelling), in cari-hakh, m. (L. 72) (sg. dat. 
•hakas -?T^i^), a certain warm jiotherb, Campaiutla sp. 

Cer ^t; I ■^ffrf^^^' f- a kind of sewing, tacking two 
pieces of cloth together. Cf. CUT'. 

Cir ifli, m. twisting, wringing ; tearing by twisting or 
wringing (Gr.Gr. 1-23) ; cf. atha-cir under atha, 

and ara-cir under ara 1. -car -^■^ i ^^T'l m. 

tearing fine cloth or the like by twisting and wringing. 
— dyun" — 1^ 1 piiuft^^n^ m.inf. to squeeze out, 
wring out liquid from anything, e.g. matter from 
a boil. 

cira ^'^ I ^(SH adv. firmly, tightly, u.w.vbs. of 
tying, etc. 
cir' 1 ^t^ I ^f^^ f. (sg. dat. cire '€t^, Gr.Gr. 61 ; 
for 2 see cirun), a slij) of paper, esp. one used for 
a memorandum, account, a lotter\' ticket (Gr.Gr. 60), 
or business acknowledgment ; a document, paper used 

as evidence, a deed. Cf. amanath-cir^ — trawun* 

— TR^ I ''T^'^H'^nrarrmfTf'^^ finf. to throw down 
a pajjer ; esp. to cast a lottery slip or the like, when 
a number of names are written on separate slips of 
paper and mixed together, the prize-wiuner being 
drawn by chance from among them. 

cir' 3 ^^ f. (sg. dat. cire '!^^), a certain thorny plant 
(Siv. 1021). 

cor" 1 "g^ I ^'^ft^^: m. the ' Persian lamb ', the 
young of a sheei^ found in Central Asia. 

car'-mus^a ^^-^^ I ^^f^^^'^^ m. the soft 

woolly skin of this lamb used for making warm 
clothing, such as podins and the like. 

cor" 2 '4^ I ^^'^rft adj. (f. ciir" ^^), one who is 
fond of talking much, esp. of talking untruths and 
nonsense, a careless, heedless prater. Cf. car. 

cor" 3 ^•^ (also written cyor" ^^) I •^R^JJ^i^Tf adj. 
(f. cor" 3 '^^, Gr.Gr. 12, for cor" 1 and 2 and 
cor" 1 and 2 see carun 1 and 2), one who is 
accustomed to conduct himself unworthily in whatever 

For words uot liiuud under eg, ehi, chy, or cy, see under oa, cha. ch, or c resi)cctively, and vice veraa. See article c. 

cor" 1 'qr^ 


carakh ^r^ 

he .says or does ; an idiot (Gr.Gr. 12, Siv. 1639 ; El. 
chor, f. char). 

COr^ 1 and 2 ''^T^, 1 p.p. f. of carun 1 and 2, qq.v. 

cor'' 3 =^1^, .see cor". 

cor" 4 '^Tf; I fTW^^: f. a kind of long-leafed grass 
growing in wet ground and used as fodder. 

cur' ^'^ I ^t^: f . a collection of creases in fine cloth or 
the like made by folding, sewing, etc., gathers, 
rucking, smocking, ' shirring.' Cf. cer. CUri-bulbul 
^1T-^^^^ I '^•rT:''R«'sft Wtft^T^t m. a man outwardly 
prosperous but really so poor that he wants the 
necessaries of life, -nor" -•T^ I ^fy »i e} ^j^M^f : m. 
a garment, the sleeves of which are ornamented with 
fancy smocking. 

CUru (? spelling) in CUru-caras (L. 67, churu chan-as)^ 
a kind of ' charas ' (see cars) extracted from the 
female hemp plant, and the same as the Indian (janja. 
It is also called gardbang (dust bhang), and Curu is 
apparently the same as the Hindostilnl cum, powdered. 

cur" ^ for cyur", see cirun. 

carb ^ s->^ ' ^^- ™- {^%- ^^1- carba 1 ^^), fat, 

grease, .suet, tallow (IliTm. 839). 

carba-bagaira (?) ^-■^^■^ m. a dish composed of 
suet and vegetables (EL). Cf. bagor". -bUnth 
-^T!^ I ^^jfjT^^ f. (sg. dat. -■biinti -^ifW), an apple of 
fat ; hence, a plump (esp. a fat and stupid) woman. 

carbas tal wblinj gafehun" ^^ rra Mt%^ 

IffSf I 1'nt^'T^«R^ f.inf. the heart to go (concealed) 
under the suet ; hence, to show a brave face in the 
presence of a cause for fear. 

carba 2 ^^ l M^\ adj. e.g. (for 1 see caxb), fat, stout, 

carbi , cJ-=^ f- fat, grease, suet, tallow. — anuu'' 
— '^•i^i I ?T^5^: f.inf. to bring fat ; hence, self- 
confidence or presumption to arise in one (esp. in one 
who has suffered defeat and subsequently obtained 
assistance and materials). 

curba '^ in the following : curba bazun ^ ^w^ \ 

t%fSiJHT^l^»fr^fT1 m.inf. to give or prepare a special 
titbit of dainty food just after midday, in addition to 
the usual morning and afternoon meal. 

cirbal f^^^ I ^^^t^^^^TT m. the game of football. 

carca "^^ l '^^, ^^TTfflU^: "i- discussion, encomium, 
esp. of some absent person's actions or affairs ; coming 
into fashion, great appreciation (e.g. of something for 
sale which has a great many would-be purchasers). 

carcar ^^ m. in the following: caxcar karun ^^ 

^inil, I ^^»ni; m.inf. to prate, chatter, so as to distract 
the attention of anotlier from his work. Cf. car. 
— lagun — WPfl I ^^?^W^: m.inf. to keep 



making a noise that distracts the attention of another 
(of children and the like). 

carcar '^T^f'^ in the following : carcar-goy" "^T^^- 
aig I W^»1T^ adj. (f. -guy" -^hl ), one who by nature 

is a prater or talker of nonsense. 
circir f^f^ l ^f^H^: m. onomat. the chirping or 
twittering of small birds (esp. when a number are 

collected together). Cf. ciriv ciriv. — karun 

— ^i^»t,l 'T«^^T;«Bt^fTW^: m.inf. to make a twittering; 
to make a low murmuring sound (of talking or 
weeping), esp. one which distracts the attention of 
another; to be peevish (Gr.M.). — lagun — ^ITfl. I 
JT:^^X;«Rt^TW^T^' 'u.inf. such a low murmuring 
sound to begin. 

carag (K.Pr. 204), cerag (K.Pr. 161), cirag 

(K.Pr. 189) cUs- m. a lamp, a light. 
cirag beg (? spelling, L. 459, chirdgh beg), diarrhoea of 
cattle. ? cf. charun. Perhaps the word should 

be spelt cbirag or charag. 

Cari gad (L. 157, charri gad), ? incorr. for chiryuv", q.v. 
cir-gyush" f%^-^f^ I IT^f^^'^: m. diversion or 

pleasure caused by vocal exercise, such as reading 

aloud, singing, or orating. 

carkh ^^^^ i Trtr^fhui: m. (sg. dat. carkas ^[^), 

turning or whirling round, esp. of some wheel-shaped 
object; a wheel (El.). Cf. carakh. — dyun" 
— f^*[ I ^f'Cf fTfll^ m.inf. to walk round and round 
anything, esp. with one's face towards it (YZ. 247). 
— pherun — ^^i: I ^^fTTT^frT: m.inf. the revo- 
lution to go round ; in buying and selling in the 
market, business to be set in motion, esp. of some 
traffic which had been stopped or suspended. 

carka pherun ^^ ^^i; i >?T'a\*ra'TO: , n^f^iafl: 

m.inf. to go round by a wheel, lience, circumambula- 
tion round a sacred object or temple, keeping it on 
the right hand (Riim. 88) ; to find one's brains 
whirling ; giddiness, staggering, reeling to occur ; to 
ride a horse in circles, to cause a horse to curvet 
(Hilm. 1333, 1339). — phirun — fqi^«i, I il^lwt- 
^TWI ni.inf. to cause another to circumambulate, as 
ab., or to cause him closely to walk round oneself or 

carkas khasun ^^^ Ta^si: i f^^T^^^H^'m; 

m.inf. to mount the whirling ; hence, to be so entangled 
or involved in an action or business that one can 
neither abandon it nor take it up, esp. when this is due 
to emulation or competition. The Sanskrit cakmrdta . 

carakh ^Tl^ m- (sg- dat. carakhas ^x;^^), a wheel ; 

hence, an instrument, machine (Gr.M.) (a variant of 


For words not found under cS, chi, chy, or cy, ^ee under ca, cha, ch. nr c re-ipectively, and vice ver.ia. See article c. 

cirkh t%^ 

— 176 

carwoy" '^T^fg 

cirkh f^4 ' ^- *• (^o- ^^^^- cirki t^rf^), purulent 

iiiatfer, pus. 
carkhar' -g^^ I 'g^^rmrrr^ f. an instrument (e.g. 

a peg held in a potter's hand) for causing a wheel to 

caral ^^^r l «f:F'TT^ iidj. e.g. one who is accustomed 

to brag about the great things he can do, but who 

really can do nothing, and who only talks without 

giving active help. Cf. car. 
CUrel ^^ I 3it?fIfT^??^ f. the ghost of a woman who 

dies in a state of pregnancy or impuritv, and thus 

reappears as a demon ; a witch, hag, beldame, vicious 

cirma (? spelling, L. 341, chirma), a certain weed, 

Ranuncuhts sp. 

carun 1 ^^i; (also written eyarun ■^rr^i;) i 'q^^ST'^ 
conj. 1 (1 p.p. cor" 1 ^^; t. cor" 1 ^^; for 

3 see S.V.), to oppress, harass, worry, or dun a person 
in order to induce him to pa}- a debt, a fine, or tax. 
Probably the same as carun 2. 

carun 2 ^T^«i; (also written eyarun ■^^rr^'i;) i ^^- 
^■^uri^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. cor" 2 '^^ ; f. cor" 2 'gr^; 

for .3 see s.v.), to tie \\]} tightly, draw light, strap uji ; 
to press upon, bear hard upon ; to enter in a ledger 
or register (Siv. 1912) (perhaps, in this meaning, 
another word, cf. Hindostanl cavhuna). Cf. carun 1. 
cirn f^«^ I ^53^^: ni. the fat surrounding the entrails, 
suet. Cf. ciran 2. 

ciran 1 t^*!^ I "^fTTT^TtT: f. constipation, esp. of 

children. Cf. Ciran 2. 
ciran 2 f^X/i; l ^'^ffl^Trft m-pl- the bowels with 

their enclosing fat or suet. Cf. cirn. 
Ciran 1 ^Tl^ I f'I'"^^5»r'T f • squeezing out, wringing out. 

ciran 2 ^T1 1 t^zi>^*l f- constipation. Cf. ciran 1. 

cirain (? spelling, L. 74, chimin), a certain tree found 
in Kashmir at a high elevation, with a slightly acid 
berr}', Pi/rus htnata. 

cirun '^^'t, i f^nq^^g^ni conj. i (l p.p. cyur" ^, 
pl. cir^ ^■^ ; f . cir" '^^j pi. cire '^4) , to squeeze 
or wring out clothes or the like (Si v. 1022) ; to 
squeeze together, contract (cf. bumb 2). 

cir* ciri hyon" ^'^^ =^t?: II^ " ^Rl^^i^TfH: 

m.iiif. to be wrung with pain from a long-standing 

disease difficult to cure. 
carand -tK^U^ i f^-^Tjjt f. a woman who after maturity 

resides in her fatlier's house, and owing to her being 

free from contiol waxes fat and wanton. 
crong 'g^^ m. a handful (of grain) (El.). 

caranarabind ^gic^trrrf^ m. a foot like a lotus, 

a foot-lotus ; a polite or reverential name for a 


superior's or deity's foot. Borrowed from Sanskrit 
carandmiinda (Siv. 1035). 
carpar* 'g^tr; i t^T^^^^^rr^V adj. e.g. one who is 
a great talker, inopportunely and without rhyme 
or reason. Cf. car. 

carper" 'gi5^ i ^¥»n^ adj. (f. carpur" 'gq^), i.q. 
carpar', q.v. 

carpay ^-li ,U^ f. a charpoy, bedstead, bed (H. x, 5). 
carer ^T^^ I 'tJ^'Jnft^^'lC ui. the condition of one 

who habitually uses improper or unfit language ; 

muteness, idiocy. 

cars 'gil^ or caras 'gx;^ (also written cers '^r^ and 

ceras ^n^) l ^f^T^''Jf> i^i- 'charas', the pollen of 

the Indian hemi5 or bhang, an intoxicating drug when 

smoked (K.Pr. 54, Siv. 1182, L. 67). Cf. cum. 

carsa-bith ^^-t^^ i ^TfTT^^ngTT'fr^ f. a 

company of chdrfm-smokexs. -bUth" -^2 I T^T'JT- 
WmT«1*SJH1 *• fi place to which people resort for 
smoking charai^. -shoda -iff^ I TlTT^WTtiT^'Jrr^ 
ra. one who is a slave to the habit of smoking charas, 
a chnras-sot. -wan -W[^, I 'T^^Uj^mui: m. a charas- 
shop. -yaf -■?rr^ l ^T^TT^^'sIT ni. a boon companion 
in cAffrff-s-smoking. 

carso ^j^ ni. (sg. (lat. carsoyes ^y^j^^j[s~.), a cross 
road; a market (YZ. 202). 

ciraita f^^H m. verbena, Ophelia chircfa (El.). 

corta i(i m. in the following : corta karun ^h ^'^'t; I 

fsr^Vg^ m.inf. to stop a person's work by with- 
holding the promised necessary materials, supplies, or 
other help. — gafebun — IWI I 'f^TtWTrfF: m.inf. 
to have one's work stopped by not obtaining such 
supplies, etc., as ab. ; to be needy, necessitous. 

crath ^Z m. (sg. dat. cratas ^Z^), N. of a pargana 
of Marilz, tiie rice of which is esteemed excellent (El.). 

cirve f^sg i ^«j<*i: lice or other grain scalded with 
hot water, and then parched and beaten in ii mortar. 
It is used for food, esp. as a viaticum when travelling. 
-gor" -ir^ I q^efifg^fiT m. a seller of this food. 

cirven khasun i^^^ Tm^ I ^TTTtinTtf : m.inf. 
lit. to climb up upon (a pile of) this food ; hence, met. 
to mount in absence of mind on to anvthine not 
intended for being mounted (e.g. stepping over a wall 
instead of going through the gate). 

ciriv ciriv f^fr^ f^f^^ i 'gz^i'^f'T: m. onomat. the 
chirping of sparrows. Cf. circir. 

cirawun" '^tTf^ "-ag- (f- cirawun" ^^g^), one who 

squeezes or wrings out cloth ; (a cloth) which is wning 
out (K.Pr. 254). 
carwoy" ^g^'g ( = \;jl=-) I n^: m. a quadruped, esp. 
a cow, bull, or the like. 

For words not found under ce, che, chy, (ir cy, see under oa, cha, ch, or c respectivelv, .ind viee 

See artiele c. 

cash xiir 

177 — 

coth 1 "^tS 

cash 'gij I »i^«Tf^^^: f . the name of the f ly of a certain 
fish, or of a certain small fish, usually found in holes 
in mountain streams. The cash proper has a pointed 
head, small mouth, dark back, silver belly, and firm 
scales (L. 158). 

cashm or cash^m *Aj^ m. the eye (El. ; YZ. 12, 417 ; 
Eiim. 59, 516, 523,' etc. ; in YZ. 144 the word is 
written can/niia) . 

cashma tUA^ m. a s^Ji-ing, source, fountain (YZ. 205). 

-shbhi iLi — or — sbhibi 

m. N. of a 

fountain on the northern shore of the Srinagiir city lake. 

Its wiitcrs are considered to he very delicious (Kl.). 
casht l::^wI=- m. tlic middle hour between sunrise and 

the meridian ; the meal eaten at that hour, breakfast, 

luncheon (EL), i.q. koj*^, q.v. 
cat' "^^ I ^trg\j?fii; f. a sum of money paid as a 

punishment, a fine (El.). — hSn*^ — IfjaT I ^li^(^m«TT^ 

f.inf. to take (i.e. inflict) a fine. 

cati lagun ^t^ ^'i; I ^^Tvrnct'T^'m; m.inf. to 

become subject or liable to a fine; esp. to be fined 
foi', or charged witli, another's fault. 

cita ^7T, citra f^'W m- Plumbago Enrojmi (El.). 

cot' '^Tt? I '^Tl'ft f- a flat pat of soap, curd, or similar 
substance, bearing the impress of a man or other 
image ; esp. a scpuirc of English soap (which usually 
h;i8 sucli :i device stamped upon it), or a piece of 
native-made soap stMuiped, in imitation of English 
.soap, with the form of an idol or other image. 

cot" '^7 I '^^IVt^^^. m. tlie cliin, the lower part of 
the face; the nioutli (El.). — hol" gafehun — f^ 
1?p«^ I irr^lT^T^I^^fH- m.inf. the chin to become 
crooked ; met. to receive a slight, or disrespect, in 
response to I'epeatod requests for an urgent need. 
— ratun — J~^^ l ^TWrfTTJi: m.inf. to grasp the 
chin ; met. to stop a person as he begins to speak 
(by placing the hand over his mouth). — featun 
— ^^ I <*?l«1N*l<; fTHiyrd^^^rf^fl m.inf. to cut 
the chin ; to interrupt a person when he is speaking, 
by scolding, blame, or reproaches. 

cBt'-gand ^ftet-^ntS l *r^X!rt'TTt>ii: m. a knot on the 
jaw; to confine oneself, or to be confined, to one special 
food (e.g. owing to a vow or to sickness), -hol" -^^ I 
^Htf^^: adj. (f. -hiij" -fW), one who has a crooked 
chin, wry-chinned, -bund" -^^ I ^T%Tt^'R f- a 
blow on the chin ; met. when a person commences to 
speak, to stop him by the use of abusive language. 

cot" ^fz f., only used in the pi. cace ^INt I ^5t^, the 
lips. Cf. cot", the chin. 

cSce-mylce =?ff^-WlNr l '^BTrr^ f pi- the corners 
of the lips, the right and left corners of the mouth. 


cut' 'gft I »T^T!ff^§^: f. a certain ornament, the cup- 
shaped silver bells fastened at the end of the long hair 
worn by girls hanging down the bnck. The use of this 
ornament is said to date from the time of Chinese 
domination, about a hundred and fifty years ago. 

cit-bato f%f[^-^fiY m. Trifolium pratense (El.). 

cath ^^ I ^ffT^T^iT m. (sg. dat. catas ^^^), 
a statement or piece of news mixed up -with false 
additions invented by the teller, a partly untrue 
story, an exiiggeratcd statement, a lie that is partly 
the truth, a false rumour ; cf. Catal and catur". 
-baz -'^^ I '^Y'^T^ '^^^i- °-o- 011'^ who, either 
maliciously or in order to give pleasure, is accustomed 
to tell invented stories or spi-ead false rumours. 
— karun — ^^"t. I ^^im: m.inf. to make a falsehood ; 
hence, to c;uise groat damage (e.g. by undoing an action, 
or by causing loss of money). — layun — 5fF^'^ I 
^^?TMy|<,t m. to spread abroad false reports likely to 
create disturbances or other breaches of the peace. 

cath ^ra m. (sg. dat. catas ^TZ^), eating, devouring, 
in the following : cath kadun '^^ ^^^i; I ift'Sm^ 
^i§«tj^ m.inf. to be worn out very quickly (of 
clothes taken into wear and the like). 

ceth 1 ^?r having drunk (K.Pr. 102), see cyon". 

Ceth 2 ^^ m. (sg. dat. cetas '^nra;), thought 
(Gr.Gr. 25), perception, con.sciousness, wits; vigi- 
lance, caution ; memory, recollection, remembrance. 
— thawun 1 -— '^f't, I l^T^^T'Pl m.inf. (for 2 
see cyon"), to inquess (a stoiy or subject) upon 
one's mind ; to store accurately in one's memory. 
— fehunun — W^l l H'gTWt'li'^TiIIi; m .inf . to tlioroughly 
master (a branch of leaining, a story, or the like). 

citha ^^ 1 \l%^^o(i<^J!j*^ m. a subscription, collection, 
assessment for a joint purpose. 

Cith ^^ I '^t?!^^: adj. §.g. a niggard, ono who, even 
though he have the wherewithal, stints himself and 
his family in tlie necessaries of life. 

citha t^^ m. in citha trawun t^3 ^T^i; I ^t%<ft- 

^TW^ m.inf. to approve, choose, prefer. 

cith' t^'^ f . a letter ; a document, esp. a cheque, a 
bill of exchange, lOU, or other instrument acknow- 
ledging money (H. viii, 10). 

coth ^^ I fsTxrm: m. (sg. dat. cotas "^z:^), a fall (of 
a person slipping in mud, etc., and falling down). 

coth 1 ^^ I ^TWTfi: m. (sg. dat. COtas ^Z^; in 
some of the phrases below the word is fem.), a hurt, 
wound, bruise, blow, stroke, esp. on the lower jiart 
of the leg, from a fall, or violent contact with some 
inanimate object such as a stone or a log of wood ; 
also of the blow of one inanimate object as ah. with 

For words not found under c8, chS, chy, or cy, see under ca, cha, ch, or o respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

A a 

coth 2 ^3 

— 178 — 

cawiin'^ ^^^^ 

another. — khyon" — ^^ 1 ^TmHfT'qTfF: ni.iiif. 
to eat such a blow, hence to receive a blow from an 
inanimate object, as ab. ; met. to be hurt (of two 
people, etc., colliding) ; to suffer loss or injury by 
some obstacle intervening to prevent the completion 
of a matter. —din** — f^^ I "^fT'TO; f-iuf. to 
strike a person with a stick or the like on the lower 
part of the leg when he is erect or walking ; to 
cause to trip or stumble. — lagun" — ^'"^ ' 
^it^IFrfH' f-iiif. (of a person erect or walking) to 
receive a blow from a stick or the like on tlio lower 
part of the leg ; to <rip, stumble. 

coth 2 '^^ I ^Tgt^^TfW^: f. (sg. dat. COtM ^fs), 
fever recurring every fourth day, a quartan ague. 

CUth ^^ I ^f*T: m. (sg. dat. cutas l?!^), vulva (obsc). 

cutha^'Si ^5: adj. (as subst., f. cuth" 53), young 

and thriving (in bodily powers), strong, vigorous. 
CUth^'k' 'g-at^ I ^^TreffUn^^ITlT'l f- a handful ; a very 
small quantity (of grain or tlio like), only so mucli as 
can be taken up in one open hand. 

catal ^z^ e.g. or catul" ^?m (f. cat'^j" '^z^) 1 

1{^^^^}'^\ adj. one who habitually tells false and 
invented stories, a liar, an untruthful flatterer. Cf. 


citana t%rTf m. Pi/ms Kunuionensis (EL). 

cotun '^fn, 1 ir^ra^^l^'UT conj. 3 (2 p.p. cotyov 

^3^"^), to be pleased, satisfied (used in tlie old 
language, now mostly vilL). 

caitany %i^ or cbtany, m. (sg. dat. caitanes f tiJii^ 

or cbtanes), consciousness, intelligence, sensation ; 
metoii. (Skt. ci'tana) an intelligent being, a being 
possessed of consciousness, animate, as opposed to 
zada, inanimate matter (Siv. 1520). 

catin ^fz'^ I ^^if^fj^; f. a kind of pickle or sauce, 
' chutnco ' (the solid ingredients of wliich are chojiped 
up or reduced to a pulp and retained in the vinegar). 
— kariin'^ — ^T^ l t^^fft^T^I f-i"f- to reduce to 
a state of chutnee, to reduce to a pulp, mash, destroy 
(lit. and fig.). — gafehun" — T#^ I f^fTft^r^swi 
f.inf . to be mashed, reduced to pulp like the ingredients 
of chutnee (e.g. of a worm or a beetle trodden upon). 

catur" ^^^ f- in the following : eatore batane 
^Zt^ ^Z'SI I ^^fra^T^Wrff f. pi. inf. idly, or for 
one's own or other's amusement, at a time of peace to 
spread abroad news, esp. false news, of disturbances, 
riots, and the like. 

citra 1 t%"W, see cita. 

citra 2 1^'^ m. serpent-stick {Stapliylea emodi) (El.). 
COt"r" "^fl^ I ^^HTt^TsH' f- a woman who excessively 
talks nonsense, a gabbler, prater, chatterbox. 

COtiir" ^fi^ I (^^t^^T)»IT!S^ f- a group of gossips, 
an assembly in which a number of people meet 
together and criticize others. 

catav ^[Wl"^ I ^fii: m. praising one person to another, 
eulogy, commendation. 

catawun ^fTTfi: I "Jnj^TJ^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. catow" 

^Tft^), to praise one person to another (esp. when 

the praise is deserved), to eulogize, commend. 
cav^.=- (YZ. 512), i.q. cyov, see cyon^ 
cav 1 ^^T^ I ^T^rx^Tffnpf: m. eager desire, longing 

(K.Pr. 247), esp. to complete or cany out some work. 

Cf. barun 1 (YZ. 31, EHm. 747, 752). 
cav 2 'gi^ I ^^"rafrltW^^: m. a kind of loose vest or 

shirt resembling the qaha, but having buttons instead 

of strings at the neck and navel and between the two ; 

= the Persian pnirahan. 

cav 3 ^T'sf, see cikacav. 

Ciwa f^^ I srr^efi^T m. a yellow kind of fragrant 
sandal-wood, -tyok" -^ST^ I Wr^=fit7I^^*i; m. (sg. dat. 
-tekis -^f^^), a mark on the forehead made with 
powder of this wood. 

c6w"-mot" 'g"1^-?T<T, see cawun. 

cbw"-mufc" 2 '^T^-'T^ I ^^ni'T: f. (for 1 see cawun), 

a cow that has been milked (perf. part, of cawun", 

cawun ^T^i or cyawun ^snfi 1 ^^T^*i; conj. 1 

(1 p.p. cow" ^cfor cyOW"^ "^5)' *" cause to drink, 
give to drink (K.l'r. 04 ; YZ. 268, 411, 506, 527 ; 
Siv. 15, 179, 195, 970, 1006, 1017, etc.; Ram. 427, 
1174, 1395, 1522) ; met. to cause a person to drink 
(infonnation), to slander one person to anotlier, to 
inform ; to irrigate (a garden) (YZ. 254). (Gaus. of 
cyon", q.v. ; another fonn of tlie cans, is cawana- 
WUn. In the jmnted edition of YZ. this verb is 
incorr. si)elt chriivuu.) c6w"-mot" ^f-?T^ i 'ITt^ff: 
perf. part. (f. COW'^-mufe'^ 1 ^i\- 'T^, for 2 see s.v.), 
caused to drink, one to whom di'ink has been given 
and who has drunk, (of cattle) watered ; met. caused 
to drink (infonnation), hence one to whom slander is 
told, one who is informed against anotlier. COwith 

thawun ^^rf^^ ^^ I Trnff^uw '^T^'JI: minf. 

having made to drink to put ; met. to tell tales about 
one person to another so as to cause them to sink 
into his mind, to slander one person to another. 

cewan ^TTi; , see cyon". 

cawanawun 'gi^^fi^s^ 1 t^t^ih conj. 1 (1 p.p. 
cawanow" ^^5^5), i.q. cawun, q.v. (Siv. 1069, 
1173, 1344, 1857, 1*863). 

cawiin" '^^^^^ or cyawiin" ^T^^ I 'ftsfTfli; conj. 1 
(past tenses only used in f., 1 p.p. cow" ^^); to 

For words not found under ce, ohe, chy, or cy, see under ca, cha, ch, or c respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

cewawun" ■'51^^'T 

179 — 



milk a cow (K.Pr. 87, caway, I shall milk for thee ; 
Siv. 1368, 18:37). 

cewawun" ^^^5 1 m'T giWi; (f. cewawun'^ 
•^^^sf), one who is drinking', a drinker, esp. one 
who is accustomed to drink (Siv. 1759) ; for the form 
see Gr.Gr. 105. 

cewawan ■^^bi i ttt»ht^w; f. wages for drinking 
(Gr.Gr. 129) ; lience — <», a j)rescnt customarily given 
to a young wife by lier father-in-law when he pays 
a visit to her husband's house and she offers him 
a ceremonial spiced drink. 

cawby* ^^T^ I TT^iT^ adj. e.g. one who owing to his 
cureless nature speaks a great deal without heed • to 
his words, mixing them up, and thus talking nonsense 
as if he were a lunatic ; a blundering gabbler. 

cawoy" "^Tt^ I '^Hirwift adj. (f. cawby" '^^^), 

i.q. CaWOy', q.v. 

cyfi •# in cyfi-phyor" '^'■^ ' 'f^f^'?- "i- (^g- ^^^■■ 
-pheris -4»|R,^), a tear-drop, esp. a hypocritical tear- 
drop forced out from the eyes to exhibit feigned 
sorrow or trouble. 

cay '^T^^ I TTTTf^^^: f. tea, i.q. caliS q.v. caye-nor" 
'^■?T--iTT^ I mit^^^Tn^^^: f- !"■ teupot. 

ceye ^r^, she was drunk, or they (f.) were drunk ; see 

cyah' ■^rtf , iq- cahS q.v. 

cyahyah ^rrwTf , se(! cah'. 

Cyakh 'WT^, another spelling of cakh, q.v. 

cyal "^rra for cal, q.v. 

cyon'' ^J^ I ^T»W; conj. 1, irreg. [conj. part, ceth '^^, 
freq. part, ce ce ^ '^ or ceth ceth "W^ ^r^ 

(Gr.Gr. 105) ; pres. part, cewan "^mi^ (ib. 103) ; 

1 p.p. cyov ■^^ (YZ. 512, cav ^.^), pi. cyey 
'^i fem. ceye ^w^■, 2 p.p. ceyov 'W^^; fut. 
sing, cema "^jt, 2 cekh '^^, 3 ceyi '^f^ ; ))1. 1 
cemaw ^^vr^, 2 ceyiw '^f^, 3 cen -^m^; pres. 
iinpvo. sg. 2 ceh ^f ; cond. past sg. 1 cemahb ^JT^i, 

2 cehbkh '^fi'^, 3 ceyihe '^rf^t; tlie sg. dut. of 
inf. is cenas "^STTT., and so on (of. Siv. 1000, 1220, 
1344, 1385). For further forms see Gr.Gr. and 
Gr.M.], to drink (K.Pr. 102 ; YZ. 195; Siv. 90, 579, 
753, 1090, etc.; Rilm. 557, 624, 806, etc.) ; to smoke 
(tobacco) (Gr.M., K.Pr. 241). -kyuf^ -f^g I TTTiT- 
f?ir?TT^^: adj. (f. cen"-kib" '^r^-f^i;). imy thing 

intended to be drunk, a beverage placed ready to 


be drunk, something intended to be drunk and for no 
other purpose. For tlie form see Gr.Gr. 115. 

cena-bav ■^T-^T^ I ^TTTf^^ m. a beverage, 

something liquid prepared specially for drinking. 

-grakh -vj^^ I TTRSffi; (sg. dat. -grakas 

-^^^, f- -grakaii -^T^fSf), a drinker, one who 
drinks ; one who habitually drinks, a man who is 
remarkable as a drinker, a great drinker, a hard 
drinker, -har -i|TT I ^*C adj. e.g. anything drink- 
able, potable (Gr.Gr. 129) ; one who is able to drink 
a great deal, a mighty topei-. -wol" -Tt'T I MMStf^ (f. -wajeii --^TSEfsr), i.q. cena-grakh, ab. 

ceth thawun 2 '^T^ ^TWi; m.inf. (for 1 see 
ceth 2), to drink up the entire contents of a drinking 
vessel and to set the latler down emjjty. 
cyon" ^ftj I ^^^: possessive pron. (f . cybn" '^\m ) , 
tliy. This word is used as the gen. of the personal 
pron. fe^h, thou, q.v. 

cybn'-sond'^ ^15-4:^ I ?^^^rer ^^^ adj. (f. 
-SUnz'* -^a^l), of or belonging to thy masculine 
person or object, e.g. of or belonging to thy 
(horse) . 

cyane-hond" wr3j-^«| 1 w^^THIt: t^^ adj. 

(f. -hiinz" -"f?!), of or belonging to thy feminine 
person or object, e.g. of or belonging to thy (mare). 

cyaner •^t"3T^ or caner ^i^"^ 1 t^^'Jiw^i m. the 

condition of being thine ; hence, the condition of one 
who says " I am thine ", extreme humility, extreme 

cyara ^ttt. see car a. 

cyor" '^^, see cor" and carun 1 and 2. 

cyur" '^, see cirun. 

cyarun '^■R'^, sec carun. 

cyow" '^ftf , cyawun "^nj^i;, cyawiin'' '^T^^, see 
cawun, cawiin". 

cyey ^^, they (m.) were drunk ; see cyon'^. 

ciz ^51 J-s*- I ?^ m. any inanimate thing, article, 
commodity (Siv.^1119, 1126, 1516; RSm. 152,771, 
1464, 1638) ; a matter, affair (K.Pr. 183) ; a thing of 
value, a valuable, precious thing: in the last sense 
also used with reference to animate objects with emph. 
y, chuna k§h ciz"y, he is not any thing, he is 
insignificant (Gr.M.). El. makes this word f. With 
the suff. of indef. art. we get cizah ^STT^ (^iv. 1650, 
Ram. 152, 1404). 

For words not found under c8, ohe, chy, or oy, si'o under ca, cha, ch, or c respectively, and vice versa. See article c. 

A a 2 

D ^ 3 


d ^ J . The third consonant of the Kiishmlrl alphabet 
in the Eoman cliaracter. It is the eig-hteeiitli (or, if 
we count b, bh, and z, the twenty-first) consonant 
when written in tlie Siiradii or Niigarl character, and 
the twelfth consonant when written in the Perso- Arabic 
chiiracter. It is pronounced as in India proper, 
with a sound much softer and more dental than the 
English d. 

The Sanskrit aspirate (///a \i does not exist as 
a pronounced sound in KiTshmlrl. When a Hindi 
or Sanskrit word containing this letter also occurs in 
Kiishmlrl, tlie dh Vf is represented bj' d 5. Thus, 
the Sanskrit dlmnam >iR, wealth, is i-epresented in 
Kashmiri by dana ^- lu the case of words 
borrowed directly from Sunskiit, the dh V is often, 
but not always, retained in writing in the Silrada 
or Nilgarl character. Thus, the Sanskrit B/ianiM- 
mja \(^TJ^, a name of the god Yama, appears in 
Kiishmlrl wi-itten in these characters both as \4*1M? 
and ^fl"^T5r, but the pronunciation is always 

In the present woi-k, whether a word is spelt in 
the Niigarl character with ^ or witli ^, that letter 
will always be transliterated d, and hence words 
found in any native book spelt with ^ sliould be 
looked up in the English order, under d. Thus 
^1Tf3t will be found, in alphabetical order, under 
darma-raza in the article darma. As a rule, 
spellings with lil will not be indiciited in this 
Dictionary, even in the Niigarl chtiracter. The 
principal exception to this rule will be found in the 
case of proper names, in which it is most usual to 
preserve the \^ in native writing. Thus, the Sanskrit 
proper name Dharma-rdja 'V(t{XJ^ will be shown in 
this Dictionary as darma-raza ^(>a)5RXr?I- 
d '^ 3- The fourth consonant in the Kiisluuiri alphabet 
in the Roman character. It is the thirteenth (or, if 
we count b, bh, and Z, the sixteenth) consonant 
when written in tlie Siiradii or Niigarl character, and 
the thirteenth consonant when written in the Perso- 
Arabic character. It is the cerebral d of India 
proper, and has no corresponding sound or character 
in Arabic or Persian, or, indeed, in any European 

language. It has something of the sound of the 
English d in ' drum ', but is projjerly pronounced by 
turning back the tongue and pressing the under 
surface of the tip against the palate. 

The Sanskrit asjnrate dha ? does not exist as 
a pronounced sound in Kiishmlrl. When a Hindi 
or Sanskrit word containing this letter also occurs 
in Kiishmlrl the dh \ is represented by d ^ . Thus 
the Hindi (llier '^\, a heaj), is represented in 
Kiishmlrl by der ^T^. 

In most Indo-Aiyan vernaculars of the present 
day, including Hindi and PahjiibI, (/ ^ 0, when non- 
initial, is pronounced as a cerebral r "^ j. This 
cerebral r ^ , does not occur in Kiishmlrl, the 
pronunciation as d '^ 3 being generally retained, 
even when non-initial. Thus the Hindi ham '^'^'[, 
great, is represented in Kiishmlrl by bod° «?■¥. 
Sometimes, liowever, an original (/ ^ becomes a simjjle 
dental r X[ in Kiishmlrl. Thus the Sanskrit hidCdah 
f%TI'5r:, a cat, becomes bror" wl"'!, and the Hindi 
ghbm ^^T, a liorso, is represented by gur" T^. 
In the dialect of the Sindh Vidley, and perhaps also 
elsewhere in Kashmir, r T^ and d ^ are frequently 
interchanged. Thus, in a collection of Kilshmirl folk- 
tales collected in the Sindh Valley by Sir Aurel Stein, 
the word for ' daughter ' is not only the Srinagar 
kiir" ^^, but often, even on the same page, kud" 
^^, and the word for ' to search ' is both bhadun 
WTfl and bharun w^^l- 

Occasionally we find d ^ optionally interchanging 
with a dental d ^, as in dal ^^ or dal i[^, a leaf. 

dl ^, see daiie. 

da TT I 'itir^'II 11- onomat. the lowing of a cow, 
a moo (K.Pr. 72, written dm), ^karun — ^^«r, I 
^14^4: m.inf. to moo (K.Pr. 72) ; met. to hem 
and haw, iu the sense of denying or turning off 
the truth, e.g. concealing or denying the existence of 
something entrusted for safe custody, evading the 
execution of an order. 

dai, see day. 

dai (W. 165), dai (K.Pr. 80), and dai, i.q. day, q.v. 
da,i (K.Pr. 54), i.q. day, q.v. 
dai (K.Pr. 263), i.q. day 2, q.v. 

For words containing dh and dh, see under d and d. See articles d and d. 

di t^ 

— 181 — 

dab 2 ^ 

di t^ in di di t^ f^, soo dyun°. 

du iJ card, two, used for z*h (<l-v.) in various phrases, 
such as du-pahar, midday (K.Pr. 176) ; du-zang, 
two-legged (ib. 61) ; har-du, hoth (ib. 235). 

dua IcJ m. (of. W. 18), a prayer, a suppHcation (to 
God) ; an invocation of good, a blessing ; an im- 
precation, cur-se, miilediction = bad-dua, see bad. 

dab 1 ^ I fimid: , f'lmfni^: m. a fall from a height, 
tumble (K.Pr. 43) ; the sound of a fall, flop, crash, 
bang (K.Pr. 227) ; dastaras dab, dashing one's 
turban upon the ground (a token of grief princlpidly 
among Hindiis, K.Pr. 51) ; manat' dab, the fall (of 
u stone weighing) a str and a half, hence a punish- 
ment (K.Pr. 56) ; tori-dab, the fidi or stroke of an 
adze (K.Pr. 114, 236) ; d6k»r'-dab, the blow of 
a hammer (Siv. 1563). — bozun — ^5151^ I M*i«<1- 
T^i^f^xlH^tili^ m.iuf. to hear the flop ; to foresee 
iiccurately the result of any course of conduct, -dab 
-^ I TTZ^rr^ m^t^^ ■^^rer^fffi: m. the noise of 
footsteps, etc., in an upper story, heard in the story 
below. — dyun" — f^ l t'lTTTfl'R^ m.inf. to throw 
down from a height, crash to the ground (Rilm. 1032) ; 
met. to abandon contem2)tu<)usly any task already 
begun. • — daWTin — ^51 m.inf. to hurl down 
from a height (Siv. 1879, from heaven to earth). 
— gafehun — 1?f1, I '^^ f^'W m.inf. to go flop, to 
suddenly cease (e.g. of a sliower of rain, a storm, 
a fever, or the like). — khyon" — ^J I t'lTrrffJ 
m.inf. to fall from a height when climbing. — karon 
— gf^sT I ?[«5'^1''T, "^^ ^T^'J?^; m.inf. to wrestle (cf. 
daba-dab bel.) ; to cease suddenly (e.g. a shower of 
ruin, a fever, etc.). — lagun — ^jj^ I f^JTHTRltH: 
m.inf. to come in contact with the ground as the result 
of a fall from a height, to come crash to the ground 
(K.Pr. 16) ; to stumble and fall when walking 
(K.Pr. 43). — pyon" — xq^ i f^ltnTIWrfR: , ■H^^r- 
ih1^q5lTsjJ!j*{^ m.inf. to fall from a height ; met. to fall 
from a high rank to a lowly position ; to be knocked 
down by another ; (of an object desired or tried 
for) to come into sight, success to come into view. 
— tarun — wr^*T; i ^3»fl" tl[<ft^wr?i: m.inf. to sew in 
a particular way, to fell, to run and fell. — fehunun 
— W^'l. I ^nytn^TWl m.inf. to constmin, compel, 
e.g. to do something impossible, to insist on a reply 
which cannot be given, or to give something which 
should not be given. 

daba behun ^ ^Fi; I ^rt^H^'W. m.inf. to be 

pressed, squeezed, or jammed down into any receptacle 
or on to the ground, etc. — behanawun — ssTf ^iTjst^ I 
T^^^qj^TSPfl. m.inf. to press, squeeze, or jiim down 

into any receptacle or on to the ground, etc. 

— byutb"-mot" —^-'^5 I ^^^ft^: pcrf. part. (f. 

— bith'^-miife" — ^J-^^), pressed, squeezed, or 
jammed down, as ab. -dab -^^ I 'IlRrS^Tr f. 
(dat. dabi-dabi ^f^-^1%), wrestling; cf. dab 
karun, ab. (K.Pr. 11; Siv. 1754, dat.). -dan -^ I 
^5i: UTTt: m. the sudden fall, or being knocked down, 
of something solid, -dane -"^T^ I ^^T^IT fiffl m. 
smashing and pounding up anything suddenly, 
suddenly knocking to ' smithereens '. -Ibr*' -^T^ I 
^•^^rr^Wt^W^' '"• ^ breaking in pieces, like a cucumber 
falling from a height, -lor" gafahun -^T^ 1W1, I 
^"^Tr^W^^WlT^Tt^f: m.inf. fo be knocked down and 
broken, like a cucumber, as ab. (of a man's body or 
the stem of a tree, etc.). -lor" karun -^'f. cfi^'^ I 
?;^^T^T!fV^3'^»m m.inf. to knock down and break, 
as ab. -lur -?R; I f'T^SJ '^^•W; ra. a knocking down 
and smashing, esp. of a lofty house levelled to the 
ground by an earthquake or the like, -lay -'5f^ I 
('i1'^)lT5t'T5T f. the heavy sleep of exhaustion after 
great exertion, or due to grief, illness, etc. -laye 
pyomot" -^^ ^^TH I IT^t^^Wt'f^^Jfi: perf. part. 
(f. -laye pyemiib" -^V WT^ ), one who is aslcej) from 
exhaustion, as ab. -laye pyon" -^TT i^f I TTS- 
f'f^T'TrrT! m.inf. to fall asleep from exhaustion, etc., 
as ab. -sur -^ I ^^"^i^^ifft^xf: in. a certain medicine 
made of ashes of cowdung, pounded while still warm 
and mixed with clarified butter or oil. It is used as 
a remedy for a cough, -tron" -"4^ or -tryun" -'^T^ I 
f'TtTTH^'nirr m. the serious injury (e.g. a sprain or 
broken limb) caused by a fall fi-om a height or 
slipping on a muddy road, -tron" gatibun -■^»T 
^Tf «i: or -tryun" gafehun -^ ii^^^ i ^firf^T^Tfl- 
■IWiqifF: m.inf. to sufl^er such a serious injury. 

-tron" karun -M^ -m^^ or -tryun" karun -^3^ 

W51, I f«t m ft •! I WT>i(»T'l[ m.inf. to cause such a seiious 
injury to another by throwing him down. 

dabas-peth dus" ^^^-t?j^ f g i ^t^mTT^rPpf^^: 

m. a blow upon a fall ; being at one's wits' end in 
a matter of extreme hurry and importance, e.g. the 
sudden arrival of a king in a distant province 
necessitating the immediate collection of supplies by 
the local Governor when such supplies are not 
available, -peth dus" pyon" -T?I^ ^^ Tzij I 
^T<5fHV>if ^T^lt'fT'^'nrrfi: m.inf. blow upon blow to 
fall ; met. a sudden, difficult, and urgent work to 
be imposed upon one who is already using all his 
energies on some other equally important and difficult 
dab 2 ^ m. Typha angiistifoUa, a kind of bulrush (EL). 

For words contnioing dh and dh, see under d nnd d. See articles d and d. 

dab 1 ^i^ 

182 — 

dob" 1 i^ 

dab 1 T^ m. N. of a village near Sliod'piir (Shadipur), 
in Siiini'l-mawiizi' Pargana. Near it is a lake called 
Dabsar. See El. s.v. Cf. dob 2. 

dab 2 ^^ I ■M«j(^f^^T f- a covered wooden balcony 
outside tlie ii]iper wtory of a house ; a palace (EL). 

daba-dol" ^^-^^ l "HT^irf^^^: "i- a w^ooden 
railing dividing out spaces in a room or enclosed area. 

dab 3 ^ I ^^ f. the vulva. 

dab tN I ^'H: m- deception, dissimulation, feigning, 
hypocrisy ; esp. of a criminal undergoing punishment 
feigning insensibility, pretended fainting, or similar 
device fo get the punishment stopjjod. — karun 
— ^^i; I ■^sraW'Tm^^: m.inf. to do feigning ; esp. in 
gambling or the like, to pretend something wrongfully, 
unfair dissimulation. — lagun — ^T^^ 1 ^'Hlf^WT'^. 
m.inf. to apply feigning ; esp. to pretend to bo ill in 
order to avoid doing any work, to malinger. — trawun 
— ■^T^T. I ^'WtW^iTR't m.inf. (of a criminal under 
punishment) to pretend fainting as ab. 

dlba-kag^r" ^f^-^^i^ l ^3l^ff?r: f . a dissimu- 
lation-brazier ; hence, the practice of dissimulation ; 
esp. keeping quiet in tlie hope that something may be 
neglected, or that some other person may be charged 
with neglecting its completion. 

daba 1 'S^ l ^■^^YTtlfWSJM: m. a certain disease accom- 
panied by boils on the chest. 

daba 2 ^g^ l ^fl'S^: m- a small round covered box or 

daba ^T^ ( = c-jI o) l HW^: magnificence, pomp ; 
power, vigorous authority. — karun ■ — eii^«l, I 
TWT^TJHT^TJl^ m.inf. to exercise vigorous authorit}'. 
— thawun — ■«? J«i: I iWl^^'^'tt??: m.inf. to assert or 
establish one's autliority immediately on taking office. 
— trawun — TTfl^ l Tl»TT^<^m»l»i; m.inf. to proclaim, 
or spread abroad a reputation for, one's invincible 

dab^ ^^ I ^g^^: f. a small covered box (smaller than 
daba 2, qv.). 

dlb"^^^, see demb. 

deb" 'SE^^, see dyob". 

dib* ^^ I '^^^T f- a kind of small cooking-pot \vitli 
a narrow mouth, used for cooking small quantities 
of rice. 

dob 1 l(^ t ■g*?; m. a liole or pit in the ground 
(H. xii, 6). — dyun" — f^ I ^»^f?Tt^: m.inf. to 
dig such a hole, e.g. in order to collect water, to let 
water issue (H. viii, 7), or as a receptacle for rubbish. 

dobuk" ^^f I -g*?^?^, -gi^imw: adj. (f. dobiic" 

^^^), of, or belonging to, a pit; i^roduced from or 
found in a pit (such as mud, fish, or the like). 

I so 

dobas gabhun ^^^ ^i^^ i xr^f^THri: m.inf. to 
go into a pit, to fall into mud ; met. to sink into 
a foul or mean employment. — wasun — W^T, I ^^ 
'^tT^WT, m.inf. to descend into a pit; met. to take 
to a mean or blameworthy mode of liveliliood. 
dob 2 ^^ I ^H^: ni. the confluence of two rivers. 

Cf. dab 1. 

doba-gav l[^-3rr^ l 1T^5lf%^^: m. N. of a village 
at the confluence of the liiver Pahor or Pohur with 
the Jehlam or Voth. The confluence is about four 
miles below Sdpiir. See IlT.Tr. ii, 425. 
dob" 1 s(f I fsiWW^: !»• (f- dob" l ^, a washer- 
woman ; dob'-bay ?(t5-^T^) '^ washennan's wife, 
Gr.Gr. 34), a washerman, a man who lives by 
washing other people's clothes (W. 121 ; K.Pr. -08, 
104, 2;il ; Ham. 784 If., 1154; L. 4G4). ^dyun" 
— f^ I fsfw^^^TU ^T'5Ri; m.inf. to give a washer- 
man, to send clothes to be washed by a washerman 
(as distinct from washing one's own clothes). 

doV-bay ^t5-^T^ ' 1%^^=ir^ f. a washerman's 

wife, -baye dob" -^t^ ^^ i ^^^'if^^^: m. 

N. of a game played by girls. They stand in a circle, 
holding each other's hands, while each in turn runs 
under the other's aims, a kind of ' kiss in the ring '. 
— chalun — ^^'i; l f^^^^^l^T^R; m.inf. to get 
clothes washed by a washerman (as distinct from 
doing one's washing oneself). -dath^r -rf|W|<^ | 
t'T^f^d"=(MH*IITW*SIT«1H ni- ^ place where washermen 
spread out clothes to dry. -dathur -^IBJ<; | 
I'f^^^WT'?^ in. the collection of a washerman's 
implements, lye, etc., used in washing, -gath -Wi'S 1 

t^3r'^>Tr^i^Ti»i: m. (sg dat. -gathas -tt^^), 

a washerman's g/idt, the place on the bank of a river, 
etc., where washermen wash clothes, -kun" -m^ | 
'f^%<JJ«lfH^T f- a washerman's stone, the stone on 
which a washerman beats the clothes he is washing. 
-tan -fITI. I T^^WT^'^TT'TZ: ni. the sheet in which 
a washerman ties up for transport his bundle of 
clothes for the wash, -wan -^'J. I t'l^W^WRfi; m. 
lit. a washerman's shop ; hence, either the place where 
he plies his trade or the place where he lives 
(K.Pr. 159). -was4a -^^5r I tW^sfi^^^^TTt^ the bundle of clothes for the wash, i.e. clothes 
collected for or given out for washing ; the bundle 
of clean clothes returned from the wash, -wasth 
-^^ I f^^^fcft^^^TTf'T m. (sg. dat. -wastas 
-^^^), id. 

dobi drav ^t^ ^^ i f^^^^wrf^: adj. e.g. come 

from the wash, cleaned and returned by the washer- 
man. — kadun — ^f 'i: l t^w^HI, '^TSRTm^TJt 

For words containing dh and dh, see under d and d. See articles d and d. 

dob" 2 i^ 




iii.iuf. to liuve had clothes washed b^' u wiisliennan 
(lit. to drag clothes from him). — nerun — ^^'l, I 
t'i^^leBgfTTT '^TWlt^l'nTfTT: in. inf. to come forth from 
the washerman, (of chithes) to have been washed 
by liim. 

dob" 2 ^ I t^f^ftw: adj. (f. dob" 2 if) or dob" ^^ 

(f. dub" ^), (of a vessel or dish) nearly full, »ot 

quite full. 
dob" ^ I ^^^td: adj. {{. diib" ^^), variegated, 

brindled, dappled, spotted, having dark spots or marks 

on a light ground. Cf. daba-hor". 
dub ^^ or dub" ^ (Gr.Gr. 17) | XJT7T3I^; m. onomat. 

the noise of falling, crash, bang, esp. the noise of 

anything falling from a height on to a roof or the like. 

-dub -"5^ I "^mfn^^: m. a knock, e.g. a knock or tap 

on a door or on the trajj-door of a cellar to indicate 

a person's presence. 

duba-duji 1 ^^-^t?f o^' -duj" 1 f si i ^nf t^n^T 

^Tim«1l f • a knock or tap as ab. 

dfib ^^, see dumb. 

duba ^^ I %TTtS«T TTffTri: adj. e.g. fallen upside down 
(of a j:ir or other vessel). -duj^ 2 -ft?I or "duj* 2 
-•^ I ^\r^TjT[T^ adv. upside down. — pherun 
— ^^1!. I '^^iT^ Tl HWr^^ in. inf. to be turned upside 
down (e.g. a vessel or tlie like). — phirun — 'fti^i; I 
■^'VO'rt^.f^mrtl ^<,*I!H m.inf. to turn a vessel upside 
down so as to empty it completely. — pyon" — ■RTT I 
'^!rVT^TTTt'T''nri; m.inf. to fall upside down (esp. of 
a vessel full of something). 

dub" ^'^ m. a sound (Gr.Gr. 17), probably i.q. and 
merely another spelling of dub. 

dub" ^^ I f^»rnr: m. wasting away, destruction (like 
something plunged in water and dissolved). Of. 

dabadab ^^^, see under dab 1. 
dabadab <<m<<=«^ l ^frnft'SIJi; adv. very rpiickly, speedily. 

daba-daba ^^-^w ''-jajj i irraTregf^: power, nuijesty ; 

esp. vigorous and powerful rule due to prestige. Cf. 

dabi-dabi ^f%-^t% , see daba-dab under dab 1. 
dab-dab wodi-rab ^^-^ wfs-T^^ I "a^fT^: f- a kind 

of practical joke, consisting iti promising a person 
a gift or the like, which he is led to expect to be 
very large, but which turns out to be very small. 

dlba-dol ^SlNr-Tt^ l ^l^lTTr^f^TfTT m. confusion, 
l)ewildcrment, distraction in any business. 

duba-das J^-^T?i; l H^Tflf- "i- utter destruction (of 
a house, field, or the like, destroyed by an earth- 
quake, inundation, war, or the like). Cf. dub". 
— gafahun — TWI l HltftJTWf^ m.inf. such utter 


destruction to occur. — karun — ^^'t. I ^f^TTlT- 
t^Wl'l m.inf. to cause such utter destruction, esp. 
of the destruction caused b)^ an invading or con- 
quering army. 

daba-hor" ^g^-f>^ i ^^^Ri?: adj. (f. -hbr" -fT^),i.q. 

dob", q.v. 
dlb"j" ^t^^, see dabul". 
dabal ^T^^ I ^"Wlfft^ adj. e.g. one who shams sickness 

or weakness in order to escape punishment (Kam. 

dabul" ^gff g I ^^ adj. (f. dlb"j" ^rraj^). one who 

fraudulently wounds himself in order to accomplish 

some design. 
dobal 1^^, the English word ' double ', in Hindi dabal 

or d/iha/, but in Kiishmlrl referred by folk-etymology 

to d6b 1, a pit, because the coins referied to below 

are ' pitted ' or ' hollowed ' by being stiimped. Used 

in the following : dobal paisa or pBsa f^^ tr% I 

^^^^qisr; m. the double pice, or the coin representing 

a quarter of an anna made current by the English. 

— rupay — '^^^ I ^^*^^^«li't f- the standard current 

English rupee. 
dobil l[f^<? I t%W^=fi^t%* f- tliG profession, condition, 

or livelihood of a washerman (Gr.Gr. 144). 
dbbil ^t^^ I ^^T^^flT f- the condition of one who is 

accustomed to shamming illness or weakness in order 

to escape some danger or punishment. 
dubala ^m^ff, poet, for dubara (Siv. I.i26). 
dabalad ^^ I TTriTrfffT^: adj. e.g. (as subst., f. 

dabaladin ^^f^^r), dinted or damaged by a blow 

from a fall. 
doVlbz" ^^^5J I t'i^Sfeiifn' f- tlie condition or liveli- 
hood of a wasliernian. 

daba-mah i[^-»iTf i »iT^f%il^: f- (sg. dat. -mbsh" 

-mu ), a kind of vetch, dark in colour, fat-shaped, 
and long. 

dabun ^^ conj. 1 (1 p.p. dob" ^), i.q. dabawun, 
q.v. dab^ dab' thawun ^t? ^^ ^^1 ' '^f^'f^- 
fUf^tjJH m.inf. to crush any articles into any receptacle 
and fill it in forcibly, dabith thawun ^f^^ ^^^l. I 
^Wf^TWI^ m.inf. to forcibly stuff any article (such as 
wool or cotton) into a receptacle so as to fill it completely. 

dubun ^^^i, I t^wiiT conj. .3 (2 p.p. dubyov 
^ag^'jf), to dive ; to sink, drown, be drowned ; to 
drowai oneself ; to be immersed, be submerged, 
inundated ; to be destroyed, luined ; to be immersed 
in sin, to be a great sinner, dubyo-mot" ^^-'Tg^ I 
. f^vc perf. part. (f. dubye-miib" ^%-?t^ ), sunk, 
submerged, immersed, under water ; drowned iu sin, 
a great sinner. 

For words containing dh and dh, see under d and d. See articles d and d. 

dabang ^'r 

184 — 

dabararay ^w^tt^ 

dabang ^^ji or dabanga ^¥»i i ?j?[i^rP«T: adj. e.g. 
drunk, insensible from consuming bhttug or the like 
(Siv. 383) , drunk and incapable. — gafcbun —1^1; I 
'!^Tt>T^»l't lu.lnf. to become drunk or insensible 
from consuming an intoxicating drug (Siv. 383), esp. 
of one not accustomed to it. 

dabanga sapazun ^^ai ^^RfH 1 'i^sYh^'to; 

ni.inf. to become intoxicated as ab. — rozun — Tt^TH | 
'?^fl?T^^T»T*^ m.inf. to remain or continue in 
a condition of insensibility as above. 
dobiii l(f^'5I I ^l5t^: f. a washerman's club, used for 
beating the cbitbes he is washing (Gr.Gr. 38). • — din" 

-fesf I ^iITffrl^T^f'i; f.inf. to use this club for 

washing clothes. — lagun" — ^^ I ^f?!%^qffi: 
f.inf. the wiislierman's club to be experienced ; met. 
to become deeply grieved by the frequently repeated 
recollection of one's own or others' troubles. Cf. 

dobine-loth" ^f%^-^^ i ^ar3T*«*lR^^: m. 

a kind of wasliorinan's club, in tlio shape of a short 
cudgel, -biind" -^xcg l igjnwfii: f- the blow given by 
a washerman's club ; beating clothes with such a club. 

dabar, see bada. 

dabara ^^TT '"• rating, tlireatening (usnally a sub- 
ordinate or pupil). — karun — ^^t. I 'Ic^'I'H m.inf. 
to abuse or threaten a person as ab. 

daber ^sg^ i ^j^^ttT f. variegatedness, dappledness. 
Cf. dob^r 

dabur ^^ i ^f^^^: m. (sg. dat. dabaras ^^T^), 

a kind of altar, made up of wooden boards, and kept 
inside a house or in a little erection close by. 

dibur ^^T ni. a fireplace (vill.) (El. dambur). 

dab"r" ^T^'^ I 5^ f. a kind of large drum, used in 
proclamations and the like (Siv. 1724). — wayiin" 
— ^T1^ I ^Tllf^'R^T^TR; f.inf. to play the proclama- 
tion drum ; met. to widely divulge things that should 
be kept secret. 

deber ^gj^r^ 1 ^t^r^Ji; m. looseness, slackness, flaccidity, 
esj). of a box or the like made of wooden boards which 
is loose or slack in the interior. Cf. dyob". 

dobari, a kind of blanket consisting of two breadths 
sewn together (the two pieces being 1^ yards broad, 
with a length of 10 yards) (L. 371) ; ? spelling. Cf. 


dubara '%^T^ *jWj-^ ' tl[(f^^e( 1 <*( adv. for the second 
time, twice, again (Siv. 1644, 1897, Eam. 204, 426). 
In Siv. 1326 this word is altered to dubala(y), for 
the sake of rhyme. — WUChun — '^^'^ m.inf. to 
see again, look at again, revise (a written composition) 


dubor" ^^ I flT«i: adj. (f. dubiir" ^^^), two- 
doored ; hence, (of a road or the like) admitting 
only two passengers at a time ; (of a house) possessing 
two doors. 

dubari-shah ^^f^-WTf i ^^^TW^Tfjg^n; m. 
resting on two sides ; inability to make up cme's mind, 
' sitting on a fence.' -shah rozun -IfTf T^fl I 
^T^T*1T^I^^> m.inf. one person to build his hojio on 
two alternatives ; to depend upon two alternatives, 
e.g.a house \vith two doors, -shah thawun -^JTf "^^^ I 
^eitTI'mH't m.inf. to give two persons (unknown 
to each other) hope for something suitable for oidy 
one person. 

dabardan ^^^'^ I ^^ fHimT: f. (although shown as 

f., this word is m. in tlie plniises below), a quick fall, 
utter destiuction. — karun — ^^^^ I ^ft'STTfcirr 
ITlT'T'l! ni.inf. to destroy quickly, e.g. to knock down 
a house with hatchets and the like. — gafehun 
— TWt I ^f^c^T^n TnTmifi: m.inf. sudden destruction 
to occur ; (of a human being) to be struck down when 
hale and hearty, to be ruined unexpectedly, to die 
dabraharay ^fTT^ I '^'nT»Tt^*l f- exces.sive 

threatejiing and abuse in order to humiliate another. 

Cf. dabara. 
dub^raharay ^^?:fTT^ I ^^Tir^?f7ni5^: f- a repeated 
knocking at a door, cf. dub-dub under dub ; 
thumping or loud beating of the heart from fear or 

the like. Cf. dubararay. 

dobur"-mot" ^f^-^rg 1 ^'^tt^ ''^^'' v^^'^- r^'t- 

a variant of dob°r"-mot", s<'e dob^run. 
dabarun (^"jK^si; 1 >i<*i«tH conj. 1 (1 p.p. dabor" ^^^), 

to rate, abuse, threaten (esp. a servant, child, or Jiupil, 
etc., wlio is prono to act improperly), dabor"- 

mot" ^^Y^-?Tg 1 *rfMfT: perf. part. (f. dabor^-mufe'' 
^^T^-?r^), rated, abused, thieatened, as ab. 

dob^ran ^^^T^ 1 ^i f^^ir: f. (sg. dat. dob^riin" l[w^'5^), 

secret burying, hiding in the ground. 
dob^run ^w^s^ I Ji^^TTrnTC conj. 1 (1 p.p. dpb''r° 
^^■'l), to bury, to hide in the ground; to bury 
a corpse (Gr.M.). 

dob°r"-mot" ^4^-»rg («lso spelt dobur"-mot" 
^5^-^g) I 'j^rr^^ IVf^TT'. pt^rf. part. (f. dob"r"-mub" 

^4^- ?T^), buried, hidden in the gi-ound. 

dob^rith thawun ^^tr^ ^1, 1 ^5t%%tn!ni 
m.inf., i.q. dob^run. — Ishunun — ^g'l; 1 ^fif^qw^ 
m.inf. hurriedly to bury or hide in the ground, esp. 
of stolen goods or the like. 

dabararay ^^TT^ I ^^T^f frril^: , ^f<W<^TJ^ f- 

a noise of trampling in a floor above, heard in the 

For words containing dh and dh, see under d and d. See articles d and d. 

dubararay ff^TTT^ 

185 — 

dach ^^ 

lower rooms of a house (cf. dab-dab under dab 1) ; 
angry rating, abuse. 

dubararay ^«(TK^ i ^nTTW^^^- f- t^^ "O'^e of 

the beating of the heart, etc., under the influence of 

fear or the like. Cf. dub^raharay. 
dob^rawun ^^tt^i; I ^j^ft f^^^TWl conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

dob^roW^ ^^Tt^), i.q- dob^run, q.v. dob^row"- 

mot" |(^Ttf -?T J 1 ^S f*lt%?T: perf. part. (f. dob^row"- 

miife*^ s^TTW-TT^), i.q- d6b''r"-mot", see dob^run. 
dobus" f^^ or dobus ^5^ 1 ^1H^: m- the wooden 

mallet or club used by washermen for beating clothes 

in the wash (Gr.Gr. 144). Cf. dobin. 
dabsar ^=<fj<. m., see dab 1, 

dubofe" ?^f I t^f^: adj. (f. dubbfe" ^^f^), having 
two relations ; hence, anytliing produced or utilized 
by two people, or suited for two people, e.g. a house, 
an occupation, a bed for a married couple, or the like. 

dubbfeyun'^ l^T'^ I tl!f7»^^: adj. (f. dubofein'* 
^Tt^^), i.q. dub6fe^ q.v. 

dabav ^Vr; I ■H*rr^'§rrf7T: m. pressing down ; force, 
strength, power ; authoiity, influence, prestige. 

dabawun '^^'^^ I ^^ t^^^WI conj. 1 (I p.p. 
dabow" ^4^). to press down, knock down; hence, 
to press down to the ground (Grr.Gr.) ; to press down 
into the ground, to conceal in the ground. 

dabawana amot° ^^^t ^'fr^ i ^^^'- perf. 

part. pass. (f. — amiils*^ ■ — WJTi|_^), crushed, pressed 
down (Gr.M.) ; knocked down senseless, senseless from 
falling down from a height. — yun" — f^^ I f'TTTTfl- 
ffWcftT^Tfl; m. inf. pass, to be crushed, pressed down ; 
to become senseless from a fall, esp. from a height ; 
to be run over (by a vehicle) (Gr.M.). 

dabow^-mof^ ^^f-'fj ' ^^ ^^W^T: perf. part. 
(f. dabuw^-mub" h-^^-jt^), buried, or hidden, 

in the ground, dabawith thawun ^t^«r ^r^ I 

3T^<fi{^ m.inf. to conceal in the ground. 

dabawun <(=)ij«t_ 1 ^Tf^il, conj. 1 (1 p.p. dabow" 

^^g), to press, squeeze (Gr.M.) ; to threaten, menace ; 
to repress by threat^;, reproof, etc. dab6w"-mot° 

^^t^-^g I *jf?^fT: perf. part. (f. dabbw^-mufs'^ 
rfa)' ; < l - Tf^), threatened, menaced; repressed by 
threats, etc. dabbwith thawun ^^f^^ '^^ ' 
'S'vft^'fiTWl m.inf. to make entirely subservient by 
means of threats ; to press, squeeze, nip (e.g. the 
finger between pincers) (Gr.M.). 
dabuw^-mot'' ^f'^? 1 ^V^^1»<T: perf. part., i.q. 

dabow'^-inot", see dabawun. 
doc" ^^ , see dok". 

doc" ^^ adj. hunchbacked, used in the following: 

— trawun — TT^'l. 1 3qTr^5 irH^'^wi minf- to 

show oneself hunchbacked ; hence, met. to regard 
witli indifference any work, even if its carrying out 
is necessary. Cf. d6cur". 

doc"-doc" ^g-^'?, in doc"-doc" karun ^'g-^g 
^i^«^ I oR^W^*T»Ti^ m.inf. to progress like a hunch- 
back, to limp along, when one is unable to walk 
(owing to weakness, illness, old age, lameness, or the 
like), to get along somehow or other. doC°-doc" 
dyun" ^f-^ff^g I ^^TfflWSrwfT'Pl m.inf. to 
give limping ; hence, in any work or business, to 
carry it along somehow or other, even when one is 
unable to do it properly. 

duo" ^^ I Sr^T f- a two (in a pack of playing-cards). 

duce ■5% I fli^J^m. a two, aii^'tliing consisting of two, 
a pair, a double, -nyay -"^n^ I t^f%*lfw: m. an 
unfair division, giving an unfair share of a thing 
(e.g. food or cloth) which should be divided equally, 
i.q. duk-nyay, see dukh 2. 

dach ^W I ^"^T f- (sg. dat. regularly dachi ?[f^, but 
usuallj' wiitten ^^, i.e. dacha for dache, cf. art. e ; 
the pi. nom. is dacha ^^, also often pronounced 
dache), a grape (W. 144, K.Pr. 43, Riim. 698; 
see El. for an account of the cultivation of this fruit 
in Kashmir) ; tlie grape-vine (L. 73, 348). 

dache ^IgJ oi' ^1^, the customary spelling of dachi 
^f^, the dat., ag., and abl. sg. of dach ^^. It is 
used in the following compounds : dache-bar^g '^W- 
4^31 1 ^T^TTT^JT; m- a vine-leaf, -daba -^^ or -dab' 
-^f% I TT^T^JT'S'^; ni. a small round wooden box for 
holding giajjes packed in cotton wool for transport. 

-dakh -^Ti or -dokh" -^ 1 ■^^T^i^: m. (sg. dat. 

-dakhas -^^^or -dakhis -^it'l^), a grape-support, 
i.e. the trellis oj; lattice on which a grape-vine is trained. 

-gurun -^'iji^ I ^t^J^or: (sg. dat. -guranas 

-ip^'rai), a buncli of grapes, -kodur" -^i^^ or 
-kudur" -5^ I ^^"R^^sr; m. (sg. dat. -kodaris 
-li^tt'fr,, ag. and pi. nom. -kod^r' -li^^tT or -kud^'r* 
-gi^tr) , a grape-seed, -kalam -^^1^1 ^I'^lSJI'slI'l'lI^ll 
m. a grape-vine cutting, a short cutting of the grajje- 
viue for planting or grafting, -kan -^•[. I ^T^T^^f^ 
m. a single grape, or two grapes growing together. 
-kan"j" -^T^^^ I ^'SIT^TTRT^ f. the tendril of 
a grape-vine, -kur" -^^ I ^mi5(NI f. an unripe 
bunch of grapes ; vinegar is made from them (EL). 
-lot" -^fZ I 5"T'^TTr^*i; ni. the stalk, or pedicle, of 
a grape, -phol" -xji^ I n^m^ ^^'S^r;, ^^TO^f : 
m. a single grape ; a small collection of grapes, esp. 
when separated from the bunch, -puj" -tiw f. a large 
basket of grapes (YZ. 402, dmhhih-paJY -pbpur" 
-■^% I »Jf TTt 111- (sg. dat. -pbparis -iJTMft^. ag. and 

For woids containing dh and dh, eee under d and d. See articles d and d. 


dach* ^^ 


dbcyov ^ifwt^ 

pi. nom. .p8p*r' -'if'^'^). N. of a certain moth, -ras 
-■^ I j^T^i'^: m. grape-juice, used for making wine, 
as a medicine, or as a drink ; for the last-named 
purpose llindiis express the juice, strain it, and place 
it in the sun for four or five days ; it is said to make 
a good drink (El.), -rath -JJE or -rlth -"5^1^ I 
■^"^T^Wt f- (sg- d!it. -rathi -TTf?), a grape-vine, 
Vitis diii/cra (cf. rlthas dach, K.Pr. 155) ; a vine- 
yard (EL), -tabakh -l[^^ i ^'^TUTT^: '"• («g- dat. 
-tabakhas -rTW^^), a kind of earthenware case for 
storing grapes ; two large hasins are placed face to 
face and the edges sealed with mud ; the interior is 
filled with the fruit, -takh -(TT^ I ^^m"'!^*^ m. 
(sg. dat. -takas -eTT^^), the posts supporting the 
trellis on which a vine is trained ; hence, the trellis 
itself, -wath^r -^^CJ I ^^m"^fi; ni. a vine-leaf. 
dach* ^^ I •rt^TZ^J'l'R^^: f- the movable pole used 
for supporting the sloping mat-roof of a boat or the 
like when it is desired to raise its lower and outer edge. 
dache tulane ^ig H^'sf i xiz^,«<rM<>i*i f. pi. inf. to 
raise such a mat-roof. 

deche %ga of dyuth", see deshun. 

doch"^ ^^ or doch" f f i i?it*I^t$: adj. (f. diich** ^), 
dark-coloured, black, esp. u.w. reference to bears and 
other wild animals ; met. dark-natured (of a man), 
black-hearted (cf. dacher). 

dbch*-gam ^^-TTT^ I ^ft^^ ^»Tt%^^: m. a forest 
village, a village situated in the wild country at the 
foot of the hills, esp. N. of a certain village lying 
seven hbs north-east of Srinagar. 

dachin ^tw't, or dachin*^ 1 ^fw^ i ^I^^T f. (sg. dat. 
dachin^ ^t^'T or dachiiie ^t%"5l), a fee or present 
offered to an officiating priest or teacher, i.q. 
dakshina, q.v. 

dachin* "^^^ adv. on the riglit (hand) (Gr.Gr. 155) ; 
in the south (Siv. 246). — kin* — f?F'f'T adv. from 
the right (Gr.Gr. 159). — pbr* — TTT^ adv. from 
or on the right (Gr.Gr. 160). Cf. dachyun"* 1 and 2. 

dachun \W^ , i.q. dachyun" 1 and 2, qq.v. 

dachan-kun, adv. on the right-hand side (W. 97). 

dachinpor" ^tW1''?t^ "i- N. of a pargana of Kashmir 
situated on the right bank of the River L6d"r" 
(Ledar), the Sanskrit Daksinapiira (I4T.Tr. II, 461) ; 
it is famous for its horses (El.). 

dach'nyuk" ?i^l^^, see dachyim" 1. 

dachin** 2 ^1w^. see dachyun"^ 2. For i see dachin. 

dach*nar ^t^-srr"^ or dach*ner ^^^ I ^1^'JS*^ m. 

the quality of being from or of the south, southerliness 
(e.g. of a wind or of a light shining) ; right- 
handedness, skill, dexterity (cf. atha-d,). 




dacher ^iy<, l ^nT^flT m. blackness, darkness, esp. of 
the colour of a bear or other wild animal ; met. black- 
heartedness, hard-heartedness. Cf. doch". 

dachyul'* ^Tf^^ l '^^^TT'^eRW: m. a grain of rice first 
soaked and bruised and then parched, the familiar 
parched rice of India (El. ddrhhul). 

dachil*-siit** ^rf^t^-'fig, i H^W«l^f^»l m. flour 

made from this parched rice, ' suttoo.' 
dachyun" 1 ^^J^ I ^r^Xirr t^^ m. the direction of the 
right hand, the right (Rilm. 856) ; the south (RiTm. 516, 
1682). Cf. dakshin and dachin*. 

dach*nyuk" ^^^^f adj. (f. dach*nic'* ^^f^^), 
of or belonging to the south (Gr.Gr. 151). 

dachyun'^ 2 -^w^ i ^f^x!r: adj. (f. dachin** 2 ^fif^ ; 

for 1 see dachin), right, not left (K.Pr. 43, 57; 
H. viii, 7) ; dexterous, clever, expert (cf. atha-d.) ; 
of or belonging to the soutli, southern, coming from 
the south ; (of a tract of country) situated on the 
right hand of the sun's course. KiishinlrTs divide 
land in this way into ' right-hand ' and ' left-hand ' 
country. A ' right-hand ' village is better for rice- 
cultivation than a ' left-hand ' one (L. 435). (Note, 
in the Persian character, and in most works by 
Europeans founded on Kashmiri written in that 
character, this word is usually written dachun, or 
dachhiin, with its abl. dachani for dacJnni or dachini, 
owing to the persistent confusion between e and 
i and between clui and ch6.) Cf. dachin' and 

dechyov %^^, 2 p.p. of deshun, q.v. 

diic^-miife** ^'g -^^'^ , see dakun. 

docer ^^rT l ^WTTT^flT m. crookedness of body, 

docnr'^ ^^ I 'renTT m. (sg. dat. docaris f ^Ir:^. ag. 

doc^r* ^^^), the state or condition of being bowed 
owing to the body not being straight, crawling on the 

ground. Cf . doc". — docur" dyun" — j'g^ f^ i 

'na^JJ5Tft ^^fil<*IfU!*i m.inf. doing anything or 
acting in a humble way (as if crawling on the 

ground). — trawun — TTji; I •iyfi<Jlj«<*Jl^nii: 

m.inf. to keep humbly following another in the hope 
of getting something done according to one's wishes. 
— trbwith behun — Trf^^ ^W^ I •««cTl49i»(M^<* 
(^14^X1 (\(t||J|: m.inf. to give up some work or to refuse 
to commence a work (from unwillingness or laziness) 
by affecting inability to continue. 
ducara ^TT; j^^-> I WTTII: m. a meeting of two 
persons, esp. when unexpected. 

dacyov ^wT^, see dakun. 
dbcyov ^T^^, see dbtun. 

For words containing dh and ^h, see under d and d. See articles d and d. 

dad ^\ 

187 — 

dada TTS 

dad 1 ^T^ I ^3^»fti; 111- user, use of anything usable, 
enjoyment of an3-tliing enjoyable, experience of 
anything. — hyon" — fj^ I ^^tt^tI'T: m.inf. to use, 
experience, enjoy (e.g. clothes, ornaments, food, or 
the sight of beautiful things). 

dad 2 jlj m. statute, law; equity, justice; crying out 
for justice, complaint (YZ. 302) ; revenge ; a part, 
portion; life, age. -bedad ^T^-^^T^ J^A-j jlj m. 
crying out for help or justice (Riim. 438). — dyun" 
— 1^[5 I I^Jf^'W; m.inf. to dispense justice ; to do 
justice (to), to appreciate, to give due praise (to) ; to 
weigh, reflect upon (another's words, or the like). 
-khah i\^ ii\j m. a petitioner for justice, a com- 
plainant, prosecutor (H. ii, 5). 

did "^t^, dand ^"^^ l 5^*I> m- an ox, bull, bullock 
(K.Pr. 69, 171, 226, 232). This is the word used in 
Srinagar ; elsewhere hakhur is more common. The 
voc. is dida (K.Pr. 49) ; dld^^y (K.Pr. (hhidai, 219), 
the very, or the paiticular ox. • — trawan^ — TR^ I 
^^^^^TT m. pi. inf. to let loose bullocks ; hence, 
to take them out from home to the field for ploughing ; 
to let them loose for grazing, esp. in someone else's 
fields ; at the end of a day's work, to unyoke the 
bullocks from the plough. — wayan* — TT^^ I 
(»TfiT%%)f^H^f'!r'R:m. pi. inf. to plough (Siv. 1530). 

— wdyith thawan' — ^ifir^^^^ i xitXrT: Wt^rf^- 

Wf'T^'T'T'^ m. pi. inf. to leave after ploughing ; 
hence, met. to dig all round under walls of a room 
in search of treasure ; (of ruts) to burrow ujider the 

walls of a house. — woyith trawan' — ^ff^ 
■^^ I ^W^fl^^^^^TqiT'PT m. pi. inf. to let 
go after ploughing ; hence, to utterly beggar a 
person, even taking away what he had buried in the 
ground, as if he were not let go till all his land was 
ploughed up in the search for hidden treasure. 

dida-brath i^lf^-srra i ^^h x^ vjs- m. one who 

is as stupid as an ox. -bath -^T^ 1 ^^^Tf«fi: m. 

(sg. dat. -bathas -^^; f. -bathen -WT^^), one 

whose business it is to transport goods on bullocks 
from place to place, a bullock-carrier. The f. is his 
wife, -cobur -^t; i ^^ x^ gFt ^if: m. (sg. dat. 

•CObaras -^^X^)> ^ bullock-lout, a strong healthy 
young fellow as stupid as a bullock, -cakh -xTPf I 
^rfifT?: m. (sg. dat. -cakas -^^^), a bullock-lout, 

a lusty young fool, -cakur" -x(T*^ i ^m^g^: 

adj. (f. -cakiir** -t^lch^), one who is as foolish as 
a bullock-driver, a loutish fool. -hakh -^rff I 
HT^f^^q: m. (sg. dat. -hakas -fr^ra;), N. of a 
certain vegetable eaten only by cattle, -bakhur 
-^u<, I ^iPTi^rTTT* ™' ^ bullock-calf old enough to be 


used for ploughing, -bur' -^^ or -hur'' -^^ or 
(K.Pr. 10) -howiir'' -54^ I f^^JT^l f. a pair or 
yoke of bullocks employed together on one plough 
(Gr.Grr. 82, where it is said to be vill.). -jur' -IT^ I 
^tr^niTJ^ f. a pair of bullocks, usually a match in 
appearance and age, fit for ploughing, etc. (Gr.Gr. 82, 
K.Pr. 187). -khrav -'aT^ I ^Bm^^Tf^^^: f ■ a kind of 
high patten or wooden soles used by KiishmliT.s. -lyut" 
-WZ I ^TiT^frrf^^^: '«• (sg- dat. -litis -^fz^, abl. 
-leti -%fz), a kind of broad-leafed grass much liked by 
bulls for fodder, apparently resembling, or a kind of, 
clover. Cf. lyut'^ and under batukb, batakb-lyut", 
— pihun — ttr:F«i; I f ^H^TTTJJ^'m:, ^trifft^^ m.inf. 

to thresh grain by trauijjling it under the feet 
of oxen on a threshing-floor ; to pound bvdlocks, to 
hit them on the hind quarters to make them go along 
when ploughing ; met. to compel, by 8lapj)ing him, 
an unwilling person to do any work. -plirath 
-^^ I T'^TJiT'^^fs: m. (sg. dat. -pbratas -^TZ^), 
a bullock's scratch, a long slight furrow, e.g. for 
marking a boundary or starting-point, etc. -put" 
-^3 I ^(^TfTT' ui. an affectionate term used for 
a young bull not yet jjut to work ; met. a stupid 
child, -than' --sj^ or -thiin" -^^ I ^€HWT^: 
(^^fT^rf^t^:) ' f ^'ft^^T^'ftfTii; ' f. '^bull's butter ', 
anything impossible, like our ' jngeon's milk'. Cf. 
did chwa dod diwan, can an ox give milk P 
(K.Pr. 31). -wor" -^^ I ^iTHf^^fTTl^ m. a bullock- 
pen, a bullock-yard, a stockyard. 

dadi-rost" ^t^T^ 'idj. (f. -riifeh" -^f^), one 
who does not own an ox (K.Pr. 49). -SOSt" -^|^ 
adj. (f. -siifeh" -^fE), one who owns an ox, the 
owner of an ox (K.Pr. 49). 

d*da ^'^ m. a whisper. — kadun — ^^^t; I '^^- 
t'f:^T^^TT!ni; m.inf. to whisper. — phorun 
— TS^^i; I ^ffT»T«^^flWrT:Wl m.inf. to speak slowly 
and in a whisper. 

dada ^ l ^jfssj'gw: adj. e.g. knotty, full of knots (of 
sheets of birch-bark or the like), -pad -tl^ I ^f^»T- 
igfT'lil'^ ni- verses that are knots (i.e. disfigurements), 
forged or non-original verses or sentences inserted 
into the matter of some authoritative book, -phel 
-■qq^I I ^t^fTT'^Wl. ui. a knotty carbuncle ; met. 
a son or daughter who is disobedient and wickedly 
behaved. -Way -WIV I <iflfl<*H«nf ^tvf^O"V: m. 
knotty rheumatism ; rheumatism of the joints, stiffness 
of the joints from rheumatism. 

dada 'ST^ l ^g: adj. e.g. bold, daring, fearless; (of 
things) tightly or firmly fastened up so that the knots 
or fastenings cannot be opened. Cf. dod*. 

Fur words containing db and dh, eee under d and d. See articles d uiid d. 



— 188 — 

dod g[^ 

dadu (? spelling), a fish-like insect, with hard scaly 
wings, which injures young rico-pliiiits (L. 157, 331). 

ded ?J|[ I ?TT^Tf^: f- an elderly lady, such as a mother, 
grandmother, the chief wife in a household. The 
term is used by the sons or grandsons, etc. The too. 
dedi (K.Pr. 54, 80). Met. a term of respect 


added to a female name, as in Litl Ded, the famous 
Kashmir! poetess, whose songs are household words 
(cf. K.Pr. 20, 47, etc.). The corresponding word for 
' father ' is baba (K.Pr. 22). -mbj" -W[m I f ^UT^T 
t^fTmirrt^' f- "^1 ancient dame, such as an old grand- 
mother, a term of respect used by her descendants. 

ded (? si^elling), a kind of fern, which is dried and eaten 
in winter (L. 73). 

dida iSjJ m. the eye, sight, -dor" ^^-^ I ^hI'TT^: 
adj. (f. -dur" -T^); eye-hard, hence disrespectful, 
bold, impudent. 

di di f^ t^, see dyun". 

did' ^^ I "RfftTTT;: f- (**?• f^'it- dede %^), the main 
entrance of a large house or palace, tlie hall door, 
front portico (K.Pr. 54, Ram. 564). -wan -TTI. or 
-won" -w1"5 I ^KMM: m- (liis wife is -wan-bay 
-^T^-^T^ or -wbn^-bay -^t?T-^T?T, but a woman 
who performs the duties of a doorkeeper is -waiien 
-^Tafaf), a doorkeeper, porter, gatekeeper, watchman 
(El. (lidtcoin). 

did" t%^, see dyud". 

dod l^^^TMjim. milk (YZ. 90; W. 129; K.Pr. 11, 
(U, 137, 241 ; Siv. 435, 1380, etc. ; Ram. 427, 557, 
etc.) ; curdled or clotted milk (the dahi of India) (Si v. 
45, 1006) ; the milky juice of Euphorbia or other 
similar plant. K.Pr. spells this word dud. — dyun" 
— f^ I ^W^rf^l^Ji; m.inf. to give milk, to act as 
a wet nurse, to follow the profession of a wet nurse ; 
to give milk (K.Pr. 31, can a bull give milk?). 
— ratun — Tfl I f'>ir1%TtV: m.inf. to stop the milk, 
(of a cow) to to allow milk to flow. — rOZUn 
— "^f 1 I ^TV^OTf^^trT: m.inf. milk to stop ; (of 
a cow) ti!o flow of milk to be suddenly stopped. 

— ti koluy gafehun — f^i ^t^^ Tfi: 1 f iv^nfq 

qmx^JHTW: m.inf. even milk to become black, i.e. anything 
which is usually easily got to become unobtainable, 
or any work which is usually easily done to become 
very difficult. — fealun — i?^?^ | M;ii(^^)tiT^^5T^ 
m.inf. milk to flee ; (of a cow or the like) the flow 
of milk to stop owing to advanced pregnancy ; (of 
a suckUng child) to cease from the breast, to be 
weaned. — walun — ^T^ m.inf. to cause milk to 
descend, i.e. to cause milk to flow, to cause a woman 
or animal to give milk (K.Pr. 99). — wasun — ^JBR; I 

^^■Rl^i^^: m.inf. milk to descend ; milk to 
commence to flow (of a pregnant woman or cow when 
approaching the time of delivery) ; milk to flow 
involuntarily when a mother sees a loved cliild. 

doda-ahakh ^^-'^fT^ 1 ^>irrt%^^: f- (sg- dat. 

-ahakas -^flcR^), a certain very white whitewash, 
made up of lime mixed with milk and other materials. 
-ala -'^^1 ^f%$^: milk-pumpkins, a certain dish 
of pumpkins cooked with curdled milk, -ambar' 
-•^J^'^ I T5?rt%^'^'. m- a certain kind of apple with 
a milky taste, and considered the best kind of all. 
It is also called the Samarkhaud apple. It ripens 
early and will not stand exportation (L. 350, dud amri). 
doda-bab 1 ^^-^ l \IT^\r: m. a foster-mother's 
husband, a foster-father, -bab 2 -^n I ^i^^t^^M: f. 
a bosom or udder full of milk, -baba barana yirie 

-sfef ^j^ f^rsf I ^ft^^: f . pi. inf. the breasts to fill 
with milk ; met. to feel extreme affection for a person on 
seeing him (e.g. even when a naughty child is brought 
up for punishment) or on calling him to mind, -baba 
-'^^ I ^3^iITr^^*=l»K: 11. steaming over boiling milk 
(an operation performed for cleaning delicate articles, 
such as herons' plumes or the like), -bana -TTT I 
^f>ra"J^TJT^JT! ru- * milk-bowl or milk-jug, i.e. either 
a vessel suited for this purpose, or a vessel full of 
milk, fresh or clotted, -bene -^^T I ^"iWf'I'l^ f- 
a milk-sister, the daughter of a foster-mother, a foster- 
sister, -brag -wr i ^^t^t m. (f- -bragiii -wf'i'ST), 

a certain kind of heron, -brakh -W^ I ^I»T^Tf%^rraT 
m. (sg. dat. -brakas -sr«(i^), the wasting and illness 
caused to a suckling child who is suddenly taken away 
from the breast. -brakh lagun -W ^5*1; I 
*d»mT«IT'n'^<*l^^^' ni.inf. the ab. wasting to otcur. 

-brakh pyon"-w^ w^ i ^iPTTR^iH'^TirfftW^: m.inf. 

id. -bror* -Wt^ I ^^f'^rn^rf'T^rr^ m. a milk-cat ; 
one, esp. a cliild, who is always longing for sweet or 
cui'dled milk in preference to other food, -boy -W^ I 
S'K^Tjs^: f. the smell of milk ; a smell like tliat of 
milk, a milky smell, -boy" -^'g I ^KTijfTfrr m. 
a milk-brother, the son of a foster-mother, a foster- 

doda-chop" ^^wfj l ^^fl^STR: m- a kind of small 
churning-stick. It has a paddle-wheel at one end, 
and the stick is revolved between the palms of the 
hands, the milk being contained in a gourd or similar 
vessel, -chir -f^ I ^xaTflT^f^il, ■^TRt iW^TTJi: 
f. the small thin stream of milk as it issues from the 
pap ; met. any small quantity of milk ; the milky 
juice making the substance of grain in the first stage 
of its formation. This juice is sujjposed to be conveyed 

For words containing dh and dh, see under d and d. See articles d and d. 

dod ^ 

— 189 — 

dod g[^ 

from the moon. Cf. chir 4. -chira -t^T I ^•I'^ni: 

m. a milk-lamb, the young of any animal (esp. of 
a sheep or goat) while still suckling, -cahy -^^Tfl I 
^l^'^HS^^T'^T^' f- tea witli milk, tea boiled with 
milk, -cot' -^Tt? I flV^Tt^eRTH^: f- a kind of 
earthen jar for holding inilk, large in capacity but 
with a small moutli, used by the forest buffalo 

doda-dod" ^^-^? l ^TCJ-^JJ: m. inflammation 
of the breasts due to the sudden cessation of 
the demand for milk owing to the death of the 
child. -dam -^H I H'l^'q^frT: m. milk-supping ; 
drinking milk by moutht'uls, i.e. putting the lij)s to 
the breast or to a vessel and filling one's mouth, then 
swallowing, and then repeating the process. Cf. dam. 
-dand -^^l •'5T'T'*nraTf»*ra\fl^r^nrr: m-pl- milk-teeth, 
the first teeth of a suckling child, -dara -^TT ' 
sreninTTr f- the stream of milk when poured out ; 
a very small amount of milk. 

doda-gab ^^-TW I ^[^T^X' ™- a milk -sprout, 
i.e. tlie first tender sprout from a seed, or the like. 

-gagur -v^ I ^^P^^: m. (sg. dat. -gagaras 

-'NK^), a milk-rat, an affectionate term for a 
very young suckling infant, male or female, -gol" 
-'Nf I 'nmr^'l^ini^tH: m. a moutliful of milk. 

-gur" -^ii| 1 fi^f^irn -^-m^: m. (f. -gur** -5j^), 

a milk cowherd, a cowherd or other person who sells 
milk, a milkman. The fern, signifies a woman who' 
follows this profession. 

doda-hedur ^^-Uf "^ I ^'l^W'^TsiiJl m. (sg. dat. 
-hedaras -mtT'5,), a milk-mushroom, a small delicate 
species of mushroom, -hal -^T^^ I ^JIT'^t^^^i f- 
(sg. dat. -hali -^Tf%), a ball of milk, the name of 
a kind of rice, described as long in shape, soft, 
very well flavoured, fragrant, and white, -hama 
-^TT I fTWI'^^f^^^' f- a bunch of a certain tender 
grass, ta.sting like milk, that grows in rice-fields. 
-hem "Wl^ I <JJVfl!J«<T f- milk-bean ; a kind of bean. 
-har 1 -^ I ^•PTT'T^'T^: m- a milk-quarrel, strife 
between two suckling children for one woman's breast 
(when a woman is suckling two children). Cf. doda- 
r*sh bel. -har 2 -^ l ^I^AT^JI; m. milk -cream, 
cream of milk, -hor" -^^ I ^frf^i^T ^'- f- a cow 
that is a good milker, although slender in appearance. 
-hyol" -W^ ' ''I^li'TWO' 111- a milk-ear, an ear of 
com which is not yet ripe. 

doda-kal i[^-^T^ I ^^f%^f»mf^»i; m. the 

amount of milk taken from a cow or buffalo at one 
milking, -kol -«fi^«f (cf. J^) 7n. a milk-cup, a milk- 
jar (YZ. i;iO). -kur" -^^ i ^h^: ^h^^tt: f. 


a kind of sauce made of curdled milk beaten into 
a liquid and cooked with clarified butter, oil, and 
condiments, -krud 1 -^ 1 ^Wtf^^: m. N. of 
a certain creeper, described as having a small root, 
but spreading very widely, with a milky juice, and 
delicate milk-white flowers, -krtid 2 -^^ I VPff^^: 
f. N. of a certain kind of rice-plant, the grains of 
which are soft, with a pleasing scent, and tasting of 
milk, -krbr*' -^i^ l ^1^T*r^^: f- a kind of cake 
made of inspissated milk, eaten when cold and 
congealed. -krtir" -sj?^ I VT'^llW^^: f- N. of 
a certain kind of rice-plant, the grain of which is 
described as having a dark husk, as tasting like 
milk, soft, fragrant, and white (L. 463, dud kv'ir). 
-kray -WT^X I a^J^^^Tf : f- a milk-cauldron used for 
boiling milk ; such a vessel when full of milk. -k*y 
-^^ I ^ftTMlf^efiT f • an earthenware vessel for holding 
milk till it becomes sour, and in which it is then 
churned, a churn. 

doda-lota l[^-^z; l JlMtlT^T^ra: m. a milk- 
darling ; a good-looking well-mannered child, -lyut" 
-^51^ I fW^'- m. a milk-chick ; met. a suckling child ; 
any child up to eight or nine years of age. 

doda-mbj" ^^-^isi l VT^ f- a milk-mother, a 
foster-mother (W. 17), wet nurse ; a woman (usually 
a relative) ajjpointed to act as mother to, i.e. as an 
attendant on, a young unmarried virgin child-wife in 
her father-in-law's house (YZ. 384, L. 269, Siv. 1095 
(mbjiy m.c. for mbj"), 1151). -mol" -?ft^ I 
\rr'^'T"^T3lt^fn' m. a milk-father, the husband of 
a foster-mother, a foster-father (W. 17). -malay 
-JTT^ra I ^J^^flTT f- milk-love, love or desire for 
milk, curds, or the like, -mblyun" -??Tf%5 I 7«lfxi^- 
WfJ^ m. the home of a foster-father, esj:). of a girl's 
foster-father, -mbsm -l{\m I ^•T'tl'^ltir^: m- a milk- 
cliild, a child in the suckling stage. Cf. mbsm. 
-math-hyuh" -JT^-f|^ i ^t7i^»?: adj. (f. -math- 
hish" -?T^-ffW), like a milk-jar; met. very clear, 
spotless, white. 

dbda-nbr" 1[^-1T^ I ei^^iftr^ f . a wide-mouthed 
vessel for holding milk ; such a vessel full of milk. 

doda-phrasth li?[-^^ m. (sg. dat. -phrastas 

-■^f'Sl^), the white poplar, Populus alba. There is a fine 
grove of these trees in the Gurais valley. The poplar 
is said by KiishmTrls to be the minister of the kingly 
plane-tree (L. 79, 81, dudh prast). -phuta -^iZ I 
^T^^rf^: f- a milk-knot, a tumour or morbid swelling 
in the breast occurring during lactation, through 
superfluity of milk owing to the removal of the child. 
-phyor" -^pt^ or -phyur" -tw^ i f^t^'g': m. 

For words containinf; dh ami dh, see under d and d. See articles d and d. 

dod ^ 

— 190 

ddd MiK 

01 N. 

a milk-droj) ; met. a very small amount of milk. 

-prah -TTTf I (^1Vfrerf^Tt^=a^) ^Trntsrt^^^: m. 

milk-possession, a kind of demoniacal possession or 
hysterical affection (accompanied by delirium and 
palsy) whicli somelimes attacks a pregnant woman, or 
a lying-in woman, or a newly born child, when milk 
or curds is brouglit near lier or it from a distance on 
a dark night in winter or similar time. -praba 
-ITJ^ I ^•n^l^^^uTl f-l'^- milk-niouth-coriiers, the 
corners of the mouth of a suckhng child ; met. very 
delicate inouth-corners. 

doda-r^sh ^^-Tir l ^Sf^Trr^lt^: f. milk-enmity, 
i.q. doda-har 1 ab. Cf. dod' r^sh bel. 

doda-shur'' ^^-'T^ I ^TJ^nT: ftr^: m. a milk- 
ebild, a suckling child (W. 114, liilni. 807, 1249, 
1653) ; met. any young child, -shur'-bapar -'g^- 
«(IMI<, I ^1'*l^^|tTT: ni. conduct of or like that of 
a young child ; esp. obstinate, ignorant, unreflecting 
conduct on the pai-t of a grown-up person, -shur^gi 

-'^fr'fV I ^H'^^^ffi: f., id. -shuril -^fr^ i 
^I^RTfTT f., id. - shur' - pother -"^t^-^TT^T I 
M^T^iRTTI^^Tr m., id. -son" -^^ | T^T^^f^ m. 
(f. -SOnen -^"Sfal), a milk-co-father-in-law ; when a 
foster-father or foster-mother accompanies a foster- 
daughter on her marriage to her husband's house as 
her attendant and quasi-father or quasi-mother, he is 
called a milk-co-father-in-law of the bride's father-in- 
law. The actuid fathers of the bridegroom and bride 
are each son", or co-father-in-law to the otlier. -sath 
-¥ra I ^g^T^g^^: m. (sg. dat. -satas -'RTfTO:), 
the milk-moment ; the auspicious moment for the 
ceremonial offering, by her own blood relations, of 
a present of curdled milk to a pregnant woman 
approaching the time of her delivery. Cf . doda-zang 
bel. -syun" --Rrif I ^Wrt^^^fffWRre^: m. a kind of 
broth made of mutton cooked in clotted milk, -syoth" 
■■^i^ I ^''Jrf^ (51**1*^: m. ground parched grain 
(saftu) cooked with inspissated milk. 

doda-thani-lsur l[?-'Slf%T-15T m. thief of milk and 
butter, N. of Krsna (Krishna), i.q. doda-bur bel., q.v. 
-toth" -ti|[ I ^JV^TTT f- a streum of milk, esp. the 
thin stream of milk that flows from anything (such 
as the finger) dipped into milk, and then raised up ; 
hence, a very small quantity of milk. 

doda-feod" f^-^^ l 5J^(^tli)TrnfJi; m. a large 
earthenware vessel for milk, fresh or clotted ; such 
a vessel full of milk, -feadawor" -^^g^^ | ^tct i| T -^4{ 
m. an earthenware vessel into which a cow is milked, 
the Kashmir equivalent of a milk-pail (&iv. 1502). 
-feop" -^5 I ■^(^TOT^ ^1v m. as much clotted milk as 


can be taken in the hollow of the hand for drinking, 
a ' sup ' of milk, -feur -igr^C m. the thief who stole 
milk, N. of Kr-sna (Krishna) in allusion to his baby 
exploits in Gokula. 

doda-wogra ^^-w^ i TRrat%^tr: m. a thick kind 
of rice-milk. -WOr" -'^T^ 1 ^f>a(^Kl)xn"f^^T f. 
a kind of small globular earthen vessel for holding 
milk or curds, -wut" -^ I ^^^iS^JTW^ f. a cob 
of unripe Indian corn {inakdl) in its milky stage. 
-WOfeh" -^W I '^'^T'^T^: m. a milk-calf, a suckling 
male ciilf ; met. au ignorant, stupid, child. -wafeh.ur" 
-^^^ I ^TVf^^(^ f • a suckling female calf ; met. 
a stupid, ignorant girl. 

doda-zel gt^-^ira or -zelin -suf^rsr i ^f>^T!^^ 

f. the cream of dolled milk. -zang -^ij I ?t\il- 
in^'t'l^'l f . milk-gift ; the auspicious gift of a full 
jar of clotted milk sent by her own relations to a 
pregnant woman approaching the time of her delivery. 
Cf. doda-sath ab. -zev -5^^ l ^Ttrf%5T f- a milk- 
tongue, the tongue of a suckling child, which has not 
tasted any flavour except that of milk ; met. a deHcate 
or soft tongue. 

d6d'-r*sh iff^-'':^ I ^^q^^: f., iq d6da-r*sh and 
doda-har 1 ab. -feci" -^^ i '^jqTrRt^^Ti: m. (f . -feuj" 
-■3^), a child who has given up milk, a weaned child. 

doduk" g;^^ 1 ^i^(^f^)^^'^^ adj. (f. dodiic** 

^^^ ), of or belonging to milk, fresh or clotted (tlitin) ; 
derived from or made from milk (e.g. cream, etc.) ; 
produced from milk (e.g. a person's virtues or vices 
derived from his mother's milk). 

dodas drtir" pen"^^^^ w^ 1 h^tIT%^ ^?%^: 

f.inf. a torch to fall on milk ; any business or thing 
to be utterly destroyed in its very inception ; like an 
infant whose life depends on its mother's milk, and 
who loses its mother immediately after birth. — driye 
pene — f^ ^^ I ^TTW Tt^fTnTTT^Tra: f. pi- inf. 
curses to fall on milk ; an imjjcdiment to occur in the 
very commencement of any auspicious action, like 
a curse falling on the drinldng of milk by a newly 
born child. — kand' fearan' — Jfi^ KIK^ I fM^if^ 
^^T^^ip^ m. pi. inf. to collect thorns in milk, to 
search for faults in some action or business which is 
blameless, to pick holes without cause, to be over- 
scrupulous (K.Pr. 61). — lagun — ^3p[ I '^■?:^p^- 
■f^i^t^: m.inf. (of a pregnant cow nearing the time of 
calving) the first signs of a flow of milk to become 
dod ^^ I ^T^^JTR: num. adj. e.g. one and a half 
(K.Pr. 58). W. 105 makes this word dod" ^^, 
with f. diid" 'S^. 

For words containing dh and dh, see under d and d. See articles d and d. 

dod' ^Tt^ 

— 191 — 

dod"-mot" ^-^n 

dbd' ^Tf% 1 f'TSW^ adv. continually, always ; thoroughly, 
well done (K.Pr. 25, daf/i). Cf. dada. 

dod"^ ^, dod" ^1 adj. (f. dvLZ^ i%), burnt; full of 
rage. Properly 1 p.p. of dazun, q-v. -wan -^'^, 
also spelt dod"wan l[3^«i; or diid^wan ^Wi; , see 
bel. I ^T>!n'T;'B?r*^{?;W) subst.m. and adj. e.g. a burnt- 
down forest; met. (as adj.) like a burnt forest (of 
a bare, leafless, tree, plant, etc.) ; met. of a country, of 
a custom, etc. 

dad'-klg"r" ^-^f'i^ I ti^T%TTOr*i: f- tlie fire- 
brazier of a burnt man ; met. when one is well off 
and comfortable to calumniate or reproach another 
with whom one has no concern, -wat'^r*' -^rHf^ I 
f^<*i^f\<(l^'l'^ f- false calumny without neces.sity or 

dud^wan '^^'{^ m. a burnt forest, a forest which 
has been burnt down by a conflagration, dud^wanas 
nyur" yun" ^^^ 5^:5 f^ I f^S^^^TH 
m.inf. new growth to come to a burnt forest ; met. 
(of a family, a business, etc.) to take new life (after 
apparent destruction). 

d6d° 1 ^? J.J I '4\^\ m. pain, agony, anguish, mental 
(YZ. 074,^K.l'r. 1(37, Rilm. 291, 1422) or physical 
(K.Pr. 23, 53, 65, 76) ; the pain of sickness, sickness 
(Siv. 1855, dbdis dag, the pain of sickness) ; sickness, 
ailment, disease (EL). The part of the body in 
which pain is felt is put in the dat. Thus, dandas 
dod", a pain in the tootli, toothache ; kalas d., 
a headaclie ; kalejas d., liver complaint ; kanas d., 
earache; zuwas d., pain in the body (Gr.M.). On 
the other hand, dazanas d., tliere is pain from 
a burn (K.Pr. 54) ; nafsa d., difficulty of breath, 
breathlessness (YZ. 398) ; pot°Ta d., grief for a (dead) 
son (YZ. 417), grief of a barren woman longing 
for a son (K.Pr. 174) ; andarim' dbd', infernal 
pains, heart-grief (K.Pr. 13). Cf. dag 1. — asun 
— ^IHI m.inf. to suffer pain, be pained (El.). 
— hyuh" — i^l> m. something like pain, a feehng of 
pain. — karun — ^^«^ I ift^W^: m.inf. to ache, 
be painful (Gr. M.) . — lagun — ^^ or — sapadun 
— ^^"l. m.inf. to suffer pain, be pained (El.). 

dadi-SOSt" «[Tf^-^^ adj. (f. -subh*' -^^), pained, 
suffering pain (lliim. 242). 

dbd'-kot" ^if?[-^| adj. (f. -kbt" -Wl^), grieved, 
afflicted (EL). (The spelling of this word is doubtful; 
EL spells (h'ldkot.) The word is probably incorrect for 
-koth", see under d6d° 3. 

dod" 2 ^1? I %f : m. love, affection (shown to a beloved 
child, pupil, friend, or the like). Cf. dag 2. — barun 
— ^^s(_ I itJUUTTT'^ m.inf. to seek affectionately for 


a loved friend, relation, or disciple, on the successful 
completion of some work, or on a similar occasion. 

dod" 3 ^1t I \'^'- m- envy, hatred, jealousy. — tulun 
— fl^*!. I t^^f^^ll m.inf. to raise envy or jealousy, 
to arouse envy or jealousy in others by flaunting one's 
success, wealth, or the like. - — w6thun — W^l. I 
^^^t: m.inf. envy or jealousy to be aroused. 

dbd'-koth" ^Tf^-^^ I Tt^^HT^: adj. (f. 
— kbth." — ^T?), angrily disposed towards another. 
Cf. dbd'-kot" under dod" 1. -WOV -^^ I \w. f. 
envy, jealousy, hate. -WOV tuliifi." -Tt^ "^^ ' 
^^tfTT^TJ^ f.inf. to arouse envy, jealousy, etc. -WOV 
WOthiin'^ -^^ W'i'^ l ^Tti^frf: f.inf. envy, jealousy 
to arise at another's success. 

dud 1^ (? spelling) in dud-phras, m. the Himalayan 
pojilar, ropuliis cilkita (EL). The word is probably 
the same as doda-phrasth under d6d, q.v. 

duda ^^ I ^^J?T1f!: ni. one who is in the habit of 
coming as an uninvited guest to a feast, etc. (? the 
same as the diuki of EL, which he translates 'invitation'). 

d6da-bung"r" ^^-f"!^ f- a- kind of bracelet (El.) 
(? spelling of this word ; El. has dodabitiigir, and 
makes it m.). 

duddb ^^T I ^^TTT- '"• the name of the letter da, used 
in schools. Cf. dakadb. 

did'gl f^t^^rt I ^^SfTT f. audacity, boldness, daring 
(in a bad sense, e.g. of a robber or the like). 
Cf. dyud"^. 

dudagi ^'^'fl^ I ^^JTMrrTTf'TfTT f. the habit or practice 
of attending feasts or dinner-parties uninvited. 

dodij" ^f^ I f ^VJWT, ■^^■^t>i(f%^^: f- a cow which 
is in milk ; N. of a certain medicinal plant, the 
leaves of which exude a milky juice when cut ; ? the 
dandelion, cf. dudal. 

dudaj' T^^, dudiij" J^. seo dudol". 

dudal T^^ ni- dandelion, Taraxacum officinale (EL). 
?i.q. dodij". 

dudol" f ^g I t^TRjft?!^: adj. (f. dudaj' f ?l:^ or 

duduj" 3"^3r), only twice pounded, of paddy, etc., 
which has been pounded once to remove the husk, and 
only once again pounded to make it perfectly clean. 
Most grain is pounded three times ; met. hail (from 
its resemblance to coarsely pounded grain) (Siv. 1243). 

dbd'lad ^V^^f I 'RTWIWar: adj. e.g. (as subst., f. 
dbd'ladin ^^arf^^^^), one who suffers pain, esp. 
mental pain (YZ. 203) caused by another's action ; 
miserable, grieved, afflicted (EL, Gr.M., YZ. 562, 564, 
573, Ram. 292) ; one who is suffering from sickness, 
sick; painful (of a wound) (YZ. 74). Cf. dod" 1. 

dod°-mot" ^f-Wg, see dazun. 

For words containing dh and dh, see under d and d. See articles d and d. 

dadani \j\^ 


dodarawun sI[^t:tw«i: 

dadani ,jj1j f. an advance of money (made to 

cultivators, labourers, manufacturers, etc.). Cf. L. 418. 
dudanga T^l I f^WTTTl adv. twice a day (of eating, 

drinking, or the like). 
dudong" ^5 I I^WTT^: adj. (f. dudunj" f^w or 

dudanj' ^^^)> occurring twice a day (of eating, 

drinking, or the like). 

dld^r ^f^ or dSdur'^ ^^ i ^T^f^%cn m. (f. 

dadaren ^t^^^f), a kitchen- gardener (El.), a 
vegetable- and fruit -seller. The f. is a woman 
who herself sits in the market and sells such articles 
(Gr.Gr. 39). 

dad=T-bay ^t^-^T'?l I iiT^t^%gwt f. the wife 
of a vegetable- and fruit - seller. -muje -JTW | 
<fTt^<*lf«<5j^: a small kind of radish, a garden- 

dadV-khah ^f^t^-^Tf 1 ^f%^Tf^^"^»i m. 
a kitchen-garden. 

dadara ^'^TT. I '^5l«fTir: m. destruction of property, 
esp. the reduction to beggary of a weak man in his 
endeavours to please some important visitor, or the 
violent destruction of property by some superhuman 
means. — gafehun — ^^^^ I ^^Tf^^l^T^n^rf^: 
m.inf. destruction of property as ab. to occur. 
— karun — ^n^*!; I ^<!ll^<*l»iIJT»W; m.inf. to destroy 
violently as ab. 

dadur (? spelling) ra.. Rh((mitus rirgatus (EL), apparently 
a species of buckthorn. 

dad"r" ^^ l ^rt^f^^^: (^T^H^) f. N. of a certain 
bird, a woodpecker. 

dadiir" ^^^ l f%^f : , irit^^zt f • a hollow tree ; 
a hollow in a tree (H. ii, 10) ; a cucumber which has 
ripened till it is hard and dry and is no longer 
edible. (El. gives dadir, m. which he translates ' the 
edible part of a cucumber ' ; W. 12 has dadar, 
a cucumber.) 

dad'^r'' a^:^ I t^^Oi: f- N. of a certain cutaneous 
disease, itch. — wothuii" — 1^=1 | ^-sotiftSer: 
f.inf. itch to arise, an attack of itch to come on. 

deodar, see diva-dar, under div. 

didar jIjoJ m. sight, seeing, vision; look, appearance 
(khosh-dldar, of beautiful appearance, YZ. 47) ; 
interview. — dyun" — t^g m.inf. to give an inter- 
view, to show oneself (YZ. 140, Siv. 416). — karun 
— e|i'?{5i^ m.inf. to look at, see (with gen. of obj. 
YZ. 530). 

did^'r*' f^lPf. I trf^f^^ir: f. N. of a certain bird, 
described as resembling a sparrow, with a sweet 
voice, and kept as a song-bird, the Indian skylark 
(L. 146, dedar) (Siv. 181) ; ?a pheasant (EL). 

dodur" ^?^ I Wtxt: adj. (f. dodur" ^^), decayed, 
rotten, worm-eaten, worn (nit (of trees, wood, clothes, 
utensils, or the like) ; weak, decrepit (of human 
beings) ; (as subst.) rotting, rottenness (EL, Gr.Grr. 
121, K.Pr. 12). — afeun — '^^i: I Wtt^fftW^: m.inf. 
to enter decayedness, worn-outness, etc. ; an attack 
of weakness or decrepitude to occur. — feanun 
— ^TTt, I t%^*:fMH^5l«1*t m.inf. to cause decrepitude 
to enter; by constant worrying to make a person 
prematui'ely old. 

dudara 3"^ l ■^'f?I^«r^S: adj. e.g. stout and strong 
(of anything animate or inanimate). 

dodara-bbd' ^^l-^tt^ I ^t^f^fTrr: adj. e.g. rotten, 

dodar-hom" 1(^-Tt^ i m^rir^iTf^^: m. N. of 

a village about ten miles to the north of Srlnagar. 
It is the ancient Dugdhasrama, and here the valley of 
the Sindhu (Sind) River debouches into the great 
Kashmir plain (RT.Tr. II, 419, 489). 
dad^rilad ^^tx;^ l ^^rl'^ft adj. e.g. suffering from 
the disease of itch. 

dodarun i;^^i^ I ^xfffH'^'T conj. 3 (2 p.p. dodaryov 

^^■^ff^), to rot, decay ; to be worn out (of clothes) ; 
to be withered, weak, decrej^it (of human beings) 
(K.rr. 50, RHm. 1634). dodaryo-mot" ^^^-^rg I 
wtwfjjfT: perf. part. (f. dodarye-miife'^ ^^"^-^r^), 

rotted, decayed ; worn out, weakened, decrepit. 
dadarinag ^^f^«rr»I m. N. of a fountain in the Villi 

I'argana, near the village of Kliruv (EL). Cf. RT.Tr. 

II, 459. 
dadararay ^^"^TT''Sr I ^^P»Tf^T*l f. angry, loud, abuse. 
dad^rawun ^fTTfi: l '^irt'^fiT'T'i; conj. 1 (1 p.p. 

dad^row" ^^^g') , to make weak, to oppress, harass 

another to weakness ; (of grief, etc.) to reduce a person 

to weakness. dad*rawana amot" «[3rTT^'T ^'T^ I 

^:<5(^lft*I<T: perf. part. pass. (f. — amiife" — WJT'S ), 
reduced to weakness by grief, etc. dad^rawana 
yun" «^5;TT^1 f^^ I ^TT^Ilfl'H^T'l m. inf. pass, to 
become reduced to weakness by grief, etc. dad^row"- 

mot" ^^[T^f -'TH I ^^^Tif^inT: perf. part. (f. dad^row"- 
niuls"^^^^ -T^ ), reduced to weakness by oppression, 
grief, etc. 
dodarawun f^TW^ I ^itTi^eonj. 1 (1 p.p. dodarow" 
^^^j), to cause to rot (Gr.Gr.) ; to allow to spoil 
or get rotten by want of care ; (of human beings) to 
make weak by harassment ; (of sorrow) to render 
a person weak. dodarow'^ - mot" l^ftf -»T5 I 
^^Ti««t: perf. part. (f. d6darbw"-mufe^ ^^TT^- 
?T^ ), allowed to get rotten by want of care ; weakened 
by sorrow, harassment, or the like. 

For words containing dh and dh, see under d and d. See articles d and d. 

dadaray ^^T'^ 

193 — 

dag ^T^ 

dadaray ^^'^T'I l 'tnTT^^rTfT: f- a violent and continuous 

storm of rain. 
dodaray' ^^T^ in dodaray' gafehun 1[^T^ ifl. I 

fW^'fY^T^'lJi; m.inf. to disappear, esp. of the pustules 

of smallpox. 
dod*sa ^^ I ^t?Tf^TT"reT m. extreme thirst. — hyon" 

^frj, — pyon" — igg, or — wothun — w^\ 

^f^f^'fVFl^W^' m.inf. great thirst to occur. 
dudasta ^^^ (C:-.jtijJ adj. e.g. two-handed, having two 

hands (Ram. 1351). 
dadaw-do ^^-^T I ^^T- m- the name of the letter 

da ^ , used in schools. Cf . duddb, 

dod"wan ^^51, dod'^wan l[^W^, or dud'^wan 

if^^, see dod^ 
dadyuil" ^f«^«1 m. N. of an extensive hareica or plateau 

in Dachiinpor Pargana (El.). 
dudbz" ^TT?> I ^T'l'T^I Ml I f^ fTT f • the habit or custom of 

attending a feast though not invited. Cf. duda. 

daf i—3j, see daph. 

daf, see daph. 

dafa «Jj and <ujj, see dapha. 

daf u'l-waqt, see daphul-wakth. 

dafn ^j, see daphan. 

dafaryj, sec daphar. 

dag 1 ^ I ^?n^ri:, t^^fffi^, ift^, ^ftttstsri^:^*?: 
f. (Gr.Gr. 12o), a blow (Gr.Gr. 148) ; esp. a blow 
caused to something falling from a height (e.g. to 
a fruit falling from a tree) ; patting, a series of gentle 
blows or pats with the hand or the like on any part 
of the body, shampooing ; the smarting pain of 
a wound (K.Pr. 58) ; pain generally (K.Pr. 26, 
Ram. 1350) ; sorrow caused by the death of a 
beloved relation or friend ; bata-dag, rice -pain, 
the pain of earning one's living (K.Pr. 26) ; menga- 
dag, a pain in the temporal bone, a headache 
(K.Pr. 158) ; putra-dag, the pains of childbirth 
(K.Pr. 126) ; sura-dag, the pain caused to the bare 
feet by walking in the hoar-frost (K.Pr. 26) ; yud'*- 
dag, stomach-pain, hunger (K.Pr. 239) ; dodis dag, 
the pain of sickness (Siv.